Glossary

The Glossary is a compilation of vocabulary from the Poetry page.  It is a work in progress and new vocabulary will continue to be added from time to time.  Readers, as elsewhere on the site, are welcome to comment.

Each lexeme has a gloss, in many cases a number of glosses, gleaned from several sources, each of which is coded as to source. Most sources are dictionaries; some though are references to how a word has been translated. So, for example, (WH) in entries refers to William Hichens; (ASN) to Ahmed Sheikh Nabhany.  Further, each lexeme is illustrated with at least one citation of a whole verse, or part of a verse, from poetry. These are also coded so that the user of the dictionary can refer back to the whole poem, thus having a full context.

Tags for Cited Poetry

Am Amu ~ Kiamu
ASN-AD Ahmed Sheikh (ASN-Asoiyua Duniya (xxx)
ASN-KS Ahmed Sheikh (ASN-Kobe na Sungura (xxx)
ASN-Nd Ahmed Sheikh Nabhany-Ndege (xxx)
ASN-S Ahmed Sheikh Nabhany-Shaza (xxx)
CR Charles Rechenbach 1967
G Gunya (the Sacleux tag for Tikuu aka Bajuni)
Ink Al-Inkishafi (William Hichens 1939)
INS Ibrahim Noor Shariff (see Nabhany 1985b)
K&K Knappert & van Kessel 2010
KA-LL Kelly Askew-Leo ni Leo
KKS Kamusi ya Kiswahili Sanifu
MASB Mussa Ally Salum Bwakila
MASB-Au MASB-Amani unajifia
MASB-MM MASB-Mfa Macho (Ni Bora Afaye Macho)
MASB-Ud MASB-Udugu
M&K-ML Mulokozi and Kezilahabi 1979-Mgogoto wa Leo
M&K-Mk Mulokozi and Kezilahabi 1979-Mkulima
M&K-Mu Mulokozi and Kezilahabi 1979-Msiba Uliotuangukia
M&K-NJL Mulokozi and Kezilahabi 1979-Niliamka Jogoo Lilipowika
M&K-SKN Mulokozi and Kezilahabi 1979-Sautri Kutoka Nje
M&K-WJLL Mulokozi and Kezilahabi 1979-Wakati Jua Lingali Lawaka
MA-AGT Matunda ya Azimio – Adhabu Gani Tuwape (Honero, Sengo & Ngole 1980)
MHA Mohamed H. Abdulaziz 1979
MY-KT Muyaka-K’ongowea ni T’uu (See MHA 1979)
MY-KY Muyaka-K’ongowea Yaugua
MY-Ng Muyaka-Ngome ni Ngome
Mv Mvita
ND Northern Dialects of Swahili (Nurse and Hinnebusch 1993)
P Pemba (variant on Pemba Island; used by Sx)
S Siu (used by Sx)
SD Southern Dialects (Nurse and Hinnebusch 1993)
St. Sw. Standard Swahili (aka Kiswahili Sanifu)
Sx Sacleux 1939
WH William Hichens 1939
Xx? Jan Feidel p.c.
Z Unguja (Zanzibar variant; used by Sx)

Tags for Grammatical Categories

adj. Adjective
agm. Augmentative
an. Animate
dim. Diminutive
Intns. Intensive
intrj. Interjection
n. Noun (numerals indicate noun class membership)
pro. Pronoun
redup. Reduplicated
reflx. Reflexive
v. appl. Applied or Preposional verb
v. cs. Causative verb
v. ct. Contactive verb
v. cv. Conversive verb
v. i. Intransitive verb
v. st. Stative verb
v. tr. Transitive verb

 

 
abunusi [n. 9/10] Ebony-wood from the ebony tree, Diospyros ebenus (WH). Not in FJ. Ar. Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi, Naapa kwa Mungu Mola Mkwasi, Zali za msaji kwa abunusi, Zitile sufufu zisitawiye; Decorated hanging-pegs that are pleasing to behold, I swear by God, Source of all Wealth, They were of teak and ebony, Placed in line to look their best (Ink-39).
acha sarakasi [v. vp.] Stop playing around, quit doing tricks; see sarakasi circus (TJH). Acha hiyo sarakasi unaitwa kitaluni, Stop playing around; you are being called to the garden (M&K-ML5)
adharusi [n. 9/10] Internecine war, a severe battle (WH). “The pernicious one”, i.e. war, internecine strife, civil war (K&K). Ar. Uwene wangapi watu wakwasi, Walo wakiwaa kama shamsi, Wa muluku zana za adharusi, Dhahabu na fedha wakhiziniye; How many rich people have you seen, Who were blazing brightly like the sun, Who control the weapons of war, Who have layed up gold and silver (Ink-34)
afu [v. tr.] Save, deliver, pardon, preserve, cure (FJ) Rabi, Ngwaipa afua! Na kuiafu si kazi; Lord, May God give it relief! And providing relief (for Him) is not difficult (MY-KY1).
afua [n. 9/10] Relief (MHA). Deliverance from calamity, ill luck, disaster, etc.; preservation (FJ). Rabi, Ngwaipa afua! Na kuiafu si kazi; Lord, May God give it relief! And providing relief (for Him) is not difficult (MY-KY1).
aimi [intrj.] Oh me, oh my! < ai mimi (TJH). Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wot’e kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).
ajinani [n. 9/10 an.] Spirit world (TJH). Jinn, lit. men possessed of demons (WH). See St. Sw. jinni/ma- (FJ). Ar. pl. Hakuwa mtumi Suleimani, Maliki wa insi na ajinani, Ulimfutuye ukamukhini, Akiwa mwengine wamtendaye; Was not the apostle Solomon, A ruler of (both) humanity and the spirit world, How is it then that it (i.e., the world) banished and withheld power from him, If it were someone else what would it do to him (Ink-32).
ajizi [n.9/10] Negligence (MASB). Slackness, remissness, lateness; see –ajazi be slack, feeble, etc. (FJ). Ar. Ajizi kwake ushindi, kuzuia washindao; Negligence for him is a victory, stopping the winners (MASB-MM2).
ajmaina [adj.] All together, the whole lot (WH). Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).Ar.
akhadhari [adj.] Green, grass-green (WH). Not in FJ. Ar. Kwa maao mema ya kukhitari, Iyu la zitanda za majodori, Na mito kuwili ya akhadhari, Kwa kazi ya pote wanakishiye; On fine well-chosen couches, On beds of padded cushions, With green pillows at both ends, Decorated with embroidered work (Ink-42).
ali1 [v. BE] Past tense , -a- + li (see Grammar Notes). Na kumbato lao lali ni mswano; And its embrace was good (M&K-MU3). Au ni zimwi lali limetuloga; Or had the evil one bewitched us (M&K-MU3). Usiku huo twali tumesinzia, Na ndoto kwa wing tukijiotea; That night we were carelessly asleep, And dreams in abundance dreaming of ourselves (M&K-MU2).
ali2 [adj.] High, fig. of high quality (WH). Ar. Wa wapi ziuli wa Pate Yunga, Wenye nyuso ali zenye mianga, Wangiziye nyumba za tangatanga, Daula na ezi iwaushiye; Where are the gallant men of Pate Yunga, With exceptionally shiny faces, They have been thrust into sandy dwellings, Sovereignty and power have deserted them (Ink-60).
ali3 ~ aali [n. 9/10 an.] Family, race, kin, dynasty (WH). Kinsfolk (LH). Ar. Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).
alia [v. tr.] Rest upon; see gloss (4) in K&K here (TJH). Impress upon, leave mark on; sustain (WH). Make a mark on the body as by a blow with a stick, etc. (FJ). Place side by side; put down, lay down on; (2) press on, press down; (3) make a mark on the body as by a blow; (4) [v.i.] lie (down) on or in (K&K). Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).
alia [v. tr.] Make a mark on the body as by a blow with a stick (FJ). Place side by side, put down, lay down on; 2. Press on, press down; 3. make a mark on the body as by a blow; 4. Lie down, on, in (K&K). Wapi wa Kiungu wayaza kumbi, Na mashekhe mema wa Ki-Sarambi, Walaliye nyumba za vumbivumbi, Ziunda za miti ziwaaliye; Where are the people from Kiungu they filled the reception halls, And its good Sarabian sheiks, They now live in crumbling dusty houses, Wooden grave boards press upon them (Ink-59).
Allahumma [invoc.] Oh, my God, Good Good (WH). Allah (LH). Allahumma Rabbi mkidhi haja, Msalie Tumwa aliyekuja, Na tauhidiyo Mola wa waja, Akatusomesha tafsiriye; O my Lord Allah, Granter of (our) needs, Let us pray for the Prophet, Your dvine unity God Almighty of all people, And he taught us its meaning (i.e., the Koran). (Ink-5).
alo [rel. phrase] One who is, s/he who is; frequently found in poetry for St. Sw. Aliye, thus a-li-o (TJH). Nataka himdi nitangulize, Alo mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza ila isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So that the pious scholar not ask, And say, don’t stop us from praising, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other (Ink-2).
ama [intrj.] Indeed, certainly, truly; see Arabic in FJ gloss following (TJH). Expression of annoyance, impatience, etc., like ala, and ati, also (2) used in asking a question. Ama! huna habari ya mambo yaliyotokea jana? I say, have not you heard of what took place yesterday? Ama! yeye ni mjinga tu, Oh! he is only a fool. (Ar. truly, indeed, etc.). Ama tulifurahi kuvuta hewa; Indeed we rejoiced to draw in the air (M&K-MU14).
ambuka [v. cv. st.] Be stripped off, be peeled off, be removed from (TJH). See –ambua remove, take off, separate something adhering, e.g. ambua ngozi (gamba, &c.), remove the skin (bark, etc (FJ). Na moto wa ladha nao pulika, Moto ukitiwa mara huwaka, Huona manofu yakikwambuka, Waona ziungo ziungushiye; And as for the fire of the second hell listen, If you are put into its fire you burn immediately, You see chunks of flesh being stripped from you, You see that your limbs have been utterly consumed (Ink-76).
andama1 [v. tr.] Ruin (MASB). Follow in order, accompany, follow up, be next in order, succeed in order. Mwezi umeandama, the new moon has followed on, has begun (FJ). Coll. beat someone, let one have it (K&K). Wamekuwa makuwadi, Amani kukuandama! They have become pimps, to ruin you, Oh Peace! (MASB-Au2).
andama2 [v. tr.] Adhere to, see something through, continue with, go along with, carry through (TJH). Follow closely (WH). Follow in order, accompany, follow up, be next in order, succeed in order (FJ). Moyo wangu nini huitabiri, Twambe u mwelevu wa kukhitari, Huyui dunia ina ghururi, Ndia za tatasi huzandamaye; Oh my heart why not foretell the future for me. Let’s say you are clever in figuring things out, Don’t you know that the world is but vanity; How do you travel along on its jumbled maze? (Ink-12). Sasa t’akhitimu t’atia tama, Atakofuata na kuyandama, T’apata khatima na mwiso mwema, Rabbi twakuomba tujaaliye; Now I will finish I’ll put in the conclusion, He who will follow and goes along with them, He will finally have a good ending, Oh Lord we pray that you grant us this (Ink-78).
angama [v. i.] Be suspended, be in mid-air, hang (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders completely covered their beds (Ink-49).
angamiya ~ angamia [v. i.] Be destroyed, be utterly vanquished, perish; see St. Sw. –angamia (FJ). Hutompata Qaruni, mwiso aliangamiya, You will never get (as far ahead as) Qaruni, and in the end even he perished (ASN-AD 6).
angamiza [v. cs.] Devastate (TJH). Destroy, vanquish, utterly defeat; (2) also used of property, ruin, waste (FJ). Palikuwa na tufani zenye meno makali ziangamizazo mimea, There were fierce storms with sharp teeth that devastated the vegetation (M&K-NJL3).
angata [v. ct.] Hold on tightly, adhere to closely; hold or carry in the hands or arms, embrace, hold in ones hands (TJH). Hold lovingly (K&K). Tenir (-shika) ou porter (tukua) das les mains ou sur les bras ((Mv. Am. = S. G. –angacha; Sx). Shaza lengetwe mtini, Zizimbwini mwa nyongoza,The shell is held in the tree, In the depths of the ocean (ASN-S5).
angusha mimba [v. phrase] Knock to the ground on the stomach (TJH). See -angusha mtu kwa mimba jeter qqn ventre contre terre (Sx). Knock facedown on the ground (MHA). See mimba. Humwangusha kwa mimba juu lat‘i kamwawaa, It knocks him face down to the ground, and annihilates him (MY-KT).
ao/maao [n. 5/6] Couch, bed (WH). Not in FJ. See ulalo/ma- place (time, accessories, manner) of lying down or sleeping, camping-place, bed; (2) something lying or laid down, e.g. a tree or plank laid as a bridge across a stream (FJ). Maao = malalo q.v (Sx). Kwa maao mema ya kukhitari, Iyu la zitanda za majodori, Na mito kuwili ya akhadhari, Kwa kazi ya pote wanakishiye; On fine well-chosen couches, On beds of padded cushions, With green pillows at both ends, Decorated with embroidered work (Ink-42).
aridhiwa [v. ps.] Be laid bare, be set before, be made clear be unveiled (TJH). Explain, inform, set before, e.g. aliniaridhia maneno, he placed the matter before me (FJ). Be revealed (LH). Ar. Tafakari siku ya kwima kondo, Ya kuaridhiwa kula kitendo, Pindi madhulumu atapo ondo, Achamba ya Rabbi namua naye; Think about the day when multitudes will assemble (i.e., the Day of Judgment), The day when every deed will be unveiled, When the persecuted one kneels, Saying, “Oh Lord judge between me and him.” (Ink-68).
asi [v. tr.] Disobey, fail to carry out instructions; (2) fail to carry out duties or obligations; (3) rebel (against), mutiny (FJ). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).
ata [v. tr.] Leave; abandon; release, etc. (TJH). See St. Sw. –acha (FJ). Siniwate na kiliyo, na mwendo nikateseka, Don’t abandon me crying and suffering as I go along (ASN-Nd6).
ata [v. tr.] Leave; abandon; release, etc. (TJH). See St. Sw. –acha (FJ). Siniwate na kiliyo, na mwendo nikateseka, Don’t abandon me crying and suffering as I go along (ASN-Nd6).
atama [v. i.] See –achama open the mouth wide, gape (FJ). Be aghast (WH). Be open-mouth with shock (JVA). Mvi wa manaya ukawafuma, Akatubukia katika nyama, Pasiwe mwatami mwenye kwatama, Au mwamba nini yalikuwaye; Death’s arrow struck them, And he (i.e., death) plunged it in their flesh, Without any dumbfounded gawker there with mouth wide open, Or speaker saying, “What, how has this happened?” (Ink-24). Dental t
atamiwa [v. appl. ps.] Be opened for, be yawning open for someone, be swallowed up by a gaping mouth (TJH). Mezwa (MMM). See –achama open the mouth wide, gape (FJ). Kwali na mabwana na mawaziri, Wenda na makundi ya asikari, Watamiwe na nti za makaburi, Pingu za mauti ziwafundiye; There were important men and ministers, They went with groups of soldiers, They too were swallowed up by gaping earthly graves, The shackles of death being enfolded them (Ink-61).
atiya kimiya [v. appl.] Cast, throw a net (TJH). See St. Sw. –acha, -achia (Not in SX, FJ). Nauza changu kimiya, kichatiya chashikani, I pose a question about my net, if I cast it what will it catch? (ASN-S1).
atua ~ atuwa [v. tr.] Rend, cleave, split (WH). Split, crack (FJ). Chenda akaona mwako wa yuwa, Mai alotaka akayatuwa, Asifidi yambo ila shakawa, Ikawa mayuto yasimsiye; When he goes he then sees only the blazing sun, As for the water he wants, he rends himself (fig. is disappointed), Without gaining a thing except trouble, And so it was for him, remorse has never ended (Ink-17).
azmamu [n. 9/10] Rope, Rein, bonds (WH). Ar. Moyo tafakari na Jahanamu, Wenye silisia na azmamu, Pindi ya dayani akiukimu, Unene labeka niitishiye; Oh my heart, think about the deepest hell-fire, About those chained and roped, When the Judge summons you (i.e., your heart) to prayer, You should say: “May I respond with ‘Yes, I am your servant.’” (Ink-72).
baa [n. 5/6] Evil, disaster, calamity, anything which brings bad luck or disaster; (2) an ill-omened person, one who causes disaster, brings bad luck (FJ). Ni wachache waloweza kukimbia, Na kwokoka kumezwa na zimwi baa; There were few who were able to run away, And be saved from being swallowed up by the evil monster (M&K-MU3).
babu [n. 9/10 an. ~ 5/6 an.] Ancestor, grandfather (TJH). Kama walivyofanya babuze zamani; Just as his ancestors did long before him (M&K-Mk1).
baini [v. tr.] See clearly, know for certain, distinguish, recognize; (2) make clear, prove, show (FJ). Moyo wangu nini huzundukani, Likughurielo hela ni nni, Hunelezi nami kalibaini, Liwapo na sura nisikataye; Oh my heart why don’t you wake up, Look now, what is it that misleads you, And why do you not explain it to me so that I as well may recognize it, If it is so obvious must I not reject it? (Ink-11).
bangu [n. 9] Claim, demand, dispute, contention; -shamiri bangu make war, -liwa bangu be utterly deceived, teza bangu act in a manner to precipitate war (WH). Used in the expression kuliwa bangu to be deceived, to be made a fool (K&K). Hiki ewe moyo kievu changu, Hukengeukii nusuha yangu, Huza akherayo kwa ulimwengu, Ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-27).
banu [n. prop.] Clan (LH). Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).
benuwa [v. tr.] Flex, make taught, etc.; also describes the twisting and contortions of the arms when used in swimming.  (TJH & ASN). Cause to project, stick out, bulge, protrude, put forward, expose to view.Benua kidari (or kifua) stick the chest out. Kujibenua‘to stretch oneself’ (FJ). See synonym –nyongoastraighten out twists, used esp. of stretching oneself after being in a cramped or bent position (ASN). Kwa kuwama na kwa t’ani, kubenuwa zenu ziya, On your stomachs and backs, flexing your joints (ASN-S1).
bidhaa [n. 9/10] Business (TJH). Trade goods, merchandise (FJ). Ar. Make difficulties; hinder, cause a project to tarry (WH). Delay by the way (CHS). See –a kuusiri procrastination, postponing, putting things off (TJH). Ichamba hayani ndio safari, Yakomele tena ya kuusiri, Bidhaa ya ndeo na takaburi, Mutendele kwangu nishuhudiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-23).
bombwe/ma- [n. 5/6~9/10] Maggot, grub (TJH). Worms; creeping insects (WH). Ver blanc de la viande, des fruits; holothurie (Sx). Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu hawaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots come from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).
boriti [n. 9/10] Thick poles of the mangrove used to support concrete ceilings and roofs of certain kinds of houses; hence a beam, large piece of timber or steel, a girder, etc. (? Port. Barrote, beam, joist.) (FJ). Ngome ni ya matumbawe, na boriti kuikiza, The (ceilings of the) Fort are of coral rock with mangrove beams set in place (for rafters) (MY-Ng).
bui/ma- [n. 5/6 an.] Lover, girlfriend, sweatheart (ASN). See buibui a woman’s black garment (FJ). Bui wangu hata lini, wewe utakaporudi? My sweat heart, when will you return to me? (ASN-Nd5).
bumu/ma- [n. 5/6 an.] Owl (WH). Screech owl (Taylor). Ar. Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani, Sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni, Bumu hukoroma kati nyumbani, Zisiji na koti waikaliye; In the homes’ porcelain-ware niches, Now the fledglings of birds have taken up their abode, Owls hoot in the house, Mannikins and weaverbirds have settled themselves inside (Ink-50).
buntwa [n. 9/10] Breakwater, sea wall, dock, jetty (TJH). Daraja (INS) (daraja = gati KKS). Mahali pwani pa kuteremshia abiria au mizigo fordhani; gati. Pengine bonta, bunta. 2. kiwanda kilichopo pwani cha kuundia chombo (KKS). Pontoon, landing-stage. (< Eng. pontoon?) (FJ). Dock: gatibunta. Drydock: guda (TUKI). Jetty: gati, bunta (TUKI). Wharf: gati (TUKI). Not in Sx. Mijai ikongeya, lembelembe buntwani, As the mass of water increases, at full tide against the breakwater (ASN-AD2).
buriani [n. 9] Last words, farewells, leave-takings, esp. of people going on a journey. Kuwapa rafiki buriani, to give friends a farewell (send-off); Kutakana (agana) buriani, exchange farewell greetings, i.e. beg for mutual forgiveness (FJ). Ar. Nikwambie buriani, sina mengi ndugu yangu; Let me say my final good-byes, I don’t have much else (to say), my ndugu (MASB-Au5).
bwa! [ideo.] Expressive of the noise of something quickly and forcefully ejected; see bwaga, bwagika, etc. Also see Ashton (1944:313-315) for a list of ideophones. (TJH). Ghafla bwa! sote chini tukabwagika, Suddenly bwa! we were all spilled out on the ground (M&K-MU12).
bwaga [n. 5/6] Sky, dome of the sky, firmament (TJH). Universe (ASN). Uwazi na upeo wa juu ya ulimwengu kwenye jua, mwezi, na nyota (INS:56). Only in FJ and SX as a verb. Rajai naregezeya, Kishada changu bwagani, I am setting it free, My kite into the sky above (ASN-S8).
bwagika [v. st.] Be thrown down, be spilled out (TJH). See –bwaga throw off, throw down, relieve oneself of (as to, with). Bwaga mzigo, tip a load off one’s shoulders, throw it on the ground. Bwaga moyo, rest the mind, throw off melancholy, be cheered. Bwaga wimbo, give a lead in singing. Bwaga matukano, let off a volley of abuse. Bwaga manza, cause contention, litigation, etc. Jibwagia moyo, relieve one’s mind (FJ). Ghafla bwa! sote chini tukabwagika, Suddenly bwa! we were all spilled out on the ground (M&K-MU12).
chaka/ma- [n. 5/6] Clump of trees, dense part of a forest; (2) the hot season, i.e. December to February, but usu. called msimu and kaskazi (FJ). Au enga moto kururumika, Ulio weuni katika tuka, Pakashuka wingu katika chaka, Ikawa kuzima usiviviye; Or look at a spreading fire, That is in a forest clearing among the thickets, And then there descends a cloud over the forest, And it puts it out so that it does not blow to life (Ink-29).
chanda/z- [n. 7/8] Finger (TJH). Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).
chandi [n. 9] Silver (TJH). Fedha (ASN). (Not in Sx with this meaning). Wengi wametajirika, Kwa ng’andu na tuchandi. Many have become rich, With gold and even silver (ASN-S7).
chango/z- [n. 7/8] Peg, rail, hook, anything on which to suspend something (FJ). Peg or rail for hanging things from (WH). Hook, peg for hanging, stand for a lamp, hallstand, hat rack, portmanteau, brace, bracket (K&K). Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi, Naapa kwa Mungu Mola Mkwasi, Zali za msaji kwa abunusi, Zitile sufufu zisitawiye; Decorated hanging-pegs that are pleasing to behold, I swear by God, Source of all Wealth, They were of teak and ebony, Placed in line to look their best. (Ink-39).
chefuka [v. st.] Be sick to the stomach, be nauseous (TJH). Cause (sic) a feeling of sickness, or nausea (FJ). Nasi ndipo kuchefuka kukazidi, And as for us then our own nausea increased even more (M&K-MU5).
chefuzi [n. 9] Nausea, queasiness, vomiting, retching; Something nauseating, unpleasant, disagreeable, abominable, offensive, gross, sickening, repulsive, disgusting (TJH). Not in FJ in this form but see -chefuka cause (sic) a feeling of sickness, or nausea; kichefuchefu nausea, a sick feeling (FJ). Also see chafua: fanya kuwa chafu; tia takataka; haribu. 2. tawanya ovyo; vuruga, fujo. 3. tia hasira; kasirisha, chukiza: chafua moyo fanya mtu kutaka kutapika. Pia chefua (KKS). Twali tumboni mwa zimwi – pa chefuzi; We were in the belly of the zimwi – a disgusting place (M&K-MU3).
chekelea [v. intns.] Laugh, smile, smile at; see -cheka laugh (TJH). Akichekelea ha ha ha ha ha ha …; Smiling & laughing hah, hah, hah, hah… (M&K-Mk2).
cheza harakati [v. vp.]  Bring into play the struggle, start the struggle (TJH). Tuicheze harakati ni mchezo wa zamani, Let’s bring into play the struggle, it’s an old game (M&K-ML5).
chuki [n.9] Ill humour, bad temper, dislike, resentment (FJ). See -a chuki [adj.] hateful, loathing, horrible, despicable (TJH). Huku sauti za chuki twazipaza; All the while raising voices of loathing (M&K-MU11).
chuo/zuo [n. 7/8] Book, school (TJH). Make someone respond (TJH). Send somebody to call, cause to be called, order (FJ). Call (urgently), summon, convene; call upon, invite, make s.o. answer; Mungu huitisha wajawe: God calls his servants; kuitisha mkutano: to call for a meeting (K&K). Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye; There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded (Ink-62).
chupa [v. i.] Jump down from above, jump from branch to branch in a tree, etc. (FJ)
dara [v. tr] Seize, catch, touch, arrest (FJ). Usingizi tulipokuwa ‘medarwa, Ni wachache waloweza kukimbia; When we were taken (in our) sleep, There were few who were able to run away (M&K-MU3).
dariji [v. tr.] Set in order, arrange by grade; also diriji (WH). Follow on, i.e., in order (LH). Ikisa himdi kutabalaji, Ikituzagaa kama siraji, Sala na salamu kiidariji, Tumwa Muhammadi tumsaliye; Once praise is manifest, Shining on us like a lamp, Prayers and peace follow after it (i.e., praise), Let us pray for the Prophet Mohammed (Ink-3).
daula [n. 9/10] State, kingdom, government, sovereignty (WH). See St. Sw. dola. Wa wapi ziuli wa Pate Yunga, Wenye nyuso ali zenye mianga, Wangiziye nyumba za tangatanga, Daula na ezi iwaushiye; Where are the gallent men of Pate Yunga, With exceptionally shiny faces, They have been thrust into sandy dwellings, Sovereignty and power have deserted them (Ink-60).
dawamu [adv.] Always, forever, lasting (TJH). See St. daima; also –a daima continual, permanent, lasting (FJ). Suu ulimwengu uutakao, Emale ni lipi upendeao, Hauna dawamu hudumu nao, Umilikishwapo wautendaye; This world that you want, What is its goodness that you love, It has nothing enduring or lasting, When you are made ruler how will you deal with it (Ink-31).
dawiri [v. tr.] Make something round, circular (WH). Entwine (LH). See duara (FJ). Ar. Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7).
Dayani [n. prop.] Judge, Rewarder, Recompenser; one of the names of God; also Dayamu, Diyani (WH). Ar. Moyo tafakari na Jahanamu, Wenye silisia na azmamu, Pindi ya dayani akiukimu, Unene labeka niitishiye; Oh my heart, think about the deepest hell-fire, About those chained and roped, When the Judge summons you (i.e., your heart) to prayer, You should say: “May I respond with ‘Yes, I am your servant.’” (Ink-72).
dhamiri [v. tr.] Intend, have in mind, hatch secret plans, keep council with someone (K&K). Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7).
dharula [n. 9/10] Scorn (MASB). See dharau n.9 scorn, contempt, insult (FJ). Ar. Penye faraja haendi, dharula ni yake ngao; Where it’s comfortable he never goes, scorn is his shield (MASB-MM2).
dhiki [n. 9/10] Distress, stress, pain, agony, strain, misery, anguish (TJH). Narrowness, want of space, confinement; (2) being pressed, annoyance, distress, etc. (FJ). Sasa walaliye mji shubiri, Pasipo zuliya wala jodori, Ikawa miwili kutaathari, Dhiki ya kaburi iwakusiye; Now they’re asleep in a town of no size at all (lit. a finger’s span), Without carpet or cushion, And their bodies are disfigured, The misery of the grave has tormented them (Ink-45). Pengine hukuonjesha nyingi dhiki; Sometimes it makes you taste much agony (M&K-MU1).
dhila ~ madhila [n. 9 ~ 6] Mean condition, abasement, low state (FJ). Oppression, suffering, discrimination, humiliati­on (K&K). Hali ya kuonewa au kuteswa; mateso, tabu, unyonge (KKS). Ar. Tunamuomba Rabuka, madhila kutuepuka; We are praying to Almighty God, to keep us from such suffering (MASB-Au3).
dhili [v. t.] Abase, humble, bring low, set at nought (FJ).  Wanyonge kuwaoneya, ukadhili masikini, To look down on the destitute, and abase the poor (ASN-AD5).
dhilimu [v. tr.] Oppress, treat unjustly (WH). Persecute (TJH). Ar. Namua na hoyo menidhilimu, Kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu, Mungu Jabari akahukumu, Amtendeleo amlipiye; Judge me as well as the one (who) persecuted me, With your judgement which is hard, God the All-Powerful will judge, What he did to another may He pay him (in kind) (Ink-69).
dhuli [n. 9/10] Udhaifu, dosari (MMM). Low position; distress, misery (K&K). Base condition (LH). See dhila mean condition, abasement, low state (FJ). Khasaisi zote na makatayo, Shida na shakawa likupeteyo, Ni dunia sii uipendayo, Yenye dhuli nyingi na makataye; All your vices and deprivation, Difficulties and trouble that have happened to you, Because of (lit., by) this world which you love, With its many miseries and its hardships (Ink-18).
dhuluma [n. 9/10] Injustice (MASB). See dhalimu adj. unjust, oppressive, tyrannical, fraudulent, violent. Sometimes as v. be unjust, etc.; see also dhulumu v. treat unjustly, defraud, oppress; and dhulumu/ma- n. 5/6 injustice, fraud, oppression, violence (FJ). Ar. Adui zako wa jadi, “Chuki” pia na “Dhuluma; Your traditional enemies, “Hatred” and “Injustice” too (MASB-Au2).
dhunubu [n. 9/10] Sins (WH). See St. dhambi (FJ). Ar. T’atunga kifungo kwa kukisafi, Nikipange lulu kula tarafi, Na ina nikite Inkishafi, Kiza cha dhunubu kiniukiye; I will fix a clasp to finish it, So to set pearls on each end, And for a name let me call it the “Soul’s Awakening”, So that the darkness of sin leave me (Ink-8).
dini ya kudhani [n. np.] Religions of ???. Dini za kudhani zamsonga roho; Religions of ??? beats down his spirit (M&K-Mk4).
domo/ma- [n. 5/6] Terrible, ugly, nasty mouth (TJH). See mdomo 3/4 “mouth” (FJ). Zimwi … lilifunga domo, mbyoni kujitoma; The creature … closed its terrible mouth and bolted off in a run! (M&K-MU13).
dondo [n. 5/6] Cowrie shell, shell (TJH). Large tiger cowrie shell, used by tailors for smoothing down seams to a good surface (FJ). Dondole huk’ek’etuka, Ikatoka kiotoni, (With) its shell cracked open, it emerges from its cradle (ASN-S6).
duba [n. 9 an.] Bear; see St. Sw. dubu (TJH). Ar. Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh have shriveled (Ink-48).
dudi [n. 9.10] Insect; see mdudu/wa-; final vowel may be due to rhyming; see citation (TJH). Wasiriye wote kula kwa dudi, Na kuwatafuna zao jisadi, Na mtwa na tungu huwafisidi, Majoka na nge wawatatiye; They have all become food for insects, That chewed on their bodies, And termites and ants corrupted them, Fearsome snakes and vipers wound about them (Ink-47).
duri [adj.] Precious, costly, invaluable (TJH). High quality (ASN). (Not in Sx or FJ). Yakashukiya shazani, Na kufumba lulu duri, They descend into the shell, And enfold a precious pearl (ASN-S4).
duri [n. 9/10] Large and lustrous pearls; verse of a poem, dictum, precept (fig.) (WH). Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7). Ar.
ebu ~ yebu [v. i.] Want, wish, desire (TJH). Vouloir, permettre, syn. -taka. N’est guère usité qu’au présent de l’ind. d’une façon exclamative, et en poésie (Sx). Note: Sacleux quotes Muyaka: Kongowéa hayebu mwenyi makuu, Mombasa ne supporte pas le fastueux. Haiyebu mwenyi makuu ndiani mwenda sambamba, It (Mombasa) does not want an arrogant person, walking along with others in the streets (MY-KT).
egema [v. tr.] Approach, draw close to, etc. (TJH). Karibia (MMM). S’approcher, venir près; ND (Sx). Au enga vumbi la muangaza, Wakati wa yua likitepuza, Mwenda kulegema akilisoza, Asione kitu ukishishiye; Or look at the dusty streams of light, As the sun is breaking through the clouds, Someone who goes to get close to it, grasping at it, He fails to see anything that he took hold of (Ink-15).
egesha [v. cs.] Bring to shore safely (TJH). Cause to rest, bring into close contact, make secure, etc….bring a vessel to land, moor, make fast (FJ). Wimbini huisumbika, Ikegesha ufuoni, Into the waves it plunged itself, Reaching safety on the beach (ASN-S6).
elewa [adj.] Intelligent, understanding, quick-witted, perceptive (TJH). Wamaizi kutanani, welewa wana wa Gongwa; Confer together, learned ones, you perceptive sons of Gongwa (MY-KY2).
eleya [v. i.] Be clear, be intelligible (TJH). See St. –elea (FJ).Nayuwa siwatanizi, hamugagwi yaweleya, I know that I am not taunting you, You are not baffled, (about) things clear to you (ASN-S2).
ema/mema [n. 5/6] Good, goodness, virtue (TJH). See ema adj., good—including goodness of all kinds and degrees, whatever commends itself to feeling, taste, reason, or conscience, and translatable in a corresponding variety of ways, ‘pleasant, beautiful, sensible, right’ (FJ). Suu ulimwengu uutakao, Emale ni lipi upendeao, Hauna dawamu hudumu nao, Umilikishwapo wautendaye; This world that you want, What is its goodness that you love, It has nothing enduring or lasting, When you are made ruler how will you deal with it (Ink-31).
emale [n. contr.] Its good, its goodness; see –ema lake (TJH). Suu ulimwengu uutakao, Emale ni lipi upendeao, Hauna dawamu hudumu nao, Umilikishwapo wautendaye; This world that you want, What is its goodness that you love, It has nothing enduring or lasting, When you are made ruler how will you deal with it (Ink-31).
emi [adj.] Sweet, affable, pleasant, nice (TJ). Doux, agréable, archaïque des DiaI. P. Mv. Am. (Sx). Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).
endele [-ile perf.] Perfect stem; see –enda. U wapi Ali bin Nasiri, Na muwamu wake Abubakari, Mwinyi Idarusi na Muhudhari, Wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye; Where is Ali bin Nasir, And his brother-in-law Abu Bakr, The Chief Idarusi and Muhudhari, Where have they gone over there, show me their (lit. his) way (i.e. where they went). (Ink-57).
enezea [v. appl.] Abound, become abundant, be spread out (abroad, over), be extended over (among, in), be diffused in, permeate, cover the whole extent of, become generally known (among, to, in), be distributed (to), be coextensive (with) (FJ). See -eneayenezee =imeenea they are spread through (ASN). Si miti ya miujiza, Yenezee duniyani, They are not unusual trees, They are spread throughout the world (ASN-S5).
enga [v. tr.] Look, regard, consider (TJH). Behold (usually from a distance); fig. picture mentally (WH). Anagalia (CHS). Tazama (MM). Au enga meto limetukapo, Wakati wa yua lilinganapo, Mwenye nyota hwamba ni mayi yapo, Kayakimbilia akayatwaye; Or regard the glistening mirage, When the sun reaches high noon, The thirsty one says there is water there, And he runs to it that he might get some (Ink-16).
engeme [-ile perf.] Perfect stem, see –angama hang, etc. (TJH). Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).
enye maana [adj. phrase] See –enye maina ~ enye majina; note maina > maana; lit, having a name, thus renowned, esteemed, celebrated, prominent (TJH). Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).
enyi [pro.] Ooh you (pl.); see ewe! (TJH). You there! I say you! (for ee nyinyi!) (FJ). Hodi hodi enyi ndani, Hello, hello there, oh you people inside (M&K-SKN1).
epuka [v. tr.] Avoid, get out of the way of, abstain from, withdraw from, keep from (FJ). Tunamuomba Rabuka, madhila kutuepuka; We are praying to Almighty God, to keep us from such suffering (MASB-Au3).
fa macho [v. i.] Be blind, sightless; lit. die as to the eyes (TJH). Ni bora afaye macho, kuliko afaye moyo; Better is the blind person, than one who is hardhearted (MASB-MM1).
fa moyo [v. i.]] Be heartless, unsympathetic, hardhearted, lit. die as to the heart (TJH). Ni bora afaye macho, kuliko afaye moyo; Better is the blind person, than one who is hardhearted (MASB-MM1).
fanana [v. rcp.] Be like one another, be similar to each other, be the same, be comparable (TJH). Be identical (MASB). Udugu si kufanana, bali kuthaminiana, Brotherhood is not being the same, but rather it is showing respect to one other (MASB-Ud3).
fanya maasi [v. vp.] Rebel, revolt, take up arms (TJH). See maasi a revolt (FJ). Leo tufanye maasi: Haki hakina lakini, Today we must revolt: Justice has no “but” (M&K-ML6).
fanyizwa [v. cs. ps.]  Be prepared, be made, be provided (TJH). Cause to make, cause a making of, cause to be made, repair, but in order, mend, have (a thing) done (by giving orders, personal attention, &c.), provide, get ready (FJ). Sherehe kubwa sana ilifanyizwa, A very great celebration was prepared (M&K-MU16).
faraja [n. 9/10] Comfort (MASB). Comfort, relief, cessation of pain, ease, consolation (FJ). Ar. Penye faraja haendi, dharula ni yake ngao; Where it’s comfortable he never goes, scorn is his shield (MASB-MM2).
fidi [v. tr.] Gain, redeem, benefit, do well (TJH). Gain (LH). Gain profit (WH). Ransom, pay ransom for, deliver by payment (FJ). Chenda akaona mwako wa yuwa, Mai alotaka akayatuwa, Asifidi yambo ila shakawa, Ikawa mayuto yasimsiye; When he goes he then sees only the blazing sun, As for the water he wants, he rends himself (fig. is disappointed), Without gaining a thing except trouble, And so it was for him, remorse has never ended (Ink-17).
firasha [n. 9/10] Bedspread, cover, throw, duvet (TJH). Rug, carpet, coverlet of a divan (WH). See firashi bed coverlet, quilt (FJ). Ar. Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).
fisidi [v. tr.] Destroy, abuse, use in a wrong way, corrupt, seduce, esp. of corrupting women (FJ). Lay waste (LH). Gâter. corrompre (rarem. us. au propre) ; dépraver; séduire; semer la discorde (Sx). Wasiriye wote kula kwa dudi, Na kuwatafuna zao jisadi, Na mtwa na tungu huwafisidi, Majoka na nge wawatatiye; They have all become food for insects, That chewed on their bodies, And termites and ants corrupted them, Fearsome snakes and vipers wound about them (Ink-47).
fitina [n. 9] Discord, variance, antagonism, quarrelling, misunderstanding, mischief. Fanya (tia) fitina, cause discord, slander, be cause of discord. (2) tumult, insurrection; (3) a source of discord, an agitator, a firebrand, but used of a person (FJ). Haifanyi ndicho sicho, na kuleta uchokozi, Uwadui wa kificho, fitina na ubazazi, They do not do what should not be, nor bring provocation,
Hidden enmity, strife and dishonesty (MASB-Ud2).
fofofo [ideo.] Completely, absolutely, but only used with kufa, to die, and kulala, to lie down or sleep. Amekufa (amelala) fofofo, he is absolutely dead (fast asleep) (FJ). Tulale fofofo kwa wake uganga; So we would be dead asleep from his spell (M&K-MU2).
fududu [n. 9/10 an.] Tortoise (TJH). Tortue de terre (G.); Syn. Am. kifuvu-mayondi; DS kobe (Sx). Not in FJ. Kitunguwe kizunduka, fududu mesikiliya, When Hare awoke with a start, Tortoise had already arrived (and gone on) (ASN-KS7).
fuma [v. i.] Go out (tide), ebb (TJH). Se retirer (mer), litt. Sortir (Am, G; Sx). Yafumapo mkwambani, Kitoche humemetuka, When the tide goes out from the debris (on the beach), its gem glitters (ASN-6).
fuma1 [v. i.] Ebb, the tide; –pwa (ASN). Se retirer (mer), lit. sortir. Am Mai yafuma (Am) = mayi yafuma (G) la mer se retire. — Syn. -pwa (DS)(Am. G.; Sx). Sione kukuyaliya, kufuma ni kazi gani? Don’t think the tide rises for you, is its ebbing an effort? (ASN-AD1).
fuma2 [v. t.] Strike or pierce with a sharp instrument, i.e. a spear (FJ). Mvi wa manaya ukawafuma, Akatubukia katika nyama, Pasiwe mwatami mwenye kwatama, Au mwamba nini yalikuwaye; Death’s arrow struck them, And he (i.e., death) plunged it in their flesh, Without any dumbfounded gawker there with mouth wide open, Or speaker saying, “What, how has this happened?” (Ink-24).
fumba [v. t.] Shut, close, by bringing things or parts together (FJ). Yakashukiya shazani, Na kufumba lulu duri, They descend into the shell, And enfold a precious pearl (ASN-S4).
fumbia [v. appl.] Shut up in (for, by, &c.), talk darkly about, etc (FJ). Malimwengu yote yawatiile, Na dunia yao iwaokele, Wachenenda zitwa zao zilele, Mato mafumbuzi wayafumbiye; The whole world has submitted to them, And their world was laid out straight for them, Walking along, their heads held distainfully, Their staring eyes looking darkly (Ink-35).
fumbua [v. cv.] Unclose, open, lay open, reveal, disclose by separating things or parts which were close together, e.g. fumbua mkono, open the closed hand, and so of eyes, mouth, legs, etc. (FJ). Yafumbuweniwayuzi, mutongowe moyamoya, Reveal those things, you learned ones, Speak clearly (of them) one by one (ASN-S2).
fumbuzi [adj.] Wide open, held open (eyes), staring; see –fumbua unclose, open, lay open, reveal, disclose by separating things or parts which were close together (FJ). Discerning, perspicacious, exploratory (K&K). Malimwengu yote yawatiile, Na dunia yao iwaokele, Wachenenda zitwa zao zilele, Mato mafumbuzi wayafumbiye; The whole world has submitted to them, And their world was laid out straight for them, Walking along, their heads held distainfully, Their staring eyes looking darkly (Ink-35).
funda [v. tr.] Tie in a knot (TJH). See fundo knot. Mtima ukajifunda kikaka, My heart tied itself firmly (M&K-NJL2).
funda1 [v. tr.] Pound, pulverize (FJ). Mishuu henenda ngeya, yakifunda zijambani, Breakers come suddenly as they will, pounding down on the reefs (ASN-AD2).
funda2 [v. tr.] Enfold closely, enrap, enclose, enshroud (WH). Tie a knot, tie up, bind; possible back formation from fundo ‘knot’; not in FJ or Sx with this meaning (TJH). Watoto wangapi uwaweneo, Ukawayakini kupona kwao, Sasa nyumba za t’i ziwateteo, Katika luhudi iwafundiye; How many children have you seen, And are you certain about their well-being, Whose sepulchres have now enshrouded them, In a grave that binds them (Ink-33).
funga kitaya [v. phrase] Bridle, put a bridle on; lit. tie the jaw (TJH). Aso hasanati wala thawabu, Hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu, Akatwekwa dhambi za maghusubu, Akambiwa haya mtukuliye; The one who has neither merit nor gifts from God, His jaw is bridled like a steed, And is loaded down with the sins of a violated one, And finally he is told, “Alright, carry them (i.e., sins) for him.” (Ink-71).
fungulia [v. appl.] Open up for, open for (TJH). See -fungua open, etc. (FJ). Hodi hodi enyi ndani, Nifungulie ni’ngie; Hello, hello there, oh you people inside, open up for me that I may come in (M&K-SKN1).
funikiwa [v. appl. ps.] Be covered by (TJH). See –funika cover, cover up, put a covering on; (2) fig. conceal, disguise (FJ). Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).
fusa [v. tr.] Beat, make soft by gentle beating, e.g. atakufusa hata ulainike, he will beat you until you are tender, e.g. until you have no strength left; (2) attack. Ugonjwa ulimfusa, sickness attacked him (FJ). See fusi/ma- 5/6 ‘rubble’.
fusi/ma- [n. 5/6] Rubble used to fill a excavation for a foundation, building materials used in making a foundation; see –fusa, -fusia, -fusiza, -fusizi.  (TJH). The mud of the walls, etc., of a house which has been demolished (FJ). Coral sand (MHA). A fine black sand (Krapf). Décombres, démolitions, plâtras, déblais [rubble],  — Syn. TD. kifusi (Sx). Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhuri, Wakanakiliwa ili safari, Washukiye nyumba za makaburi, Mtanga na fusi ziwafusiye; Even if wealth is ostentatious, They were carried off on (lit. for purpose of) death’s journey, They descended into the dwelling places of the dead (lit., graves), Sand and rubble entombed them. (Ink-44). Ngome ni ngome ya mawe na fusi la kufusiza, The Fort is a fortress of stone with a foundation of hard-packed rubble (MY-Ng). Sx quotes this verse from Taylor 44 with a slightly different last verse: “Fusi na fusizi liwafusie”
fusia [v. appl.] Construct a foundation of stone and rubble (TJH). Lay down a bed of small stones and rubbish for a concrete floor or roof, or fill in foundations (FJ). Lay a foundation (Krapf). See SX: 1. (Am. = DS. –fukia), enfouir. 2. (TDO. —G.) Combler avez des pierres grossières le fond, soit d’une fondation -fusia msinji, soit d’une terrasse  -fusia sakafu. [fill a depth—a deep hole–with heavy stones so it becomes a foundation]. See –fusizi (Sx). See –fukia fill in (a hole, grave, etc.), dig in, cover in, –fukia kaburi fill up a grave (FJ). See –fusiza v. intns of –fusia.
fusia [v. appl.] Fill in a hole, a grave; bury (TJH). Lay down a bed of small stones and rubbish for a concrete floor or roof, or fill in foundations (FJ). See –fukia fill in (a hole, grave, etc.), dig in, cover in; fukia kaburi, fill up a grave (FJ). (Am. -fusia). a. Enfouir, enterer qqch. : pour l’enterrement rituel d’une personne il est convenable d’employer –zika; fukia pesa katika mchanga; nyumba ilimfukia, la maison (en s’écroulant) l’avait enseveli. 2. Combler, remplir un trou, un fossé, etc. fukia kaburi, fukia kisima, fukia shimo kwa mchanga, combler une fosse avec du sable (Sx). Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhuri, Wakanakiliwa ili safari, Washukiye nyumba za makaburi, Mtanga na fusi ziwafusiye; Even if wealth is ostentatious, They were carried off on (lit. for purpose of) death’s journey, They descended into the dwelling places of the dead (lit., graves), Sand and rubble entombed them. (Ink-44).
fusiza [v. intns.] Beat, pound, pack firmly especially building materials (TJH). Not in FJ. Not in Sx, but see –fusa, –fusia, fusizi (TJH definition based on Sx definition of fusizi q.v. Ngome ni ngome ya mawe na fusi la kufusiza, The Fort is a fortress of stone with a foundation of hard-packed rubble (MY-Ng).
fusizi/ma- [n. 5/6] Heap, mass, pile, accumulation of dirt or rocks; material used in building (TJH). Amoncellement de terres ou de déblais. (Sx). See –fusa, -fusiza. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhari, || wakanakiliwa ili safari, || washukie nyumba za makaburi || fusi na fusizi liwafusie But now all that wealth of magnificence vast Hath vanished quite away, for the Summons forth hath passed; Down, down to the Tomb, that bourne long and last, Down, midst the rubble and the dust sped the bier (INK – Taylor 44)
futa [v. tr.] Obliterate, abolish, banish; drive away (WH). See –suta (WH). Hakuwa mtumi Suleimani, Maliki wa insi na ajinani, Ulimfutuye ukamukhini, Akiwa mwengine wamtendaye; Was not the apostle Solomon, A ruler of (both) humanity and the spirit world, How is it then that it (i.e., the world) banished and withheld power from him, If it were someone else what would it do to him (Ink-32).
fuwa pumzi ~ fua pumzi [v. tr.] Draw breath, pant (lit. beat the breath) (TJH). See –fua (FJ, Sx). Sungura kahuzunika pumzi akizifuwa, Hare was sad, as he panted away (ASN-KS11).
fuwadi [n. 9/10] Heart. See St. fuadi (FJ). Hela nipa tamkini, nituze yangu fuwadi, Please give me an answer, so I may calm my heart (ASN-Nd5). Ar.
fuwata [v. tr.] Follow (TJH). See St. –fuata follow, etc. Sina mbawa nikaruka, k’awafuwata zijuni, I have no wings so that I might fly, and follow the little birds (ASN-Nd3).
fuza [v. i.] Do in haste, do in a hurry, quickly, immediately (TJH). Go on, not to stop; see –fuuza go straight forward (Krapf). Not in FJ, but see ‑fulisha ~ –fuliza: ….Inten, keep on at, hammer at, cause to hammer or keep on, continue doing—in a general sense, quicken, hasten (FJ).  See Sx: fuza ~ fuuza ~ fuliza njia moja kwa moja, suivre le chemin tout droit, suivre le même chemin sans prendre aucune voie latérale (Sx). Ngome wetwapo sikawe, enda hima na kufuza, When you are called to the Fort do not delay, go quickly and do so immediately (MY-Ng)
fuza [v. i.] Go on, go on and on, continue, last, endure (TJH). Continue (ASN). See: -fuuza-fuliza (KKS). See mfulizo (under –fua beat, strike, hammer) causing to go on, giving an energetic impetus, pull, tug, haul, thrust, shove, etc., a going on and on, a regular progression, series, succession. (FJ). See -fuuza ~ -fûza ~ -fuuliza = -fuliza (Sx). Haitofuza mwendani, mpovu utasaliya, It will not last forever, friend, you will be left with barren land (ASN-AD4).
gaga [v. i.] Baffle, confound, bewilder, puzzle, confused (TJH). See –tatiza: Perplex, puzzle, make curious, intrigue (FJ); also Caus. et int. Au pr. et au fig., enchevêtrer, embrouiller, emmêler, entortiller, enrouler ou embobiner du fil, bander par un pansement, entrelacer, compliquer; cause l’enchevêtrement de (Sx). Nayuwa siwatanizi, hamugagwi yaweleya, I know that I am not taunting you, You are not baffled, (about) things clear to you (ASN-S2).
ganuwa [v. tr.] Tell story; back formation from ngano story, tale (TJH). Not in KKS/FJ. Kwenye ngano wazee walizoganuwa, In the stories which the old men told (M&K-MU1).
geuka [v. i.] Be changed radically, be changed drastically, become different, undego a change (TJH). Be changed, be changeable, be alterable, alter; (2) change position, turn oneself, turn round; (3) change in appearance, be transformed, be disguised; -geuza Cs. cause to change, alter, pervert, turn round, etc, (FJ). Note this is a perfect root: geushie where /k/ of the root > /sh/ before the reflex of the Bantu perfect –ile (TJH). Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu hawaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots come from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).
geush- [-ile perf.] Perfect stem; see –geuka, /k/ > /sh/___-ile perfect.
geuzi/ma- [n. 5/6] Reversal, rearrangement, reordering, changes, etc. (TJH). Topsy-turvy (MHA). That which causes change, alteration, shifting, turn, transformation; us. in pl. (FJ). See –geua. Kwa mambo kuyageua, kugeua mageuzi, From over-turning things, from turning them topsy-turvy (MY-KY1).
ghuri [v. t.] Cheat, bequile, deceive (FJ). Tahadhari na kuteya, asikughuri shetwani, Be careful of slipping, let Satan not deceive you (ASN-AD7).
ghuria [v. appl.] Mislead, deceive (TJH). See –ghuri cheat, beguile, deceive (FJ). Danganya (MM). Kwimakwe kwisa dibaji yangu, Penda kuuonya na moyo wangu, Utetwe[1] na hawa ya ulimwengu, Hila za rajimi ziughuriye; So finally my preface has come to an end, I need (now) to admonish my heart as well, It is entangled by the lust of the world, The wiles of satan have beguiled it (Ink-10).
ghururi [n. 9/10] Arrogance, self-conceit, infatuation, vanity, folly, blindness, but all with the meaning of because of transient things (FJ). Deceit (WH). Ar. Moyo wangu nini huitabiri, Twambe u mwelevu wa kukhitari, Huyui dunia ina ghururi, Ndia za tatasi huzandamaye; Oh my heart why not foretell the future for me. Let’s say you are clever in figuring things out, Don’t you know that the world is but vanity; How do you travel along on its jumbled maze? (Ink-12).
gonjwa/ma- [n. 5/6 aug.] Serious disease, affliction, malady (TJH). See ugonjwa/ma- 14/6 (FJ). “Gonjwa” lililokufika, wanashindwa kukutibu! The Disease that came upon you, they’re unable to cure you (MASB-Am1)
gugu/ma- [n. 5/6] Weed. Yapo waipaliliya, na kuitowa guguni, When you hoe it and rid it of weeds (ASN-AD4).
Hadimu Ladhati [n. prop.] Depriver of Pleasures, i.e., Death (WH). Smasher of Delights (JK). Depriver of all joy (JVA). Wakazisalimu umri zao, Hadimu Ladhati achenda nao, Pasi mkohozi akohowao, Au mwenye kwenda asiridhiye; Then they surrendered their lives, Death going with them, Without (so much as) a cougher who coughes, Or any traveler who is content (Ink-25).
haiba [n. 9/10] Beauty of countenance, appearance, but esp. of character (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of shell and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37). Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu hawaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots dribble down from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).
hakiki [v. tr.] Evaluate, assess, analyze, etc. (TJH). Make sure about, ascertain, investigate, prove, know for certain (FJ). Ar. Make someone respond (TJH). Send somebody to call, cause to be called, order (FJ). Call (urgently), summon, convene; call upon, invite, make s.o. answer; Mungu huitisha wajawe: God calls his servants; kuitisha mkutano: to call for a meeting (K&K). Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye; There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded (Ink-62).
hangaika [v. st.] Be overcome with emotion, e.g., anxiety, worry, grief, etc. (TJH). Be confused, busy with affairs, troubled, excited, anxious (FJ).  Tutabaki hangaika, tusijue pa kushika; We will be bereft, not knowing what (lit. where) to cling to (MASB-Au3).
harakati [n. 9/10] Activity, agitation, effort, excitement, movement; operation; procedure, process; struggle (K&K). Juhudi zinazofanywa na watu kwa ajili ya kufikia Iengo fulani, pilikapilika, bidii, juhudi, jitihada, mtukutiko: ~ za ukombozi wa Afrika. 2. vitendo; mtukutiko wa mambo katika nchi, serikali n.k (KKS). Tuicheze harakati ni mchezo wa zamani, Let’s bring into play the struggle, it’s an old game (M&K-ML5).
harara [n. 9] Flames, fire; see MMM (TJH). Heat, warmth, (1) of the body, high temperature, inflammation, prickly heat, rash produced by heat. Ameshikwa na harara he is hot, feverish. (2) fervency, hot temper, rashness, precipitancy; harara ya moyo, moyo wa harara, moyo harara, a passionate disposition, quick temper beat (FJ). Moto mkali (MMM). Flamming (WH). Yua siku yati kubadiliwa, Na mbingu sabaa zikageuwa, Ukatelelezwa mwezi na juwa, Hari na harara zisitusiye; Know about the day of the transformed earth (i.e., Day of Resurrection), And the seven heavens will change as well, The moon and sun will come to a standstill, Terrible heat and flames will never end for us (Ink-66).
hari [n. 9] Fierce heat; see MMM (TJH). Fervor; (2) heat in general, and esp. perspiration, sweat; hari ya jua the heat of the sun (FJ). Joto kali (MMM). Fire (WH). Ar. Yua siku yati kubadiliwa, Na mbingu sabaa zikageuwa, Ukatelelezwa mwezi na juwa, Hari na harara zisitusiye; Know about the day of the transformed earth (i.e., Day of Resurrection), And the seven heavens will change as well, The moon and sun will come to a standstill, Terrible heat and flames will never end for us (Ink-66).
hariri [n. 9] Silk (FJ). Kama uzi sindanoni, Upote pota hariri, Like thread through a needle, A single, soft thread (of) silk (ASN-S4).
hasanati [n. 9/10] Kindness, favour, goodness; see under hisani (FJ). Merit, virtue (WH). Aso hasanati wala thawabu, Hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu, Akatwekwa dhambi za maghusubu, Akambiwa haya mtukuliye; The one who has neither merit nor gifts from God, His jaw is bridled like a steed, And is loaded down with the sins of a violated one, And finally he is told, “Alright, carry them (i.e., sins) for him.” (Ink-71).
hasiri [v. tr.] Injure, damage, hurt, inflict loss on (FJ). Toboa litumbo la nduli kafiri, Atakaye tumbole lituhasiri; Puncture open the odious stomach of the accursed beast Who wants his stomach to destroy us (M&K-MU11).
hau [neg. cop.] It is not; ha- neg. + u- subj. prefix Cl. 3 (TJH). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).
hawa [n. 9/10] Cunning, wile, ruse, trick, stratagem (TJH). Evil inclinations (WH). Lust (LH). Longing, strong inclination, passionate desire, lust, passion (FJ). Kwimakwe kwisa dibaji yangu, Penda kuuonya na moyo wangu, Utetwe[2] na hawa ya ulimwengu, Hila za rajimi ziughuriye; So finally my preface has come to an end, I need (now) to admonish my heart as well, It is entangled by the lust of the world, The wiles of satan have beguiled it (Ink-10).
Hawiya [n. prop.] Seventh and worst of the Islamic seven hells; the hell of the hypocrites Ar: the abyss (WH). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).
hayani [intrj.] Alright, ok, etc; pl. of haya (TJH). See haya: Come on! Now then! Work away! Step out! Make haste!; used to call to action or effort (FJ). Ichamba hayani ndio safari, Yakomele tena ya kuusiri, Bidhaa ya ndeo na takaburi, Mutendele kwangu nishuhudiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-23).
hayawani [n. 9/10 an.] Animal; 2) beast; 3) brute, savage violent person; interjection used to politely attract attention or change a topic (TJH). Brute, beast; a person just like an animal, i.e. shameless, stupid, brute, idiot (FJ). Wasibaki hayawani, siku wakiingojeya, Not one animal should remain behind, waiting for it (the race) (ASN-KS1).
hela [intrj.] Look, look now; please, etc. (TJH). Used in the same way as ebu! and simile! Well then! Come then! Make way (FJ). Hela nipa tamkini, nituze yangu fuwadi, Please give me an answer, so I may calm my heart (ASN-Nd5). Moyo wangu nini huzundukani, Likughurielo hela ni nni, Hunelezi nami kalibaini, Liwapo na sura nisikataye; Oh my heart why don’t you wake up, Look now, what is it that misleads you, And why do you not explain it to me so that I as well may recognize it, If it is so obvious must I not reject it? (Ink-11).
hidaya [n. 9/10] Gift, present, usually of something rare, costly, or wonderful; see hedaya  (FJ). Niwapimiye kwa mani, Tuzo t’unu na hidaya, Let me weigh it for you with a scale, The reward is a rare, precious gift (ASN-S8).
himdi [n. 9/10] Praise (WH). See verb –hamdu ~ himidi praise (FJ). See –himidi louer, glorifier, remercier (Dieu) (Sx). See also hamdi, hamdu (Al hamdu lilahi), Ahmadi. Ar. Nataka himdi nitangulize, Alo mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza ila isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So he who is a pious scholar not ask, And then say, “don’t stop us from praising”, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other. (Ink-2).
hini [v. tr.] Refuse to give (to), withhold (from), keep back (from) (FJ).   Fanya hiana; 2. kataa kutoa kitu; nyima (KKS). Furaha ya mtu ni furaha gani Katika dunia inayomhini? What kind of happiness is a person’s happiness In a world which refuses to give him anything? (M&K-Mk3)
hino [dem. 9] This Bismiliahi naikadimu, Hali ya kutunga hino nudhumu, Na ar-Rahmani kiirasimu, Basi ar-Rahimi nyuma ikaye; I put first In the Name of God, While composing this poem, And writing The Merciful One, And so may the invocation “The Benign One” be the last in order (Ink-1).
hisi [n. 9] Low voice, murmer, whisper (WH). See –hisi feel, recognize, perceive, sense (FJ). Ar. Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).
hoyo [dem.] That one Cl. 1 (Am). See St. huyo. Namua na hoyo menidhilimu, Kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu, Mungu Jabari akahukumu, Amtendeleo amlipiye; Judge me as well as the one (who) persecuted me, With your judgement which is hard, God the All-Powerful will judge, What he did to another may He pay him (in kind) (Ink-69).
hua/ma- [n. 5/6 ~ 9/10] Dove (WH). Lesser Red-eyed Dove Streptopelia semitorquata (FJ). Tourterelle (Sx). Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wote kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).
hudumu [n. 9] Something that lasts, endures; see –dumisha for which FJ lists hudumu, endelea, siku zote as synonyms (TJH). Suu ulimwengu uutakao, Emale ni lipi upendeao, Hauna dawamu hudumu nao, Umilikishwapo wautendaye; This world that you want, What is its goodness that you love, It has nothing enduring or lasting, When you are made ruler how will you deal with it (Ink-31).
huruma [n. 9] Mercy, empathy, sympathy, compassion, etc. (TJH). Sympathy, consideration, fellow feeling, kindliness; (2) mercy, pity, compassion. Mwenye huruma, compassionate, sympathetic, kind person (FJ). Ndugu walioshibana, huruma huoneana, Shida kusaidiana, makosa sameheana, Mema kushauriana, mazuri kuoneshana, Brothers who are content with one another, Show mercy to each other, Helping each other (when) in trouble, and forgiving each others’ mistakes, They consul each other on proper behavior, and direct each other in good deeds (MASB-Ud4).
huruma [n. 9] Sympathy, consideration, fellow feeling, kindliness; (2) mercy, pity, compassion (FJ). Nikumbukiya mwenziyo, kwa huruma sikitika, Keep this for me in your thoughts, have pity on your Companion with sympathy (ASN-Nd-7). Ar.
Hutama [n. prop.] The third level of the Islamic hell (WH). Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).
hwitikwi [v. phrase] You are not answered < hu-itik-w-i; see –itika respond (FJ). Kwamba husadiki hwamba mbwongo, Enda nyumba zao uzinde shingo, Ukita hwitikwi ila ni mwango, Sauti ya mtu itindishiye; If you do not believe it and say it’s a lie, Go to their houses and look around (lit. turn neck), If you call out you get no answer but an echo, The human voice has been cut off (Ink-54).
i- [reflx. pro.] Reflexive pronoun: oneself, herself, ourselves, etc.; ND form; see St. Sw. -ji-
ibuka [v. i.] Emerge, show up suddenly, spring up; come to light (TJH). See -ibua: toa kwa ghafla kilicho majini ili kionekane; zua (KKS). Not in FJ. Mapambazuko yalipoibuka, Ndipo niliamka, When dawning light apppeared, it was then I awoke (M&K-NJL1).
idhika [v. i.] Feel uneasy, uncomfortable, perturbed (WH). See –udhika be vexed, annoyed, troubled (FJ). Ar. Moyo huyatasa kunabihika, Zituko zingapo huyaidhika, Hata masikizi ya kupulika, Naona kwa haya yafuatiye; Oh heart, you have not yet managed to heed the warning, How many horrors before you are troubled, Even when (you have) have ears for listening, I know from these following things (Ink-55).
idhini [n. 9/10] Assent, approbation, blessing (TJH). Sanction, permission, authorization, leave (FJ). Ar. Na mumtibu Muhibu, kwa idhini ya Mwenyezi; And are you curing my Sweetheart, with God Almighty’s blessing (MASB-Au4).
ikiza [v. cs.] Lay across, set in position (from side to side), spread over. Ikiza nyumba boriti place in position the beams in a house to carry a concrete roof, etc…. (FJ). Ngome ni ya matumbawe, na boriti kuikiza, The (ceilings of the) Fort are of coral rock with mangrove beams set in place (for rafters) (MY-Ng).
ikongeya ~ ikongea [infl. v.] If it increases. See St. ikiongeaMijai ikongeya, lembelembe buntwani, As the mass of water increases, at full tide against the breakwater (ASN-AD2).
ikuwa [v. BE reflx.] Be in control of oneself, have power over; See St. Sw. –jiweza, {< -ji- + kuwa ‘to be’} (TJH); T’iyati akapomoka, kwa mbiyo akaikuwa; He collapsed on the ground (but) as for the race he was in command (ASN-KS5)
ila ~ illa [n. 9/10] Defect, blemish, drawback, disgrace, stain, blot (FJ). Nataka himdi nitangulize, Alo mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza ila isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So that the pious scholar not ask, And say, don’t stop us from praising, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other (Ink-2).
ilaliya ~ ilalia [v. reflx. appl.] Be in a deep asleep, be fast asleep (TJH). See St. –jilalia; See St. –lala (FJ). Katikati akafika, sungura meilaliya, He arrived half way, (where) Hare was fast asleep (ASN-KS6)
ima [v. i.] Stand upright, be erect, etc. (TJH). See wima upright position (FJ). Mwime na mikono t‘ani, muombe lenyi muwanga, Stand-up straight with your arms facing towards heaven, and pray for enlightenment (something possessing light) (MY-KY2).
ima [v. i.] Come to a stop (TJH). Stand still, make an end of movement, halt (inanimate objects); see kwimakwe (WH). Kwimakwe kwisa kuzikamili, Himdi na sala kaziratili, Niyadhihirishe yangu makali, Ambayo moyoni nikusudiye; At the end of that, finally, bringing them (i.e., needs, see Ink-5) to perfection, And lay out praise and prayers in order, So I might set down clearly my writing, Those things in my heart that I intend (Ink-6).
ima kondo [v. phrase] Uprising of the the striving multitude: the Day of Judgment (WH). This is possibly an idiom; for want of a better understanding I am following WH in translating the verse in which this occurs. See –ima and kondo. Tafakari siku ya kwima kondo, Ya kuaridhiwa kula kitendo, Pindi madhulumu atapo ondo, Achamba ya Rabbi namua naye; Think about the day when multitudes will assemble (i.e., the Day of Judgement), The day when every deed will be unveiled, When the persecuted one kneels, Saying, “oh Lord judge between me and him.” (Ink-68).
imara [adv.] Strongly, steadfastly, firmly, resolutely (TJH). Hebu tujifunge vibwebwe imara, Let us resolutely prepare ourselves (M&K-WJLL1)
ina/maana [n. 5/6] Name; see St. jina/majina; also ina/maina (ND); note maina > maana; see –enye maana (TJH). Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).
ingiza [v. cs./inten.] Push, thrust, shove into, impel (TJH). Force into (LH). Faire ou laisser entrer, introduire, admettre, importer (Sx). Wa wapi ziuli wa Pate Yunga, Wenye nyuso ali zenye mianga, Wangiziye nyumba za tangatanga, Daula na ezi iwaushiye; Where are the gallent men of Pate Yunga, With exceptionally shiny faces, They have been thrust into sandy dwellings, Sovereignty and power have deserted them (Ink-60).
ini/ma- [n. 5/6] Liver; Sometimes fig. of inmost seat of feelings, like moyo, e.g. maneno yale yalimkata ini, those words cut him to the heart (FJ). Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67).
inkishafi [n. 9] The soul’s awakening; lit. it is revealed to itself, 5th verbal reflexive form of Ar. kashaf he uncovered, unveiled, disclosed (WH). Catechism of a soul (JVA). Revelation (RA). Revealed, disclosed (CHS). Self-examination (LH:89). Ar. T’atunga kifungo kwa kukisafi, Nikipange lulu kula tarafi, Na ina nikite Inkishafi, Kiza cha dhunubu kiniukiye; I will fix a clasp to finish it, So to set pearls on each end, And for a name let me call it the “Soul’s Awakening”, So that the darkness of sin leave me (Ink-8).
insi [n. 9/10 an.] Humanity, human being (TJH). Mankind, human race (WH). Hakuwa mtumi Suleimani, Maliki wa insi na ajinani, Ulimfutuye ukamukhini, Akiwa mwengine wamtendaye; Was not the apostle Solomon, A ruler of (both) humanity and the spirit world, How is it then that it (i.e., the world) banished and withheld power from him, If it were someone else what would it do to him (Ink-32).
ipatiya ~ ipatia [v. reflx. app.] Get for oneself. See St. –jipatia (TJH). Kobe nae amefika ushindi kaipatiya, But Kobe had already arrived and secured victory for himself (ASN-KS7)
ishara [n. 9/10] Sign, signal, omen, indication, warning, hint. 2. token. 3. a wonder, remarkable, thing, fact. etc. (FJ). Lakini msiba hauna ishara; But misfortune has no warning (M&K-MU1).
it‘upiya ~ it‘upia [v. reflx. app.] Rush oneself into action [TJH]. See St. –jichupia; –tupiaAkakimbiya haraka kwa kasi akit’upiya, And then off in a rush he ran, pushing himself at high speed (ASN-KS-7)
itika1 [v. reflx.] Ooze; lit. be in a state of putting itself forth; = -ji-tika, stative of -tia (WH). See –tika: be full, well rounded, soft; (2) wobble (fat flesh, rich porridge), bubble, blob (like water in a half empty bottle or jar) (K&K). Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu hawaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots come from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).
itika2 [v. st.] Be called, obey a summons, answer to a call, respond, acknowledge a salute, reply (FJ). Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye; There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded (Ink-62).
itikadi [v. reflx.] Perseverance, endurance, strength; conviction; ideology (TJH). Faith, belief in a religion or tradition or customs handed down from father to son; (2) perseverance, effort (FJ). Imani katika jambo la dini na jinsi ya mapokezi yake; wanavyofuata; mwafaka wa kufuata jambo fulani, hasa la dini; fikira za kuaminika; imani. 2. mawazo fulani ambayo ni misingi ya nadharia za mfumo wa kisiasa au za kiuchumi (KKS). Kwa itikadi ya njaa tuungane msibani, With endurance of hunger (that comes from hunger) let us join together in misfortune (M&K-ML2).
itiri [n. 9/10] Attar – a fragrent essential oil or perfume made from flowers (TJH). Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).
itish- [-ile perf.] Perfect stem; see itika; /k/ > /sh/___ile perf.; NB: /1/ > /y/ in ND. Respond, etc.; Perfect stem; see itika be called, obey a summons, answer to a call, respond, acknowledge a salute, reply; /k/ > /sh/___ile perf.; NB: /1/ > /y/ in ND. Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye; There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded (Ink-62). Moyo tafakari na Jahanamu, Wenye silisia na azmamu, Pindi ya dayani akiukimu, Unene labeka niitishiye; Oh my heart, think about the deepest hell-fire, About those chained and roped, When the Judge summons you (i.e., your heart) to prayer, You should say: “May I respond with ‘Yes, I am your servant.’” (Ink-72).
itubia [v. reflx.] Seek repentance for oneself (TJH). See St. -tubia e.g. –tubia kosa, repent of a fault; –tubia Mungu, repent before God (FJ). Reflexive –jitubie (WH). Kitamsi kiza cha ujuhali, Nuru na mianga itadhalali, Na ambao kwamba ataamali, Iwe toba yakwe aitubiye; May the darkness of benighted disbelief be erased, May light and radiance gleam, And whoever meditates (upon it), May it be his pardon (who) seeks forgiveness for himself (Ink-9).
itwa [v. ps.] Be called. Ngome wetwapo sikawe, enda hima na kufuza, When you are called to the Fort do not delay, go quickly and do so immediately (MY-Ng)
iyanga [v. reflx.] Grow, be of use, flourish (TJH). Not in FJ, Sx, nor KKS. -Fana, -kua (ASN). See St. -anga ‘shine’ > flourish, grow; See -nawiri shine, be healthy looking. Ikaiyanga mimeya, na kunawiri kondeni, Then the plants will flourish, and look lovely in the field (ASN-AD4)
iyoni [n. 9/10] Evening; See St. jioni. La kuwaa hukutweya, kukakuweya iyoni, What shines (lit. of to shine, viz. the sun) will always set on you, and so there will be an evening for you (ASN-AD3).
iyu [n. 5] Up, on, etc. (TJH). See St. juu (FJ). Kwa maao mema ya kukhitari, Iyu la zitanda za majodori, Na mito kuwili ya akhadhari, Kwa kazi ya pote wanakishiye; On fine well-chosen couches, On beds of padded cushions, With green pillows at both ends, Decorated with embroidered work (Ink-42).
iyu [adv.] Above, high up, etc. (TJH). See St. juu. Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).
jaha [n. 9/10] Honor, glory, prosperity (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of shell and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37).
Jahanamu [n. prop.] The first and and deepest of the seven hells of Islamic belief (WH). Moyo tafakari na Jahanamu, Wenye silisia na azmamu, Pindi ya dayani akiukimu, Unene labeka niitishiye; Oh my heart, think about the deepest hell-fire, About those chained and roped, When the Judge summons you (i.e., your heart) to prayer, You should say: “May I respond with ‘Yes, I am your servant.’” (Ink-72).
Jahimu The sixth of the seven Islamic hells (WH). Ar. Moyo taadabu sipeketeke, Ata ya jauri haki ushike, Wendo wachokoka nawe wokoke, Moto wa jahimu usikutwaye; Oh heart, behave, don’t be fooled by your arrogance, Stop your oppression hold on to justice, If your friends are saved then you too ought to be saved, So hell fire does not carry you off (Ink-65).
jama [n. 9/10 an.] See jamaa: number of persons gathered or collected together, family, society, company, assembly, gathering, meeting (FJ). Chap, guy, bloke (K&K). Tazama, jama, janga limetuponza; Look, folks, a calamity has put us in danger (M&K-MU8).
jamali [adj.] Exquisite (KA). Beautiful (TJH). See jamala courtesy, good manners, elegance, beauty, grace, gracious (kind, obliging) behavior, affability (FJ). Jamali wa umbo, Na wajihi mwema, (You sg have) a beautiful figure, With a pleasant countenance (KA-LL).
jamu [adj.] Many (WH). Not in FJ. Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo, Na nyuma na mbele ili miyongo, Wakaapo pote ili zitengo, Asikari jamu wawatandiye; While swaying their supple limbs and necks to and fro, Behind and in front were lines of people, Wherever they stayed were noble houses, Many guards spread around them (Ink-36).
janga [n. 5] Difficulty, trouble, annoyance, danger, calamity (FJ). Tazama, jama, janga limetuponza; Look, folks, a calamity has put us in danger (M&K-MU8).
jauri [n. 9/10] Arrogance, false pride, tyranny, obstreperousness (WH). Ar. See jeuri violence, outrage, brutality, assault, injustice, oppression (FJ). Moyo taadabu sipeketeke, Ata ya jauri haki ushike, Wendo wachokoka nawe wokoke, Moto wa jahimu usikutwaye; Oh heart, behave, don’t be fooled by your arrogance, Stop your oppression hold on to justice, If your friends are saved then you too ought to be saved, So hell fire does not carry you off (Ink-65).
jawa [v. ps.] Be filled, be full, esp. of what are not natural, suitable, usual contents (FJ). Waliokuwa wamejawa ghadhabu, Those who were filled with rage (M&K-MU9).
ji- [reflx. pro.] Reflexive pronoun: oneself, herself, ourselves, etc. See FJ following for detailed entry. (TJH) Reflexive, in verbs (often strengthened by a nafsi following) and verbal nouns (e.g. jisifu, majisifu, jivuna, majivuno, etc.), and either (a) simple, jiua, commit suicide, jificha, hide oneself, jihadhari, guard oneself, jiweka vema, behave oneself, or (b) with a range of meaning both wide and delicately shaded, mostly centering on such ideas as independence, willfulness, interested action, personal aims, and objects, or gain, carelessness, indifference, random, or chance action, etc., and capable of conveying alike, a gross insult, or a subtle innuendo. A few examples are: jienda, of easy, automatic, perpetual motion. Jiendea, take a walk (for pleasure), run amuck (like a madman). Jijia, come on one’s own concerns (independently), jog along. Jikohoza, give a significant cough. Jigonjweza, feign sickness, sham. Jiona, be conceited. Jikalia, lead a life of ease and idleness. Jipitia, go about one’s own devices. Kizee ajipitie impendezavyo, the old lady can go about her business as she likes! (FJ). For citations see reflexive verbs, marked as [v. reflx.].
jifa [n. 5/6] Something corrupt, something dead and decaying (TJH). Corpse; dead or putrified matter (WH). See –fa die; mafa place of burial, cemetery (FJ). Dunia ni jifa siikaribu, Haipendi mtu ila kilabu, I hali gani ewe labibu, Kuwania na mbwa hutukizwaye; The world is putrifying death stay away from it, It favors no one except dogs, What is it that you of sound judgment, That you be so reviled to fight over it with dogs (Ink-19).
jifia [v. reflx.] Die miserably, perish, disappear, surrender to death, be utterly destroyed, kill oneself (K&K). Amani unajifia, unatuacha wakiwa; Oh Peace, you are dying, you are leaving us bereaved (MASB-Au1).
jifunga kibwebwe [v. phrase] Gird oneself for work, get oneself ready for work (TJH). Hebu tujifunge vibwebwe imara, Let us prepare ourselves for those kisses (M&K-WJLL2).
jilabisi [v. reflx.] Dress oneself, clothe yourself (TJH). Jilabisi salubeti (?) nami nipe kisibau, Dress yourself with determination (?) as for me give me a vest (M&K-ML7). Ar.
jisadi ~ jasadi [n. 9/10] Body, flesh of animates (WH). Ar. Not in FJ. Wasiriye wote kula kwa dudi, Na kuwatafuna zao jisadi, Na mtwa na tungu huwafisidi, Majoka na nge wawatatiye; They have all become food for insects, That chewed on their bodies, And termites and ants corrupted them, Fearsome snakes and vipers wound about them (Ink-47).
jito/mato [n. 5/6] Eye. See St. jicho/macho (FJ). Nyonda zangu waniliza, kunepukiya matoni, My desire, you make me cry, avoiding (to look) into my eyes (ASN-Nd4).
jitoa [v. reflx.] Give oneself up, surrender oneself (TJH). Give up, resign, yield, e.g. adui wakajitoa, the enemy surrendered (FJ). Wengine wakajitoa kwa msiba; Some surrendered to the disaster (M&K-MU4).
jitoma [v. reflx.] Thrust oneself in, burst in (FJ); take off in a burst of energy, bolt off in a hurry (TJH). Thrust in, usu. with the Rf. kujitoma, to thrust oneself in, burst in (FJ). Ingia ghafula au kwa nguvu (KKS). Zimwi … lilifunga domo, mbyoni kujitoma; The creature … closed its terrible mouth and bolted off in a run! (M&K-MU13).
jiza [n. 9/10] Dark, darkness, gloom (TJH). See St. giza (given as an alternate to giza by Sx) Na maninga kodoleya, usipumbae jizani Focus your eyes, don’t be confused in the dark (ASN-AD3).
jizajiza [n. 9] Gloomy darkness, extreme darkness (TJH). See St. Sw. kiza and giza (FJ). Mimi nakwambia nipulikiza, Watiziwe nyumba za jizajiza, Zisizo muanga na muwangaza, Ndio mashukio walishukiye, I tell you listen to me, They have been forced down into dark gloomy houses, That have neither light nor brightness, These indeed are the depths they had descended into (Ink-58).
jodori/ma- [n. 5/6] Mattress, padded cushion (WH). Not in FJ or Sx, but see godoro mattress (Hindi) (FJ). Matelas, sommier. Prov. Mvita : Uzuri wa godoro., c’est la beauté de la couverture d’un matelas (uzuri wa nde) tu, kwa ndani mna pamba). – Hind. GÛDRî (Konkani kûdri), courte-pointe, couvre-pied; par ext. Matelas (Sx). Kwa maao mema ya kukhitari, Iyu la zitanda za majodori, Na mito kuwili ya akhadhari, Kwa kazi ya pote wanakishiye; On fine well-chosen couches, On beds of padded cushions, With green pillows at both ends, Decorated with embroidered work (Ink-42).
joka/ma- [n. 5/6 aug/perj.] Large snakes, ugly fearsome snakes (TJH). see nyoka snake (FJ). Wasiriye wote kula kwa dudi, Na kuwatafuna zao jisadi, Na mtwa na tungu huwafisidi, Manyoka na nge wawatatiye; They have all become food for insects, That chewed on their bodies, And termites and ants corrupted them, Fearsome snakes and vipers wound about them (Ink-47).
joka/ma- [n. 5/6 aug./perj.] Large snake, vile fearsome snake, ugly snake, ferocious snake (TJH). See nyoka (FJ). Moto wa sairi ufahamuto, Ni moto mkali katika nyoto, Ni mngi wa moshi na mitokoto, Majoka na pili waikaliye; Understand totally the fire of the fourth level of hell, It’s the fiercest of all fires, There is much smoke and bubbling, Vile snakes and adders live in it (Ink-75).
juliana hali [v. rcp.] Be concerned about each other’s welfare, situation, circumstances, etc. (TJH). Visiting each other (MASB). Ask one another how each one is getting along (Brill). Udugu ni kushibana, kwa hali kujuliana, Fraternity is being content with one another, by showing concern for each other (MASB-Ud3).
juludi [n. 9/10] Skin, skins (WH). Not in FJ. Ar. Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh shriveled (Ink-48).
k’ek’etuka [v. i.] Be cracked open (TJH). Funguka (INS). See -keketacut as with something blunt or anything hard or tough, or with a saw-like motion (FJ). See –fungukabe unfastened, opened, untied, be liberated; released; disconnected; shikiza mlango usifunguke zaidi, hold the door firmly, it must not open further;kidonda kimefunguka tena, the wound opened again;mimba yake imefunguka, her womb opened, she is about to give birth (K&K). Dondole huk’ek’etuka, Ikatoka kiotoni, (With) its shell cracked open, it emerges from its cradle (ASN-S6).
k’ongole [n. 9/10] Congratulations. See hongera, pongezi (FJ). K’ongole ndako mwendani kwa bidii ulotiya, Congratulations are yours, Oh friend, for the effort you put in to it (ASN-KS10)
kaa [n. 9/10] Sandalwood (WH). Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).
kaa nyuma [v. phrase] Sit behind, stay behind, be the last in order. See the extensive entries for –kaa and nyuma in FJ (TJH). Bismiliahi naikadimu, Hali ya kutunga hino nudhumu, Na ar-Rahmani kiirasimu, Basi ar-Rahimi nyuma ikaye; I put first In the Name of God, While composing this poem, And writing The Merciful One, And so may the invocation “The Benign One” be the last in order (Ink-1).
kadimu [v. tr.] Put first, advance, prefix (WH). Bismiliahi naikadimu, Hali ya kutunga hino nudhumu, Na ar-Rahmani kiirasimu, Basi ar-Rahimi nyuma ikaye; I put first In the Name of God, While composing this poem, And writing The Merciful One, And so may the invocation “The Benign One” be the last in order (Ink-1). Ar.
kae [n. 9/10] Olden times, long ago (TJH). See St. kaleWengi walotanguliya, hapo kae na zamani, Many who came before (you), then so long ago (ASN-AD6).
kafiri/ma- [n. 5/6] Accursed, cursed, abominable, god-awful (TJH). One who is not of the Muhammadan religion, an infidel, an unbeliever, an atheist, a pagan, an apostate (FJ). Toboa litumbo la nduli kafiri; Tear open the odious stomach of the accursed beast (M&K-MU11). NB: In this citation the sense of “accursed”, etc. derives from the religious denotation of the word.
kalifu [adj.] Violent, fierce (TJH). See –kalifu v. discomfort, cause annoyance to, impose a difficult matter upon one, trouble, i.e. usijikalifu kwenda, don’t force yourself to go, i.e. don’t trouble yourself (FJ). Faire violence, molester (Sx). Derived from kali (CHS). See kali adj. sharp, having a sharp edge, cutting, (2) sharp to the taste, acid, sour, bitter, (3) sharp in temper, severe, stern, cross, cruel, fierce, (4) keen, intense, vehement, brave, watu wakali, warlike, savage people (FJ). Kima ina ila ilio mbovu, Ilikithiriye ungi welevu, I kalifu mno kuta kiwavu, Kupa watu ngeya ikithiriye; Finally it has the worst evil, It grows ever larger with an abundance of cunning, It is exceedingly violent striking at the heart, Inflicting on people death blows, it has exceeded all bounds (Ink-20).
kamaye [adv.] Like him; see kama yake or kama yeye (TJH). Ewe moyo enda sijida yake, Hela tafadhali unabihike, Shetani Rajimi asikuteke, Kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye; Oh, heart, bow down in prayer to Him, Hela please, be warned, So that Satin the Stoned One not laugh at you, And tomorrow see that you are like him (Ink-30).
kamili [v. tr.] Complete, finish, make perfect, also be complete, be finished (FJ). Kwimakwe kwisa kuzikamili, Himdi na sala kaziratili, Niyadhihirishe yangu makali, Ambayo moyoni nikusudiye; At the end of that, finally, bringing them (i.e., needs, see Ink-5) to perfection, And lay out praise and prayers in order, So I might set down clearly my writing, Those things in my heart that I intend (Ink-6).
kamilika [v. st.] Be in a perfect condition, be complete, be finished, etc. (TJH). Lulu ikikamilika, Yuu la mti shazani; Once the pearl has reached perfection, On the tree in its shell (ASN-S6).
kandi [n. 9/10] Treasure, hoard; also see chandi ‘silver’ above (TJH).   See St. kanzi (FJ). Aipatao ni kandi, Kashani akiiweka; It is a treasure, (For) the one who gets it, Keeping it in a chest (ASN-S7).
kanwa/ma- [n. 5/6] Mouth (TJH). Sometimes heard for kinywa: the mouth (as organ of drinking) of man, animals, insects, etc. (FJ). Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu hawaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots come from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).
kasha/ma- [n. 5/6] Chest, cupboard, packing case box (FJ). Aipatao ni kandi, Kashani akiiweka; It is a treasure, (For) the one who gets it, Keeping it in a chest (ASN-S7).
katu [adv.] Not at all, never (WH). Kabisa (CHS). Ar. Ni kama kisima kisicho ombe, Chenye mtapaa mwana wa ng’ombe, Endao kwegema humta pembe, Asipate katu kunwa maiye; It (the world) is like a deep well without a protecting wall, Where lies a head-butting young bull, The person who goes and gets too close, it gores, He never succeeds in drinking water from it (lit. its water) (Ink-14).
kawa [v. i] Be delayed, tarry, linger, delay, loiter, take a long time, be behind time, be late (FJ). See -kawia (FJ). Ngome wetwapo sikawe, enda hima na kufuza, When you are called to the Fort do not delay, go quickly and do so immediately (MY-Ng)
kawa [v. i.] Tarry, linger, delay, loiter, take a long time, be behind time, be late (TJH). Faida gani kukawa: njaa haina lakini, What is the profit in delaying: hunger has no “but” (i.e. choice) (M&K-ML-3).
kaya [v. i.] Live, inhabit (TJH). See –kaa (FJ). Bismiliahi naikadimu, Hali ya kutunga hino nudhumu, Na ar-Rahmani kiirasimu, Basi ar-Rahimi nyuma ikaye; I put first In the Name of God, While composing this poem, And writing The Merciful One, And so may the invocation “The Benign One” be the last in order (Ink-1).
kele [-ile perf.] Perfect stem; see –kaa be, become, live, dwell (TJH). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of shell and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37).
kele [n. 9/10] Outcry, noise of talk and laughter (WH). See St. kelele (FJ). Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).
kengeukia [v. appl.] Be side-tracked, rerouted, redirected, deflected by (TJH). Be diverted from a path or purpose, be wavering, faltering, be converted (WH). See -kengeua turn aside, i.e. leave the straight road and take a bad one, turn from the right way, backslide (FJ). See –kengeua Détourner pour éviter, -kengeuka Se détourner pour évitar (Sx). Hiki ewe moyo kievu changu, Hukengeukii nusuha yangu, Huza akherayo kwa ulimwengu, Ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-27).
kete [n. 9] Silence, solitude (WH). Not in FJ or Sx]. Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, Ungi wa matuka na kutukutu, Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu, Kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye; The buildings’ courtyards became a forest, A profusion of bush and thick undergrowth, The outside doors terrified anyone (who saw them), For solitude and gloom had enshrouded them (Ink-53).
khasaisi [n. 9/10] Vileness, vices (WH). Not in FJ. Khasaisi zote na makatayo, Shida na shakawa likupeteyo, Ni dunia sii uipendayo, Yenye dhuli nyingi na makataye; All your vices and deprivation, Difficulties and trouble that have happened to you, Because of (lit., by) this world which you love, With its many miseries and its hardships (Ink-18).
khasara [n. 9/10] See hasara loss, damage, injury (FJ). Suu ulimwengu bahari tesi, Una matumbawe na mangi masi, Aurakibuo juwa ni mwasi, Kwa kula khasara ukhasiriye; This world is a stormy sea, With coral reefs and many shell-encrusted shoals, The one who rides it out (i.e., the world), knows that it is a maverick, It has brought harm with every disaster (Ink-13).
khasiria [v. appl.] Cause a loss to, harm someone for, bring harm to (TJH). See –hasiria (FJ). Suu ulimwengu bahari tesi, Una matumbawe na mangi masi, Aurakibuo juwa ni mwasi, Kwa kula khasara ukhasiriye; This world is a stormy sea, With coral reefs and many shell-encrusted shoals, The one who rides it out (i.e., the world), knows that it is a maverick, It has brought harm with every disaster (Ink-13).
khatima [adv.] Finally, ultimately, at last, etc. (TJH). See hatima & hatimaye (FJ). Sasa t’akhitimu t’atia tama, Atakofuata na kuyandama, T’apata khatima na mwiso mwema, Rabbi twakuomba tujaaliye; Now I will finish I’ll put in the conclusion, He who will follow and go along with it, He will finally have a good ending, Oh Lord we pray that you grant us this (Ink-78).
khatuwa ~ khatua [n. 9/10] Step, pace (TJH). See St. hatua (FJ). Dharau zikamshika kobe havuti khatuwa, Scorn took hold of him, Tortoise isn’t taking any steps (ASN-KS5)
khini [v. tr.] Betray, unrightfully withhold a thing (WH). Ar. Hakuwa mtumi Suleimani, Maliki wa insi na ajinani, Ulimfutuye ukamukhini, Akiwa mwengine wamtendaye; Was not the apostle Solomon, A ruler of (both) humanity and the spirit world, How is it then that it (i.e., the world) banished and withheld power from him, If it were someone else what would it do to him (Ink-32).
khitari [v. tr.] Figure out, making choices (TJH). Discriminate (LH). See St. hitari like hiari, choose, select, prefer (FJ). Moyo wangu nini huitabiri, Twambe u mwelevu wa kukhitari, Huyui dunia ina ghururi, Ndia za tatasi huzandamaye; Oh my heart why not foretell the future for me. Let’s say you are clever in figuring things out, Don’t you know that the world is but vanity; How do you travel along on its jumbled maze? (Ink-12).
khitari ~ hitari [v. t.] Choose, select (TJH). See –hitari préférer, choiser (Sx). Like hiari, choose, select, prefer (FJ). Hiki ewe moyo kievu changu, Hukengeukii nusuha yangu, Huza akherayo kwa ulimwengu, Ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-27).
khitimu [n. tr.] Bring to an end (WH). See –hitimu (FJ). Ar. Sasa t’akhitimu t’atia tama, Atakofuata na kuyandama, T’apata khatima na mwiso mwema, Rabbi twakuomba tujaaliye; Now I will finish I’ll put in the conclusion, He who will follow and go along with it, He will finally have a good ending, Oh Lord we pray that you grant us this (Ink-78).
khizini [v. tr.] Lay up treasure, wealth (WH). Ar. Uwene wangapi watu wakwasi, Walo wakiwaa kama shamsi, Wa muluku zana za adharusi, Dhahabu na fedha wakhiziniye; How many rich people have you seen, Who were blazing brightly like the sun, Who control the weapons of war, Who have layed up gold and silver (Ink-34).
khudama [n. 9/10 an.] Slaves, servants, work people of a household (WH). Ar. Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).
kiali/zi- [n. 7/8 dim.] Flame; Dim of mwali flame, tongue of fire (FJ). Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73).
kibafute [n. 7] Guessing game (TJH). Children’s game of guessing what is hidden in the hand (FJ). Kibafute natatiya, tatuwani watatuzi; I propose a guessing game, Figure it out you solvers (ASN-S2)
kibwebwe/vi- n. 7/8 Broad strip of calico, wound tightly round the waist, esp. by women, for support during work, sometimes called kibobwe (FJ). Nguo inayozungushwa na kukazwa kiunoni hasa na wanawake: Kujifunga kibwebwe (nh) kufanya kazi kwa bidii. Kijiandaa vizuri, tighten one’s belt (KKS). Hebu tujifunge vibwebwe imara, Let us prepare ourselves for those kisses (M&K-WJLL2).
kidege/vi- [n. 7/8 dim.] Little bird (TJH). Anapotembea anasikiliza; Videge vya anga vinavyotumbwiza; While he walks along he’s listening; As the birds are singing sweetly in the sky (M&K-Mk2).
kidiwa/zi- [n. 7/8] Little, small doves; diminutive; see njiwa dove (TJH). Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wote kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).
kifuvu-mayondi/zi- [n.7/8] Tortoise. Tortue de terre, litt. “la coque (carapace) béate” (Am) — Syn DS kobe, G. fududu. (Sx). Kifuvu mayondi teka salama kusikiliya, Tortoise, laugh, you have safely arrived (ASN KS8)
kifuwa/zi- [n. 7/8] Breast, bosom, chest, usu. of man only; see kifua (FJ). Huketi nikikuwaza, na matozi kifuwani, I sit here thinking of you with tears on my breast (ASN-Nd4).
kigano/vi- [n. 7/8] Tale, story (dim.) (TJH). See ngano: story, a tale, narrative, fable (FJ). Nitakusimulia kigano cha busu na kumbato, I will tell you a tale of a kiss and embrace (M&K-WJLL4).
kiitikio/vi- [n. 7/8] Refrain (poetry), reply (TJH). See itikio/ma- a reply to, refrain, chorus, an acceptance, consent; also –ita and -itika (FJ). Nitaweka kiitikio cha wimbo mwororo, I will set (in verse) a refrain of a tender song (M&K-WJLL4).
kijamba/zi- [n. 7/8 dim.] Small reef. See St. mwamba reef. Mishuu henenda ngeya,yakifunda zijambani, Breakers come suddenly as they will, pounding down on the reefs (ASN-AD2).
kijiwe/zi- [n. 7/8 dim.] Very small stone, pebble; see jiwe/mawe ‘stone’ (TJH). P’epo husukuma pwani, Nyunyu ni kamazijiwe; The wind pushes it to the coast, the drizzle is like little pebbles (ASN-S3).
kijopo/vi- [n. 7/8] Small group (TJH). Not in FJ or Sx. Huvuta kila mwenendi, Kijopo hukusanyika; It attracts every passerby, They gather in small groups (ASN-S7).
kijuni/zi- [n. 7/8] Small birds; diminutive of nyuni bird < ki-j-uni; see kijiko spoon, kijiji village, etc. (TJH). Sina mbawa nikaruka, k’awafuwata zijuni, I have no wings so that I might fly, and follow the little birds (ASN-Nd3).
kikaka [adv.] Firmly, in a hurry (TJH). Kithabiti, kwa haraka (KKahigi). Hastiness, bustle, hurry, in a hurry Cl. 7/8 n. (FJ). Mtima ukajifunda kikaka, kwenye fundo la chuma, My heart tied itself firmly into an iron knot (M&K-NJL2).
kiku/zi- [n. 7/8 an.] Wild pigeon, wood pigeon (WH). Dove (CHS). Wana wa zipungu wapende zango, Na wana wa ndiwa humia shingo, Na kupija mbawa matongotongo, Ziku na zitati waliwashiye; Young vultures have perched on clothes-rack pegs, And the squab of doves bob their heads (lit., necks) to and fro, And flutter their wings ceaselessly, (Where) wood-pigeons and swallows have built their nests (Ink-51).
kilabu [n. 9/10] Dog. Ar. Infidel (LH). Dunia ni jifa siikaribu, Haipendi mtu ila kilabu, I hali gani ewe labibu, Kuwania na mbwa hutukizwaye; The world is putrifying death stay away from it, It favors no one except dogs, What is it that you of sound judgment, That you be so reviled to fight over it with dogs (Ink-19).
kima [adv.] See kimakwe. Kima ina ila ilio mbovu, Ilikithiriye ungi welevu, I kalifu mno kuta kiwavu, Kupa watu ngeya ikithiriye; Finally it has the worst evil, It grows ever larger with an abundance of cunning, It is exceedingly violent striking at the heart, Inflicting on people death blows, it has exceeded all bounds (Ink-20).
kimbilia Run to (FJ). Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67).
kimburu/vi- [n. 7/8] Feral cat (TJH). Semi-wild cat (FJ). Aina ya mnyama kama paka anayeishi porini na agh. hukamatakamata vifaranga vya kuku (KKS). Kimburu akiwaona vifaranga, Hujia daima kuwazongazonga; When the feral cat sees chicks, It always comes to creep up and attack them (M&K-MU16).
kimiya/vi- [n. 7/8] Circular casting net—of a light fine twine. Also used to describe netting, network, lace, cambric, etc… (FJ) Nyavu (INS). See St. kimia/vi-. Nauza changukimiya, kichatiya chashikani;, I pose a question about my net, if I cast it what will it catch? (ASN-S1).
kimu [v. tr.] Support, provide sustenance (TJH). Pa mtu chakula, nguo n.k. kwa kawaida; pa mtu mahitaji ya maisha; lea, tunza, weka (KKS). Ili kujikimu kupata malisho; In order to support himself to get his sustenance (M&K-Mk1).
kimu [v. tr.] Proclaim, announce, pronounce a message, ritual, etc.) (WH). Begin prayers in a mosque (FJ). Moyo tafakari na Jahanamu, Wenye silisia na azmamu, Pindi ya dayani akiukimu, Unene labeka niitishiye; Oh my heart, think about the deepest hell-fire, About those chained and roped, When the Judge summons you (i.e., your heart) to prayer, You should say: “May I respond with ‘Yes, I am your servant.’” (Ink-72).
Kinana [n. prop.] The Banu Kinana are the clan or kin of Kinan bin Khuzaima of the tribe of the Quraisha; Quraisha was the 12th great-grandfather of Mohammed (WH). Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).
kinga [n. 9/10] Shield, defense, protection; see FJ (TJH). Rabbi mrahamu mwenye kutunga, Na mezokhitimu mja malenga, Sala na salamu ni zao kinga, Rabbi takabali ziwashukiye; Oh Lord grant eternal life to the poet, And to the humble bard who finished them (i.e., verses), Prayers and peace are their shield, Oh Lord grant that they (i.e. prayers and peace) descend upon them. (Ink-79).
kioto/vi- [n. 7/8] Nest, roost; cradle. Dondole huk’ek’etuka, Ikatokakiotoni; (With) its shell cracked open, it emerges from its cradle (ASN-S6).
kipungu/zi- [n. 7/8] Vulture (WH). Wana wa zipungu wapende zango, Na wana wa ndiwa humia shingo, Na kupija mbawa matongotongo, Ziku na zitati waliwashiye; Young vultures have perched on clothes-rack pegs, And the squab of doves bob their heads (lit., necks) to and fro, And flutter their wings ceaselessly, (Where) wood-pigeons and swallows have built their nests (Ink-51).
kiradi/vi- [n. 9/10] Baboon, monkey (WH). Singe (Sx). Ar. Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh have shriveled (Ink-48).
kishada [n. 7/8] Kite (ASN & FJ). Tiara kite (ASN). FJ does not have a entry, but in examples under other entries giveskishada as kite. Rajai naregezeya, Kishada changu bwagani; I am setting it free, My kite into the sky above (ASN-S8).
kisibau/vi- [n. 7/8] Waistcoat worn over a kanzu, vest (TJH). For additional detail see FJ. Jilabisi salubeti (?) nami nipe kisibau, Dress yourself with determination (?) as for me give me a vest (M&K-ML7).
kisiji/zi- [n. 7/8] Small seed-eating birds of the Spermestes genus, e.g. mannikins; see Sx gloss following (TJH). Bird species (WH). Sorte de spermeste (Sx). Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani, Sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni, Bumu hukoroma kati nyumbani, Zisiji na koti waikaliye; In the home’s porcelain-ware niches, Now live the fledglings of birds, Owls hoot in the house, Mannikins and weaverbirds settle themselves inside (Ink-50).
kitala/zi- [n. 7/8] Daily routine, routine, regimen, habit (TJH). Deliberation (LH). Procédure, débat dans une assemblée délibérante (mtaguso); cour de justice, ordinairement un hangar réservé à cet effet (Sx). Used in Harries’ version of Al-Inkishafi
kitalale/zi- [n. 7/8] Out in the open, open, plain, visible (TJH). See kitelele (Mv. = Am. kitalale). A la belle ètoile, sans autre abri que le ciel, sans abri et sans défense; en plein air, en plein vent….. (Sx). Haupo kitalaleni, Haupati muwangaza; It is not out in the open, It receives no light (ASN-5).
kitalu/vi-  [n. 7/8]  Garden, cultivated plot (TJH). A fence or wall either of stone or wood surrounding a yard, courtyard, or garden; (2) a walled or fenced-in enclosure, courtyard, or garden (FJ). Eneo dogo la ardhi linalopandwa mimea ya chakula; bustani. Pia kitaru (KKS). Mpendwa njoo karibu, tujitome kitaluni, Lover, come close, let’s plunge ourselves into the garden (M&K-ML1).
kitana Misery, suffering, etc.; lance blow (TJH). Hard battle, one’s match in a fight (WH). See tana ~ taana coup de lance; -wana kwa dharuba na tana guerroyer à coups (de sabre) et de lance; ifumo kuichia tana brander une lance de maniere à la faire miroiter (Sx). Sumbuko (CHS). See sumbuko pain, misery, suffering, toil, bother (K&K). Ar. Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).
kitanda/zi- [n. 7/8] Bed. Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).
kitati/zi- [n. 7/8 an.] Swallow (WH not sure of this gloss). Very small bird (CHS). Wana wa zipungu wapende zango, Na wana wa ndiwa humia shingo, Na kupija mbawa matongotongo, Ziku na zitati waliwashiye; Young vultures have perched on clothes-rack pegs, And the squab of doves bob their heads (lit., necks) to and fro, And flutter their wings ceaselessly, (Where) wood-pigeons and swallows have built their nests (Ink-51).
kitaya/vi- [n. 7/8] Jaw, jaw bone; see taya jaw, jaw-bone. Tia hatamu tayani mwa punda, put the bridle on the donkey’s jaw (FJ). Aso hasanati wala thawabu, Hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu, Akatwekwa dhambi za maghusubu, Akambiwa haya mtukuliye; The one who has neither merit nor gifts from God, His jaw is bridled like a steed, And is loaded down with the sins of a violated one, And finally he is told, “Alright, carry them (i.e., sins) for him.” (Ink-71).
kite [n. 7] Suffering, agony, strong emotion (TJH). Cries of pain (MHA). Passion, souffrance intime. -lia kwa kite pleurer avec passion, amèrement (Sx). K’ongowea yaugua kwa kite na uuguzi, Kongowea is sick from suffering and disease (MY-KY1).
kitefute/zi- [n. 7/8] Cheek (WH). Cheekbone (FJ). La partie de la joue qui recouvre les pommettes; par ext. la pommette (Sx). Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu hawaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots come from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).
kitengo/zi- [n. 7/8] Chosen, selected thing or place; seat of honor; noble house; see –tenga choose, select (WH). Seat of honor (LH, JVA). Not in FJ. Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo, Na nyuma na mbele ili miyongo, Wakaapo pote ili zitengo, Asikari jamu wawatandiye; While swaying their supple limbs and necks to and fro, Behind and in front were lines of people, Wherever they stayed were noble houses, Many guards spread around them (Ink-36).
kithiri [v. i.] Get to be more, do in addition, cause to be more, increase, grow (FJ). Wengine tukakithiri kushangaa; As for the rest of us, we all the more were astonished (M&K-MU7).
kithiria [v. appl.] Exceed bounds, be excessive, limitless (TJH). See –kithiri get to be more, do in addition, cause to be more, increase, grow (FJ). Be a multitude, consist of large numbers; multiply, increase; get (cause) to be more, do in addition (K&K). Abound (LH). Kima ina ila ilio mbovu, Ilikithiriye ungi welevu, I kalifu mno kuta kiwavu, Kupa watu ngeya ikithiriye; Finally it has the worst evil, It grows ever larger with an abundance of cunning, It is exceedingly violent striking at the heart, Inflicting on people death blows, it has exceeded all bounds (Ink-20).
kito/vi- [n. 7/8] Precious stone, gem, jewel (FJ). N.B. The Amu variant has a dental /t/. Yafumapo mkwambani,Kitoche humemetuka; When the tide goes out from the debris (on the beach), its gem glitters (ASN-6).
kitoche [contr.] Its gem; contraction of kito chake; see kito/vi- ‘gem’ for citation (TJH).
kituko/zi- [n. 7/8] Feeling (object, cause, &c.) of fear, a terror, horror, fright, alarm, esp. of things caused by witchcraft (FJ). Zituko zingapo hutanabahi, Ukanabihika hukunabihi, Utaata lini ya usafihi, Nambia ukomo niusikiye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-26).
kituko/zi- [n. 7/8] Feeling (object, cause, &c.) of fear, a terror, horror, fright, alarm, esp. of things caused by witchcraft (TJH). Moyo huyatasa kunabihika, Zituko zingapo huyaidhika, Hata masikizi ya kupulika, Naona kwa haya yafuatiye; Oh heart, you have not yet managed to heed the warning, How many horrors before you are troubled, Even when (you have) have ears for listening, I know from these following things (Ink-55).
kitukuta/zi- ~ kituguta [n. 7/8] Cheekbone; see kitefute (FJ). Zitukuta izao hutawanyika, Usaha na damu hawaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hushuka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheekbones are scatttered, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots dribble down from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46b).
kitunguwe/zi- [n. 7/8 an.] Hare (TJH). Lièvre (Am, Sx). See kitungule (Va. Mv), sungura (DS), mbuga (Mr) (Sx). Kitunguwe akifika, katikati kapumuwa, Upon reaching half way, Hare took a rest (ASN-KS5)
kituzo/zi- [n. 7/8] Somehing that soothes, balm; pleasing object > -tuza > tua soothe, quieten (WH). See –tulia, -tuliza (FJ). Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wote kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).
kiuli/zi- [n. 7/8an] Brave ones, courageous man (WH). Not in FJ, Sx. Wa wapi ziuli wa Pate Yunga, Wenye nyuso ali zenye mianga, Wangiziye nyumba za tangatanga, Daula na ezi iwaushiye; Where are the gallent men of Pate Yunga, With exceptionally shiny faces, They have been thrust into sandy dwellings, Sovereignty and power have deserted them (Ink-60).
kiunda/zi- [n. 7/8] Grave board laid over a corpse in the grave (WH). See kiunza board laid to protect a corpse when placed in the grave, also called mlango wa maiti, the dead man’s door. The kiunza is placed so as to close the mwana ndani, i.e. the recess made in the side of the grave to receive the corpse, to prevent the earth and stones from coming into contact with the corpse (FJ). Planche que l’on place au fond de la fosse kaburi contre le cadavre, pour fermer la niche ufuo (Am. G. ufuko) où il repose. A défaut de planche on prend des branches ou même de l’herbe. Kiunza tient lieu de cercueil (Sx). Wapi wa Kiungu wayaza kumbi, Na mashekhe mema wa Ki-Sarambi, Walaliye nyumba za vumbivumbi, Ziunda za miti ziwaaliye; Where are the people from Kiungu they filled the reception halls, And its good Sarabian sheiks, They now live in crumbling dusty houses, Wooden grave boards press upon them (Ink-59).
kiungi/zi- [n. 7/8] Summit, peak; top; zenith, acme (TJH). Juu vileleni (ASN). Not in FJ. Cime, sommet. Mwanglie mtu yule mlimani, u kiungini. regarde cette personne-là sur la montagne, elle est sur la cime {Am. = G. kiunji} (Sx).  Madarini, ghorofani, juu (INS). Wawapi wa ziungini, ufu wamepita ndiya, Where are those on top, in a pffff they are gone (ASN-AD3).
Kiungu [prop. n.] Neighborhood in Pate where the wealthy lived (WH). Wapi wa Kiungu wayaza kumbi, Na mashekhe mema wa Ki-Sarambi, Walaliye nyumba za vumbivumbi, Ziunda za miti ziwaaliye; Where are the people from Kiungu they filled the reception halls, And its good Sarabian sheiks, They now live in crumbling dusty houses, Wooden grave boards press upon them (Ink-59).
kiwa [conj.] If. See St. ikiwaKiwa huyuwi duniya, yatizame mai p’wani, If you do not understand the world, watch the sea (ASN-AD1).
kiweo/zi- [n. 7/8] Lap, thigh (TJH). Thigh, ham, hip; used in the butchery trade for the region betweens the kinena and paja (FJ). Mutakapofika kwao, mtuliye ziweoni, When you reach her, alight on her lap (ASN-Nd1).
kiwingu/vi- [n. 7/8] Cloud (dim.). See St. wingu. Kuna kiwingu yangani, Mvua itandaziwe; There is a small cloud in the sky, The rain is spread within (ASM-S3).
kiya/zi- [n. 7/8] Joint, hinge, jointed body part (TJH). See St. kia 1. Loquet de porte (kia cha mlango) fermant à l’intérieur (P. Mv.). — Syn. kii (Am. G.) & kiwi (DS. Mv.); 2. Membre du corps; partie comprise entre deux articulations (Am. G.) (Sx). Kwa kuwama na kwa t‘ani, kubenuwa zenu ziya; On your stomachs and backs, flexing your joints (ASN-S1).
kiya/zi- [n. 7/8] Limb (of body). Baina ya kiungo mpaka kiungo katika mwili (INS). Usiiyone kwa ziya,una ngondo muilini, Don’t think of yourself, of your limbs, you are strong in body (ASN-AD5).
kiza [n. 7] Darkness, dark, gloom, murkiness (TJH). See giza (FJ). Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, Ungi wa matuka na kutukutu, Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu, Kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye; The buildings’ courtyards became a forest, A profusion of bush and thick undergrowth, The outside doors terrified anyone (who saw them), For solitude and gloom had enshrouded them (Ink-53).
kizimbwi/zi- [n. 7/8] Deep pool, depth (TJH). Eau suffisante pour le mouillage, profonde de une brasse et demie à marée basse, de sorte que le boutre qui y jette l’ancre ne risque pas d’être mise à sec (Sx). (TJH: Sufficient water for an anchorage, a depth of a fathom and a half at low tide so that a dhow that lays at anchor is not left high and dry) Mahali pa kutia nanga; bandari. 2. ukingo wa mwamba uliodidimia (Kamusi). Not in FJ, but see dimbwi/ma-5/6 pool, puddle, etc. left on shore at low tide (FJ); also jimbudumbwi, and dimbwi (Sx). Shimo (ASN).Muzamao zizimbwini; mahodari wa koweya, You who dive in the depths, (who are) skilled in swimming (ASN-S1).
kodole(y)a ~ kodolea [v.] Open eyes wide, glare, stare. Focus (Jan Feidel). Na maninga kodoleya, usipumbae jizani, Focus your eyes, don’t be confused in the dark (ASN-AD3).
kohowa ~ kohoa [v. i.] Cough, see –kohoa (FJ). Wakazisalimu umri zao, Hadimu Ladhati achenda nao, Pasi mkohozi akohowao, Au mwenye kwenda asiridhiye; Then they surrendered their lives, Death going with them, Without (so much as) a cougher who coughes, Or any traveler who is content (Ink-25).
koja/ma- [n. 5/6] Wreath, garland, chaplet (TJH). Mtungo mrefu wa maua avishwao mtu kama zawadi au pambo (KKS). (1) a neck ornament, a ring with disks or coins attached worn round the neck (cf. koa, urembo); (2) a kind of metal pot (FJ). Nami nikutunge koja la risasi kiunoni, So I may shape a wreath of bullets around your waist (M&K-ML1).
koja/ma- [n. 5/6] Necklace; metaph. poem (TJH). Neck ornament, a ring with disks or coins attached worn round the neck (See koa, urembo); a necklace of beads; (2) a kind of metal pot (FJ). Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7).
koma [v.i.] Come to an end, reach a conclusion (TJH). Cease, come to an end, stop, decease; also sometimes trans. bring to an end, close (FJ). Ichamba hayani ndio safari, Yakomele tena ya kuusiri, Bidhaa ya ndeo na takaburi, Mutendele kwangu nishuhudiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-23).
komele [-ile perf.] Perfect stem; see -koma come to an end, etc. q.v. (FJ).
konde [n. 5/6] Cultivated field, garden (TJH). A field-clearing, cultivated piece of ground, garden which has been cultivated before (FJ). Hunipitia na jembe na kotama Katika njia iendayo kondeni; He passes by me with hoe and sickle Along the path that goes to the fields (M&K-Mk1).
kondo [n. 9/10] War, strife, difficulty, seldom used now except in poetry (FJ). Uprising (WH) Tafakari siku ya kwima kondo, Ya kuaridhiwa kula kitendo, Pindi madhulumu atapo ondo, Achamba ya Rabbi namua naye; Think about the day when multitudes will assemble (i.e., the Day of Judgement), The day when every deed will be unveiled, When the persecuted one kneels, Saying, “oh Lord judge between me and him.” (Ink-68).
koroma [v. i.] Hoot (TJH). Snore, snort, groan, and of similar sounds (FJ). Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani, Sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni, Bumu hukoroma kati nyumbani, Zisiji na koti waikaliye; In the homes’ porcelain-ware niches, Now the fledglings of birds have taken up their abode, Owls hoot in the house, Mannikins and weaverbirds have settled themselves inside (Ink-50).
kotama [n. 9/10] Sickle (TJH). A thin carved broad bladed knife, used in getting palm wine (gema tembo), esp. for cutting a thin slice from the growing shoot to enable the sap to flow more freely (FJ). Kisu chenye ncha iliyopinduka; ramba; upumba; pia kikotama (KKS). Hunipitia na jembe na kotama; He passes by me with hoe and sickle (M&K-Mk1)
koti [n. 9/10] Weaver bird (K&K). Nom d’un tisserin (Hyphan tamis) jaune à gorge rouge, différent du mnana (Sx). Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani, Sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni, Bumu hukoroma kati nyumbani, Zisiji na koti waikaliye; In the homes’ porcelain-ware niches, Now the fledglings of birds have taken up their abode, Owls hoot in the house, Mannikins and weaverbirds have settled themselves inside (Ink-50).
kowa [n. 9/1~5/6] Glass bead; glass; crystal; window-pane; shell (K&K). Not in FJ. Wapambiye sini ya kuteuwa, Na kula kikombe kinakishiwa, Kati watiziye kuzi za kowa, Katika mapambo yanawiriye; They decorated with choice china, And every cup was adorned with etching, In the center they placed pitchers of crystal, Among the glittering ornaments (Ink-38).
koweya [n.15] Swimming, to swim; see St kuogelea (TJH). Muzamao zizimbwini, mahodari wa koweya, You who dive in the depths, (who are) skilled in swimming (ASN-S1).
kukia [v. tr.] Sprinkle on (WH). Not in FJ. Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).
kukiwa [v. ps. appl.] Be sprayed, misted with, be splashed with (TJH). Be sprinkled upon, be sprayed upon usually with perfume. Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).
kukuta [v. tr.] Draw together in folds; shrivel, wither, crinkle; a contracted reduplication: –kutakuta < -kuta fold; infinitive is kukukuta (WH). shake off water after getting wet, as a bird or dog (See kung’uta); (2) pant for breath; -kukutaa be dry, hard, stiff (FJ). Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh have shriveled (Ink-48).
kula [adv.] Every, each, etc. See St. kila. Kula aliye mfuzi, na nyundo huitumiya, For anyone who is a smith, And who uses a hammer Kula aliye mfuzi, na nyundo huitumiya; For anyone who is a smith, And who uses a hammer (ASN-S2).
kumba  [v. tr.] Pummel, batter, pound (TJH). Push, shove, press against, jostle, attack (FJ). Palikuwa na tufani zenye meno makali ziangamizazo mimea, na kukumba ardhi yote ya rutuba, There were fierce storms with sharp teeth that devastated the vegetation and pummeled all the fertile land (M&K-NJL3).
kumba [v. tr.] Push, shove, press against, jostle, attack, e.g. alikumbwa na simba, he was sprung upon by a lion (FJ). Ambao ulikuwa umewakumba; Which had afflicted them (M&K-MU4).
kumbato [n. 5/6] Embrace, caress; not in this form in FJ (TJH). See –kumbatia clasp in the arms, embrace (FJ). Hebu tujitayarishe kwa letu kumbato, Please let us ready ourselves for our embrace (M&K-WJLL1)
kumbi/ma- [n. 5/6 aug.] Large ante-chambers, reception halls; see ukumbi/kumbi n. 11/10; makumbi ya nde large outer halls, ante-chambers. Nyumba kati zao huvuma mende, Kumbi za msana hulia ngende, Yalifiye vumi makumbi ya nde, kuwa mazibala yalisiriye; Inside the buildings the cockroaches rustle around, In the men’s halls the crickets are chirping, The noise of the ante-chambers died away, For they had become dungheaps (Ink-52).
kupa [v. i.] Blink, quail, shrink from a blow, cower in fear (WH). ). Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73).
kusa [v. tr.] Distress, afflict, torment, punish, etc. (TJH). Grip, hold (WH). Cause to come on, bring upon, involve in. Nimemkusa mashaka, I have got him into trouble; also sometimes kusha and kutisha (FJ). See –kusha syn. très us. de –kutisha, e.g., -kusha matungu, -kusha mashaka; Ametukusha mashaka (taabu); nitakukusha mashaka, je te ferai de la misère (te châtierai); also kutisha us. au fig. Dans –kutisha mashaka créer des ennuis, des difficulties, jeter dans une position difficile (Sx). Sasa walaliye mji shubiri, Pasipo zuliya wala jodori, Ikawa miwili kutaathari, Dhiki ya kaburi iwakusiye; Now they’re asleep in a town of no size at all (lit. a finger’s span), Without carpet or cushion, And their bodies are disfigured, The misery of the grave has tormented them (Ink-45).
kuta [v. tr.] Come upon, meet (with), chance on, hit on, find (FJ). Tandi la mauti likawakuta, Wakauma zanda wa kuiyuta, Na dunia yao ikawasuta, Ichamba safari muniukiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-22).
kutukutu [n. 9/10] Tangled undergrowth of the East African coastal bushlands (WH).Young forest; undergrowth, bushes (K&K). Not in FJ or Sx. Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, Ungi wa matuka na kutukutu, Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu, Kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye; The buildings’ courtyards became a forest, A profusion of bush and thick undergrowth, The outside doors terrified anyone (who saw them), For solitude and gloom had enshrouded them (Ink-53).
kuu [adj.] Important, major, chief, etc. (TJH). See detailed entry in FJ. Haipitwi na johari, Nda k’uu mno thamani; It is not surpassed by any gem, it is the greatest in value (ASN-S4).
kuwadi/ma- [n. 5/6] A procurer, a pander, a pimp (FJ). Ar. Ubabe na Ufisadi, Ugomvi na Uhasama, wamekuwa makuwadi; They have become pimps (MASB-Au2).
kuwe [dem.] There, yonder, over there; see kule; kule > kue (l-loss) > kuwe (TJH). U wapi Ali bin Nasiri, Na muwamu wake Abubakari, Mwinyi Idarusi na Muhudhari, Wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye; Where is Ali bin Nasir, And his brother-in-law Abu Bakr, The Chief Idarusi and Muhudhari, Where have they gone over there, show me their (lit. his) way (i.e. where they went). (Ink-57).
kuwili [n. 17, adv.] Both ends, on both ends (TJH). The double kind, in a double way, in two ways; kisu chenye makali kuwili, a knife with two sharp edges; anatajwa kuwili, he has two names (TJH). De (des) deux côtés, -ona kuwili., voir des deux côtés. Kisu kikali kuwili un couteau coupant des deux côtés (Sx). Kwa maao mema ya kukhitari, Iyu la zitanda za majodori, Na mito kuwili ya akhadhari, Kwa kazi ya pote wanakishiye; On fine well-chosen couches, On beds of padded cushions, With green pillows at both ends, Decorated with embroidered work (Ink-42).
kuzi [n. 9/10] Pitcher, jug, water flask, wine flask; fig. an unmarried daughter (WH). Wapambiye sini ya kuteuwa, Na kula kikombe kinakishiwa, Kati watiziye kuzi za kowa, Katika mapambo yanawiriye; They decorated with choice china, And every cup was adorned with etching, In the center they placed pitchers of crystal, Among the glittering ornaments (Ink-38).
kwa haki [adv.] Truly, certainly, etc. (TJH). Ilikuwa kidogo tu imebaki, Tutoboe nje ya zimwi kwa haki;  There was just a little bit left (to cut ), For us to truly bore out of the creature (M&K-MU12).
kwa mimba [adv.] Face down, on the stomach (TJH). Humwangusha kwa mimba juu lat‘i kamwawaa, It knocks him face down to the ground, and annihilates him (MY-KT).
kwimakwe [adv. contr.] Finally, at long last, in the fullness of time (TJH). See ku+ima+kwake; see St. kwisha kwake it’s ending, at the end of that, after that, then (WH). Kwimakwe kwisa kuzikamili, Himdi na sala kaziratili, Niyadhihirishe yangu makali, Ambayo moyoni nikusudiye; At the end of that, finally, bringing them (i.e., needs, see Ink-5) to perfection, And lay out praise and prayers in order, So I might set down clearly my writing, Those things in my heart that I intend (Ink-6).
la kitana [v. phrase] Suffer, be miserable, endure pain; lit. eat pain; see kitana (TJH). See lula yamini take a solomn oath, kula kiapo take an oath, kula bia: to partake in a communal meal, kula bikira: to consummate the marriage (FJ). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).
labeka [intrj.] At your service! Yes, sir (madam)! — in answer to a call, coming! I am here! A common reply of a slave or inferior to a master’s call, and often pronounced ebe, ebee, labe, and simply bee (FJ). Moyo tafakari na Jahanamu, Wenye silisia na azmamu, Pindi ya dayani akiukimu, Unene labeka niitishiye; Oh my heart, think about the deepest hell-fire, About those chained and roped, When the Judge summons you (i.e., your heart) to prayer, You should say: “May I respond with ‘Yes, I am your servant.’” (Ink-72).
labibu [adj.] Gifted with sound judgment (WH). Intelligent, gifted (CHS). Dunia ni jifa siikaribu, Haipendi mtu ila kilabu, I hali gani ewe labibu, Kuwania na mbwa hutukizwaye; The world is putrifying death stay away from it, It favors no one except dogs, What is it that you of sound judgment, That you be so reviled to fight over it with dogs (Ink-19).
Ladha [n. prop.] Second of the seven levels of the Islamic hell (WH). Ar. Na moto wa ladha nao pulika, Moto ukitiwa mara huwaka, Huona manofu yakikwambuka, Waona ziungo ziungushiye; And as for the fire of the second hell listen, If you are put into its fire you burn immediately, You see chunks of flesh being stripped from you, You see that your limbs have been utterly consumed (Ink-76).
lahaula [intr.] 1. blasphemy. Kila lahaula hufuatwa na adhabu ya mungu, every blasphemy is followed by God’s punishment. 2. as an expletive; Well I never! What next! Also used on hearing a person blaspheme or use unseemly words (< Arabic …. an abbreviation of ‘there is no power nor strength but in God’, etc.) (FJ). Tamko la kuonyesha mshangao (KKS). Utu gani, lahaula! What kind of humanity (is this), Oh God! (M&K-SKN6).
lala fofofo [v. phrase] Sleep deeply, sleep soundly, be dead asleep (TJH). See fofofo (FJ). Tulale fofofo kwa wake uganga; So we would be dead asleep from his spell (M&K-MU2).
launi/ma- [n. 5/6] Likeness, kind, shape, color, esp. of countenance—very rarely used (FJ). Ar. Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh have shriveled (Ink-48).
lele [-ile perf.] Perfect stem; see –lala sleep, lie down, settle down, lie flat… (FJ). Hold distainfully (LH). Recline (heads), i.e. hold back distainfully (WH). Malimwengu yote yawatiile, Na dunia yao iwaokele, Wachenenda zitwa zao zilele, Mato mafumbuzi wayafumbiye; The whole world has submitted to them, And their world was laid out straight for them, Walking along, their heads held distainfully, Their staring eyes looking darkly (Ink-35).
lema/mema [n. 5/6] Moral good; See –ema good (FJ). Lema ovu zingatiya, uufahamu undani, Consider carefully both good and evil, understand their secrets (ASN-AD7). {See jema/mema 5/6 < –ema moral good; jingine ~ lingine 5 other}.
lembe lembe [adv.] Full to the brim (liquid), abundantly, a lot, at full tide (TJH). Tele, sana (ASN). Kujaa karibu ya kumwagika (INS). -A kujaa au kuiva; iliyojaa au kuiva kabisaJipu liko lembelembe (KKS). Sx: Lembe-lembe (DN.), A pleins bords. Maji yamejaa (Am. mai yameyaalembe-lembe, se dit d’une cruche, etc. de la mer complètement haute. En G. mayi lembe-lembe, ne se dit que des grandes marées d’équinoxe.V. yavua. Not in FJ. Mijai ikongeya, lembelembe buntwani, As the mass of water increases, at full tide against the breakwater (ASN-AD2).
li(y)a [v. i.] Suffer (MASB). See –lia sound, make a sound (the most general word for sound of any kind, in animate or inanimate nature); (2) utter a cry, cry out (for joy, sorrow, pain, &c.); (3) mourn, weep (FJ). Tena yaliyapo macho, mikono hufuta chozi, Again when the eyes suffer, the hands wipe away tears!
(MASB-Ud2).
lingana [v. recip.] Be level with one another, match, be like, harmonize—also make a suitable reply (FJ). Be at the meridian, said of the sun (WH). Au enga meto limetukapo, Wakati wa yua lilinganapo, Mwenye nyota hwamba ni mayi yapo, Kayakimbilia akayatwaye; Or regard the glistening mirage, When the sun reaches high noon, The thirsty one says there is water there, And he runs to it that he might get some (Ink-16).
litumbo [n. 5/6 derog.] Sickening, vile, odious, stomach; also jitumbo [TJH]. Toboa litumbo la nduli kafiri; Puncture open the odious stomach of the accursed beast (M&K-MU11).
liwa bangu [v. phrase] Be utterly deceived, be made a fool (WH & K&K). Hiki ewe moyo kievu changu, Hukengeukii nusuha yangu, Huza akherayo kwa ulimwengu, Ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-27). Hiki ewe moyo kievu changu, Hukengeukii nusuha yangu, Huza akherayo kwa ulimwengu, Ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-27).
liwaza [v. tr.] Soothe, comfort (FJ). Bembeleza ili kutoa mtu majonzi; fariji, poza (KKS). Kuna siri gani inamliwaza? What sort of secret comforts him? (M&K-Mk3).
liwaza [v. tr.] Soothe, comfort (FJ). Ndiye wa kuniliwaza, nione niko peponi, She is the one to soothe me so I might feel I’m in paradise (ASN-Nd7).
loga [v. tr.] Bewitch, use enchantment on, place under a spell or charm, practice black magic against with intention to do harm (FJ). Au ni zimwi lali limetuloga; Or had the evil one bewitched us (M&K-MU2).
luhudi [n. 9/10] Niches in sepulchres, graves (WH). Ar. Watoto wangapi uwaweneo, Ukawayakini kupona kwao, Sasa nyumba za ti ziwateteo, Katika luhudi iwafundiye; How many children have you seen, And are you certain about their well-being, Whose sepulchres have now enshrouded them, In a grave that binds them (Ink-33).
maao [n. 6] See ao couch, bed; also see ulalo place for sleeping, etc (FJ).
maasi [n. 6] Disobedience, rebellion, mutiny, desertion, rebelliousness; see -asi revolt, rebel (FJ). Leo tufanye maasi: Haki hakina lakini, Today we must revolt: Justice has no “but” (M&K-ML6).
madhulumu [n. 9/10 an.] Persecuted person (TJH). Oppressed person; not to be mistaken for ‘tyrant’, oppressor’ derived from the same verbal root (WH). Tyrant (CHS). Ar. Tafakari siku ya kwima kondo, Ya kuaridhiwa kula kitendo, Pindi madhulumu atapo ondo, Achamba ya Rabbi namua naye; Think about the day when multitudes will assemble (i.e., the Day of Judgment), The day when every deed will be unveiled, When the persecuted one kneels, Saying, “oh Lord judge between me and him.” (Ink-68).
maghusubu [n. 9/10 an.] Victim, a person compelled, violated; oppressed (WH). Ar. One oppressed (LH). See –ghusubu compel, coerce, take away by force, violate (FJ). Aso hasanati wala thawabu, Hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu, Akatwekwa dhambi za maghusubu, Akambiwa haya mtukuliye; The one who has neither merit nor gifts from God, His jaw is bridled like a steed, And is loaded down with the sins of a violated one, And finally he is told, “Alright, carry them (i.e., sins) for him.” (Ink-71).
mahabubu [n. 9 an.] Beloved, darling, loved one; the Beloved; 2. Beloved (K&K). Neno lenye maana ya mpenzi, yule aliyekuingia moyoni na kumthamini zaidi ya wengine (MASB). Ar. Nalia nasikitika, kukuaga Mahabubu; I am crying I am so sad, to take my leave of you My Love (MASB-Am1).
mai [n. 6] Water. See maji (FJ). Mai yakisha mwagika, ni taabu kuyazowa, Once water is spilled, it is difficult to mop it up (ASN-KS11).
mai [n. 6] Water. See St. majiKiwa huyuwi duniya, Yatizame mai p’wani, If you do not understand the world, Watch the sea (ASN-AD1).
mai [n. 6] Water, see maji (FJ).
maizi [v. tr.] Know, understand, recognize (FJ). Jua, tambua, fahamu, elewa (KKS). Bali tunajua tulipomaizi; But we just knew when we knew (M&K-MU3).
makali [n. 5] Words, sayings, dicta, treatise, statement (WH). Treatise (LH). See makala (FJ). Kwimakwe kwisa kuzikamili, Himdi na sala kaziratili, Niyadhihirishe yangu makali, Ambayo moyoni nikusudiye; At the end of that, finally, bringing them (i.e., needs, see Ink-5) to perfection, And lay out praise and prayers in order, So I might set down clearly my writing, Those things in my heart that I intend (Ink-6).
makani [v. i.] Be calm, undisturbed, be at peace, be dignified. See makini: n. and a. strength of character, dignity, serenity, and as a. quiet, calm, amenable, well-behaved, gentle, composed. Roho makini, a quiet disposition. Fanya kwa makini, do in a gentle, calm, dignified, manner (FJ), Ukae na kutuliya, Na moyo utamakani, Remain and be calm, And your heart will be at peace (ASN-AD7).
makina ~ makini [n. 9/10] Repose, restfulness, reserve (as of action and emotion) (WH). See makini n. strength of character, dignity, serenity, and as adj. quiet, calm, amenable, well-behaved, gentle, composed. Roho makini, a quiet disposition. Fanya kwa makini, do in a gentle, calm, dignified, manner. Ar. (FJ). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).
makuu [n. 6] Arrogance, haughty attitude, conceit, pride; as mwenye makuu a pompeous, ostentatious person (TJH). Haiyebu mwenyi makuu ndiani mwenda sambamba, It (Mombasa) does not want an arrogant person, walking along with others in the streets (MY-KT).
malenga [n. 9/10an.] Poet (TJH). Bard (WH). Professional singer, employed to lead the singing in dances, concerts, etc. (FJ). Rabbi mrahamu mwenye kutunga, Na mezokhitimu mja malenga, Sala na salamu ni zao kinga, Rabbi takabali ziwashukiye; Oh Lord grant eternal life to the poet, And to the humble bard who finished them (i.e., the verses), Prayers and peace are their shield, Oh Lord grant that they (i.e. prayers and peace) descend upon them. (Ink-79).
malijaa [n. 9/10] Refuge, shelter against trouble, succor (WH). Not in FJ or Sx.Ar. Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67).
maliki [n. 9/10 an.] King, ruler, sovereign (usu. mfalme) (FJ). Hakuwa mtumi Suleimani, Maliki wa insi na ajinani, Ulimfutuye ukamukhini, Akiwa mwengine wamtendaye; Was not the apostle Solomon, A ruler of (both) humanity and the spirit world, How is it then that it (i.e., the world) banished and withheld power from him, If it were someone else what would it do to him (Ink-32).
malimwengu [n. 6] Worldly affairs, worldly pleasures or interests (FJ). Kuikabili siku mpya, msukumo wa malimwengu, To face a new day, the push of worldly concerns (M&K-NJL2).
malimwengu [n. 6] Affairs, circumstances of the world, the world; see ulimwengu/ma- (FJ). Malimwengu yote yawatiile, Na dunia yao iwaokele, Wachenenda zitwa zao zilele, Mato mafumbuzi wayafumbiye; The whole world has submitted to them, And their world was laid out straight for them, Walking along, their heads held distainfully, Their staring eyes looking darkly (Ink-35).
malipwa [n. 6] Payments made (WH). Payment, compensation, etc. (TJH). See –lipa (FJ). Na malipwa yao wadhilimuwa, Si dhahabu timbe si ya kufuwa, Fedha hawatwai na wangapowa, Ila hasanati ni malipwaye; And the compensation for the oppressed, It is not mined gold (dug right from the ground) nor is it refined (lit. washed), They are not grasping after silver even though they might be given it, Only virtue is their (lit. his) reward (Ink-70).
malisho [n. 6] Food, sustenance (TJH). Pasturage, grazing-ground, paddock, forage, food for cattle (FJ). Ili kujikimu kupata malisho; To support himself to get his sustenance (M&K-Mk1).
manaya [n. 9] Death, fate (WH). Ar. Mvi wa manaya ukawafuma, Akatubukia katika nyama, Pasiwe mwatami mwenye kwatama, Au mwamba nini yalikuwaye; Death’s arrow struck them, And he (i.e., death) plunged it in their flesh, Without any dumbfounded gawker there with mouth wide open, Or speaker saying, “What, how has this happened?” (Ink-24).
mani [n. 9/10] Stone weight used in a scale. A weight, about three pounds (FJ). Niwapimiye kwa mani, Tuzo t’unu na hidaya; Let me weigh it for you with a scale, The reward is a rare, precious gift (ASN-S8).
manofu [n. 6] See nofu.
masaibu [n. 6] Calamity, misfortune; see -sibu afflict, bring misfortune (ruin, damage) upon (FJ). Masaibu haya njia zake tata; Such misfortunes, their ways are a mystery (M&K-MU2).
masi [n. 6] Shoals of ragged shell, sea shells; probably cognate with nswi fish (WH). Rocks, reefs (K&K). Mashaza ‘oysters’(CHS). Not in FJ, Sx. Suu ulimwengu bahari tesi, Una matumbawe na mangi masi, Aurakibuo juwa ni mwasi, Kwa kula khasara ukhasiriye; This world is a stormy sea, With coral reefs and many shell-encrusted shoals, The one who rides it out (i.e., the world), knows that it is a maverick, It has brought harm with every disaster (Ink-13).
masiku [n. 6] Nights, pl. of usiku (TJH). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of shell and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37).
masturi [n. 9/10] Screen or hidden rooms, i.e., inner chambers, harem (WH). Ar. Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).
mato mafumbuzi [phrase] Wide-eyed, amazed-looking, google-eyed, staring eyes, protuberant eyes (TJH). Macho malegevu (Slack, relaxed, weak, soft, yielding, remiss, inattentive, idle, limp eyes) (MM). See –fumba shut, close, by bringing things, or parts, together. Fumba macho, close the eyes; (2) mystify, make a mystery about, disguise, use in an obscure way; also see –fumbua unclose, open, lay open, reveal, disclose by separating things or parts which were close together, e.g. fumbua mkono, open the closed hand, and so of eyes, mouth, legs, etc.; also see –fumbia shut up in (for, by, &c.) talk darkly about, etc (FJ). See –fumba macho ouvrir les yeux (en se réveil- lant, etc.), faire de grands yeux; fig. voir clair, comprendre (Sx). Malimwengu yote yawatiile, Na dunia yao iwaokele, Wachenenda zitwa zao zilele, Mato mafumbuzi wayafumbiye; The whole world has submitted to them, And their world was laid out straight for them, Walking along, their heads held distainfully, Their staring eyes looking darkly (Ink-35).
matongotongo [adv.] Ceaselessly, without stopping (TJH). Continuously (kwa mfululizo) (MMM). A lot, a great deal (kwa wingi wingi) (MM). Wana wa zipungu wapende zango, Na wana wa ndiwa humia shingo, Na kupija mbawa matongotongo, Ziku na zitati waliwashiye; Young vultures have perched on clothes-rack pegs, And the squab of doves bob their heads (lit., necks) to and fro, And flutter their wings ceaselessly, (Where) wood-pigeons and swallows have built their nests (Ink-51). [In the various translations of the Inkishafi consulted in this work there is little agreement on the meaning of this word. Hichens (WH p. 167) indicates that the etymology is doubtful, but then gives mumo kwa mumo; he also cites a possible cognate in Luganda, viz., ‘tongo ‘deserted village’ “which, if correct, would imply the reading of ‘mwa’ tongo-tongo, not ‘ma-‘”. Mulokozi (MMM, p. 93) says: “labda ‘matungotungo’ yaani kwa mfululizo”. Knappert (1979:134) follows Hichens’ etymology in giving ‘deserted places’. Mlamali (1980:49) who has mitungo tungo in his text translates this as kwa wingi wingi ‘a lot, a great deal’. Harries (1962:98) gives ‘in lazy fashion’. Allen (JVA, p.66) apparently ignores the word. I follow Mulokozi and Mlamali.
mauti [n. 9/10] Death (FJ). Tandi la mauti likawakuta, Wakauma zanda wa kuiyuta, Na dunia yao ikawasuta, Ichamba safari muniukiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-22).
mayuto [n. 6] Regret. See St. -jutamajutoWendako huonekani, mayuto yataseleya, Where you are going you cannot be seen, (only) regret remains behind (ASN-AD5).
mazibala [n. 9] Heap of rubbish, dunghill, midden (WH). Ar. Nyumba kati zao huvuma mende, Kumbi za msana hulia ngende, Yalifiye vumi makumbi ya nde, kuwa mazibala yalisiriye; Inside the buildings the cockroaches rustle around, In the men’s halls the crickets are chirping, The noise of the ante-chambers died away, For they had become dungheaps (Ink-52).
mbake [9/10 adj.] Lighted, illuminated, brightened; participle in –e; –waka be lighted (WH). 9/10 prefix N + w > mb, See mbi 9/10 evil thing vs. wawi 2 evil ones (TJH). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of shell and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37).
mbake [adj./partic.] Lighted, illuminated, brightened; cl. 9/10 n- + –waka be lighted (WH). Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders hadcompletely covered their beds (Ink-49).
mbawazi [n. 9/10] Compassion, pity, commiseration; see –awaza show pity, consideration (WH). Compassion (LH). Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).
mbi(y)o ~ mbio [n.9/10] Race, running fast; See St. mbio. Kitunguwe yafaani, mbiyo alozikimbiya, As for Hare, what good was the speed with which he ran (ASN-KS10). Note use of plural relative pronoun in verb alozikimbiya agreeing with mbiyo.
mbinu [n. 9/10] Supple limb, well-shaped (TJH). Supple-jointedness (WH). Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo, Na nyuma na mbele ili miyongo, Wakaapo pote ili zitengo, Asikari jamu wawatandiye; While swaying their supple limbs and necks to and fro, Behind and in front were lines of people, Wherever they stayed were noble houses, Many guards spread around them (Ink-36).
mbio [n. 9/10; adv.] Quickly, rapidly, speedily, in a rush (TJH). Act of running, running with speed, fast. Piga mbio, run. Enda mbio, go quickly (FJ). Lilizitimua mbio kifarasi; It took off speedily like a horse (M&K-MU12).
mbonya [v. contr.] Show me; see –onya (TJH). U wapi Ali bin Nasiri, Na muwamu wake Abubakari, Mwinyi Idarusi na Muhudhari, Wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye; Where is Ali bin Nasir, And his brother-in-law Abu Bakr, The Chief Idarusi and Muhudhari, Where have they gone over there, show me their (lit. his) way (i.e. where they went). (Ink-57). NB: note the form mbonya is an archaic form derived from Proto-Sabaki *ni-Wonya via vowel loss (n-Wonya), progressive assimilation of *n > m/___[+labial] (m-Wonya) and regressive assimilation wherein *W > b/[+nas]___ (mbonya); see uwingu/mbingu 11/10 ‘sky, cloud’, mwovu ‘evil person’ and mbovu 9 adj. ‘rotten’; Nurse & Hinnebusch 1993 passim).
mbonya [contr.] Nionya; see St. Sw. nionyeshe show me (TJH). Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67).
mbora [n. 1/2] Fine person, best person (TJH). See bora adj. of special quality (importance, or value), fine, high class, first-rate, etc. (FJ). Ar. Mfa macho ni mbora, ukiwa ‘thabiti moyo’; A blind person is the best, if his heart is resolute (MASB-MM1)
mbwongo [contr.] It’s a lie; from ni + uwongo (TJH). Kwamba husadiki hwamba mbwongo, Enda nyumba zao uzinde shingo, Ukita hwitikwi ila ni mwango, Sauti ya mtu itindishiye; If you do not believe it and say it’s a lie, Go to their houses and look around (lit. turn neck), If you call out you get no answer but an echo, The human voice has been cut off (Ink-54). NB: note the form mbwongo is an archaic form derived from *ni + uwongo via vowel loss (n-wongo), progressive assimilation of *n > m/___[+labial] (m-wongo) and regressive assimilation wherein w > b/[+nas]___ (mbwongo) without loss of the [+round] feature of the /w/; see uwingu/mbingu 11/10 ‘sky, cloud’, mwovu ‘evil person’ and mbovu 9 adj. ‘rotten’ for additional examples of this example of regressive assimilation. Also see mbonya in this glossary.
mbyo [n. 9/10; adv.]  In a run, quickly, etc.; see mbio (TJH). Lilifunga domo, mbyoni kujitoma; It closed its terrible mouth and bolted off in a run (M&K-MU13).
mdarisi/wa- [n. 1/2] Scholar, knowledgeable, well-read person (TJH). Scholar, learned person, teacher, and thus in common usage a pious person (WH). Curious person (LH). Critic (JVA). NB: Some texts have mdadis; there does not seem to be an etymological connection between darisi and dadisi; See mdadisi a curious, inquisitive, prying person; -dadisi pry, be inquisitive, be curious (about); (2) ask unnecessary questions (FJ). Ar. Nataka himdi nitangulize, Alo mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza illa isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So he who is a pious scholar not ask, And say, don’t stop us from praising, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other (Ink-2).
mdhilimuwa/wa- [n. 1/2] Persecuted person (WH). See –dhulumu treat unjustly, defraud, oppress; dhulumu/ma- injustice, fraud, oppression, violence (FJ). Na malipwa yao wadhilimuwa, Si dhahabu timbe si ya kufuwa, Fedha hawatwai na wangapowa, Ila hasanati ni malipwaye; And the compensation for the oppressed, It is not mined gold (dug right from the ground) nor is it refined (lit. washed), They are not grasping after silver even though they might be given it, Only virtue is their (lit. his) reward (Ink-70).
mdono/mi-  [n. 3/4] Picking at, pecking, peck, carping (TJH). Bite (MASB). A bite, fishing (FJ). Manner of pecking as of a fowl (Brill). See –dona peck, pick at, pick up bit by bit as a bird does its food (FJ). Si udugu wa mdono, ule wa mwisho wa mwezi! It is not a carping brotherhood, like that at the end of the month (MASB-Ud1).
mdubira/wa- [n. 1/2] Failure, underachiever, loser, etc. (TJH). Person who always appears to have bad luck, everything he attempts fails (FJ).  Mtu asiyefanikiwa na mambo anayoyafanya (MASB). Siyo mtu mdubira, bahati asiyonayo; He is not a failure, someone who never has (lit. sees, experiences) any luck (MASB-MM1).
medo [n. 9/10] Medal (TJH/ASN). See Sx mede (inv.) But (t. de jeu), la pierre etc., qui marque le but. Na medo umeishika,sungura hajatokeya, And you have seized the medal, Hare has not yet appeared (ASN-KS9) {medo < Eng.}
meleza [v. cs.] Grow, nurture, flourish (of plants) (TJH). Faire germer ou pousser (Sx). See –mea grow (FJ). Kongowea ni t‘uu haimelezi mgomba, Mombasa is a termite mound; it does not allow a banana plant to flourish (MY-KT).
mema [n. 6] Good deeds, works, things, etc., proper behavior (TJH). Good, excellent manners (MASB). See –ema good, etc. (FJ). Ndugu walioshibana, huruma huoneana, Shida kusaidiana, makosa sameheana, Mema kushauriana, mazuri kuoneshana, Brothers who are content with one another, Show mercy to each other, Helping each other (when) in trouble, and forgiving each others’ mistakes, They consul each other on proper behavior, and direct each other in good deeds (MASB-Ud4).
memetefu [adj.] Shining, sparkling, gleaming, etc. See –memeteka sparkle, shine, twinkle, as of the stars (FJ). Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh have shriveled (Ink-48).
memetuka [v. i.] Shine, glitter, sparkle, etc. (TJH). See –memeteka sparkle, shine, twinkle, as of the stars (FJ). Seememetuko 9/10 phosphorescence of the sea (PRI).Yafumapo mkwambani, Kitoche humemetuka; When the tide goes out from the debris (on the beach), its gem glitters (ASN-6).
meto [n. 9/10] Mirage (WH). Not in FJ. Au enga meto limetukapo, Wakati wa yua lilinganapo, Mwenye nyota hwamba ni mayi yapo, Kayakimbilia akayatwaye; Or regard the glistening mirage, When the sun reaches high noon, The thirsty one says there is water there, And he runs to it that he might get some (Ink-16).
metuka [v. i.] Be shining, glittering, glistening (WH). See –meta shine, sparkle glitter, be bright (FJ). Au enga meto limetukapo, Wakati wa yua lilinganapo, Mwenye nyota hwamba ni mayi yapo, Kayakimbilia akayatwaye; Or regard the glistening mirage, When the sun reaches high noon, The thirsty one says there is water there, And he runs to it that he might get some (Ink-16).
mfa macho [n. 1/2] Sightless person, lit. deceased as to the eyes, thus blind person (TJH) Mfa macho ni mbora, ukiwa thabiti moyo; A blind person is the best, if his heart is resolute (MASB-MM1)
mfa/wa- [n. 1/2] Dead person, deceased person (TJH). Mfa macho ni mbora, ukiwa thabiti moyo; A blind person is the best, if his heart is resolute (MASB-MM1)
mfuzi/wa- [n. 1/2] Smith, blacksmith (TJH). See St. –fua beat, strike, hammer, but usually limited to certain operations, viz. of smith’s work, work at (a metal), make (of metal) (FJ). Kula aliye mfuzi, na nyundo huitumiya; For anyone who is a smith, And who uses a hammer (ASN-S2).
mganguzi/wa- [n. 1/2] Doctor, healer, medical professional. See –ganga bind up, fasten together, splice, mend (what is injured or broken). Hence esp. of doctor’s work generally, ‘apply remedy, cure, heal’; also –gangua Same as ganga; (2) save, get out of a difficulty, set free from a charm, etc. (FJ). Haribu chenye kugangwa; (2) –agua, -opoa, -ponyesha (KKS). Mkowapi Matabibu, Waganga na Waganguzi? Where are you, Doctors, Physicians and Healers? (MASB-Au4).
mgogoto/mi- [n. 3/4] Call to arms, a call to action, drum beat; see mbiu horn, traditional type of trumpet; used similarly: -piga mbiu make a proclamation. (TJH). See mgoto: sauti isikikanayo wakati kitu kinapogotana na kingine (KKS). Drumbeat, sound of drums, thundering noise, blasts of war; rumor, reputation (K&K). Kumbukeni mgogoto wa leo na wa zamani, Remember today’s call to action and that of long ago (M&K-ML6).
mgoromo/mi- [n. 3/4] Roaring, rumbling, booming, snoring; purring; rattling (TJH < Sx). Sauti kubwa (ASN). Mgoromo (Am = DS mkoromo (Sx). Mkoromo: an act of snoring or snorting (FJ). Also see: ngurumo loud, roaring, rumbling sound, growl (FJ). Mkoromo: ronflement, ronron, râle (Sx). Migoromo hueneya, na mivundu nyongozani, Their roar spreads along, with turbulence in shallow water (ASN-AD2).
mhakiki/wa- [n. 1/2] Scholar, investigator, judge (TJH). Ar. Make someone respond (TJH). Send somebody to call, cause to be called, order (FJ). Call (urgently), summon, convene; call upon, invite, make s.o. answer; Mungu huitisha wajawe: God calls his servants; kuitisha mkutano: to call for a meeting (K&K). Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye; There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded (Ink-62).
mharibifu/wa- [n. 1/2] Destroyer, spoiler, corrupter (TJH). See –haribu (FJ). Tuwe tayari kulikabili jua kali, Kuwakabili nduli waharibifu, Let’s be ready to face the hot sun, To face the pitiless, destructive enemy (M&K-WJLL1
mia [v. i.] Sway backwards and forwards, of the arms, etc. (WH). Not in FJ or Sx. Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo, Na nyuma na mbele ili miyongo, Wakaapo pote ili zitengo, Asikari jamu wawatandiye; While swaying their supple limbs and necks to and fro, Behind and in front were lines of people, Wherever they stayed were noble houses, Many guards spread around them (Ink-36).
mijai [n. 4 aug.] A lot of water (aug.), mass of water, large volume of water; mi-ji-ai < mai; See St. maji (TJH). Mijai ikongeya, lembelembe buntwani, As the mass of water increases, at full tide against the breakwater (ASN-AD2).
mijengi [n. 4] Cash, money (TJH). Ngwenje, pesa (INS). Ukiwa una rupiya, na mijengi makashani, If you have money and cash in boxes (ASN-AD6).
milikisha [v. cs.] Empower, hold power over, give power to (TJH). Put in possession, make king or ruler (FJ). Ar. Suu ulimwengu uutakao, Emale ni lipi upendeao, Hauna dawamu hudumu nao, Umilikishwapo wautendaye; This world that you want, What is its goodness that you love, It has nothing enduring or lasting, When you are made ruler how will you deal with it (Ink-31).
milikishwa [v. cs. ps.] Be empowered, be put in power, be authorized, receive a mandate, be made ruler (TJH). See -milikisha put in possession, make king or ruler (FJ). Ar. Suu ulimwengu uutakao, Emale ni lipi upendeao, Hauna dawamu hudumu nao, Umilikishwapo wautendaye; This world that you want, What is its goodness that you love, It has nothing enduring or lasting, When you are made ruler how will you deal with it (Ink-31).
mimba [n. 9/10] Pregnancy, fetus, etc.; stomach (arch.); see –angusha mimba knock down on the ground (TJH). See -angusha mtu kwa mimba jeter qqn ventre contre terre (Sx). Humwangusha kwa mimba juu lat‘i kamwawaa, It knocks him face down to the ground, and annihilates him (MY-KT).
mivundu [n. 4 aug.] Turbulence, turbulent waves (TJH). Fujo, kuvurugikafujo lile yanapokoroga maji; water, people, and other things can be chaotic (ASN). Kelele (INS). Not in Sx as such, but see vundu (G. = Am. vindu/ma-); vindu/ma-: (Am. = G. vundu) Poét. syn. of taka-taka; mai yana vindu l’eau est trouble bourbeuse, comme l’eau d’un torent après la pluie. See mijai 4 aug. (no apparent connection with –vunda ~ -vunja break, etc.). Migoromo hueneya, na mivundu nyongozani, Their roar spreads along, with turbulence in shallow water (ASN-AD2).
mja/wa- [n. 1/2] Humble person (WH). Mtumwa, mnyonge wa Mungu (MMM). See mnyonge a humble, abject, low, debased person (FJ). Rabbi mrahamu mwenye kutunga, Na mezokhitimu mja malenga, Sala na salamu ni zao kinga, Rabbi takabali ziwashukiye; Oh Lord grant eternal life to the poet, And to the humble bard who finished them (i.e., verses), Prayers and peace are their shield, Oh Lord grant that they (i.e. prayers and peace) descend upon them (Ink-79).
mjani/wa- [n. 1/2] Evil doer, sinner; see –zani (WH). See –zani/ma- a harlot, prostitute; (2) whoremonger, licentious person (FJ). Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73).
mk’o [n. 3?] Finish line (?). Not in Sx, FJ. Kwa sut’e tumeridhika, mk’oni kusikiliya, As for us all we agree, you have reached the finish line (ASN-KS9).
mkandi/wa- [n. 1/2] Masseuse (WH). Not in FJ but see –kanda knead with the hands, press and work with the fingers, massage, shampoo (FJ). Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi, Wali na wakandi na wapepezi, Na wake wapambe watumbuizi, Wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye; When they sleep from drosiness, They had masseurs and fanners, And well-dressed ladies as singers, Singing lullabies and never becoming quiet (Ink-41).
mkinda/mi- [n. 3/4] Bunch or cluster of gems attached to the main joint of a necklace (WH). Young one, esp. of birds, a chick, also of animals, but not of man (FJ). Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7).
mkiwa/wa- [n. 1/2] Solitary, destitute, friendless person, a poor man; (2) a bereaved person (FJ). See makiwa n. 6, plur. of ukiwa, used as a salutation when visiting a house of mourning. Makiwa! or makiwani! The answer being yamepita, if the corpse has been buried, or tunayo, if it is still in the house; -kiwa adj., solitary, alone, desolate, abandoned, outcast; ukiwa n. 14, solitariness, loneliness, abandonment, desolation, state of being uninhabited (FJ). Amani unajifia, unatuacha wakiwa; Oh Peace, you are dying, you are leaving us bereaved (MASB-Au1).
mkohozi/wa- [n. 1/2] Cougher; see –kohoa cough (TJH). Wakazisalimu umri zao, Hadimu Ladhati achenda nao, Pasi mkohozi akohowao, Au mwenye kwenda asiridhiye; Then they surrendered their lives, Death going with them, Without (so much as) a cougher who coughes, Or any traveler who is content (Ink-25).
mkwamba [n. 3/4] Detritus, debris, flotsam and jetsam (TJH). Trash (INS). Kind of thorny bush, Securinega, which looks rather like a henna bush (FJ). Yafumapomkwambani, Kitoche humemetuka; When the tide goes out from the debris (on the beach), its gem glitters (ASN-6).
mkwasi/wa- [n. 1/2] Rich, wealthy person (FJ). Uwene wangapi watu wakwasi, Walo wakiwaa kama shamsi, Wa muluku zana za adharusi, Dhahabu na fedha wakhiziniye; How many rich people have you seen, Who were blazing brightly like the sun, Who control the weapons of war, Who have layed up gold and silver (Ink-34).
mmaizi/wa- [n. 1/2] Learned, smart, educated, enlightened person, wise (TJH). Wise man (MHA). Qui discerne tout (Dieu); see –maizi distinguer, avoir le discernement; maizi Age de raison, de discretion (Sx). Kutanani wamaizi shauri jema mtende, Meet together, you smart ones, and come to a good decision (MY-KY2).
mmeya/mi- ~ mmea/mi- [n. 3/4] Plant. See St. mmea/mi-Ikaiyanga mimeya, na kunawiri kondeni, Then the plants will flourish, and look lovely in the field (ASN-AD4)
mnuko/mi- [n. 3/4] Smell, odor, stink, stench (TJH). A bad smell (FJ). Mnuko ukazidi, tukatapika; As the stench increased we vomited (M&K-MU6).
mnyau/mi- [n. 3/4] Cat (TJH). Chat; a borrowing from neighboring Bantu languages, e.g., Digo, Bondei, Shambala, et. (Sx). Grimalkin cat; a sick cat (MHA). Haitawali mnyau, mtezateza na vumba, A cat, one who fiddles around with smelly fish, is not a ruler (lit., does not rule) (MY-KT).
Mola [n. prop.] Almighty God. Allahumma Rabbi mkidhi haja, Msalie Tumwa aliyekuja, Na tauhidiyo Mola wa waja, Akatusomesha tafsiriye; O my Lord Allah, Granter of (our) needs, Let us pray for the Prophet, Your dvine unity God Almighty of all people, And he taught us its meaning (i.e., the Koran). (Ink-5).
moyamoya [adv.] One by one (TJH). See St. moja moja (FJ). Yafumbuweni wayuzi, mutongowemoyamoya; Reveal those things, you learned ones, Speak clearly (of them) one by one (ASN-S2).
moyo/ny- [n. 3/10] Heart, etc. ND nyoyo 10 :: SD mioyo 4 (TJH). Zisiwe kuzinga, shauri jema mtende, So that your hearts may not waver, that you carry out a good plan (MY-KY2).
mpambano/mi- [n. 3/4] Competition, struggle (TJH). Contest (Ask). Encounter, battle, fight, match; collision, clash (Brill). See –pambana come together, get into contact, whether pleasant or otherwise, thus of ships. (1) go abreast, lie alongside, but usually (2) collide, fall foul of each other, jostle together (FJ). Mtauona mpambano, kweli si uongo, You will see a struggle, truly, it’s no lie (KA-LL).
mpepezi/wa- [n. 1/2] Fan-bearer, odalisque (WH). Not in FJ, but see –pepea fan, wave (like a fan), wave about in the air, make a current of air (FJ). Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi, Wali na wakandi na wapepezi, Na wake wapambe watumbuizi, Wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye; When they sleep from drosiness, They had masseurs and fanners, And well-dressed ladies as singers, Singing lullabies and never becoming quiet (Ink-41).
mpovu [n. 9/10] Infertile field, barren land (TJH). Wasted land (Jan Feidel). Konde kuukuu ambayo haina rutuba (INS). Haitofuza mwendani, mpovu utasaliya, It will not last forever, friend, you will be left with barren land (ASN-AD4).
mroho/wa- [n. 1/2] Greedy, avaricious, covetous person, one who eats hastily, or more than his share when invited to food, also one who frequents other people’s houses in the hope of being invited to food (FJ). Ayalimia matumbo ya waroho; He cultivates for the stomachs of the greedy (M&K-Mk4).
msaji/mi- [n. 3/4] Teak-wood tree, teak wood (WH). Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi, Naapa kwa Mungu Mola Mkwasi, Zali za msaji kwa abunusi, Zitile sufufu zisitawiye; Decorated hanging-pegs that are pleasing to behold, I swear by God, Source of all Wealth, They were of teak and ebony, Placed in line to look their best. (Ink-39).
msana/mi- [n. 3/4] Vestibule, ante-room for male guests (WH). Not in FJ with this meaning. Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).
mshangao [n. 3] Thrilling excitement, deep sensation, admiration, wonder, perplexity, amazement, bewilderment, stupefaction (FJ). See St. –shangaa (FJ). Nina mwingi mshangao, sili chakula sisoni, I am totally bewildered, I neither eat nor sleep (ASN-Nd2).
mshindani/wa- [n. 1/2] Competitor. See –shindana (FJ). Amri yalipotoka, washindani kukimbiyaSungura akishopoka, nyuma hakuangaliya, When the command came for the competitors to run; spring forth Hare never looked back (ASN-KS4).
mshuu/mi- [n. 3/4] Breaker (TJH < Sx). Wimbi kuu kwa ghafula (ASN). Not in FJ. Shuu/ma- 5/6 wimbi lenye povu (KKS). Shuu/ma- 5/6 (DN = G ishuu). Mar. Brisant; lame qui se brise soit en pleaine mer, soit sur un récif (Sx). [brisant: sand-bank, reef, shoal; breakers] (shuu not given for breaker in TUKI). Mishuu henenda ngeya, yakifunda zijambani, Breakers come suddenly as they will, pounding down on the reefs (ASN-AD2).
msiba/mi- [n. 3/4] Misfortune, disaster (TJH). Calamity, misfortune, untoward accidents, disaster; (2) sorrow, distress of mind, grief; (3) formal mourning, outward signs of sorrow, etc. Used of war, famine, sickness, and minor calamities. Msiba mkuu (mkubwa, mgumu), a great disaster. Frequently refers to a bereavement, i.e. msiba wa baba yake, the death of his father. Vaa nguo za msiba, wear mourning. Fanya (ona, ingia, pata, &c.) msiba, take to heart, grieve (over). Kwenda kupa mkono wa msiba, go and make a visit of condolence, offer sympathy, inquire after—after a funeral, misfortune, etc. Akakaa msiba wa mama yake, he observed the usual mourning for his mother. Prov. Hakuna msiba usio na mwenziwe, misfortune never comes alone (FJ). Lakini msiba hauna ishara; But misfortune has no warning (M&K-MU1).
msukumo/mi- [n. 3/4] Pushing, push, shove; see -sukuma push (TJH). Kuikabili siku mpya, msukumo wa malimwengu, To face a new day, the push of worldly concerns (M&K-NJL2).
msutu/mi- [n. 3/4] Embroidered cloth of various colors, a product of Karachi used as curtains, wall hangings, bed spreads, and as clothing for women; went out of use c. 1850-70 (WH). Not in FJ. Large pièce d’indienne employée, soit comme tenture (msutu wa pazia), ou simplement msutu ou encore abusivement pazia qui désigne mieux une tapisserie servant au même usage), soit, comme chez les Gunya, comme une sorte de manteau dont les femmes se drapent de la tête aux pieds en passant un coin d’une épaule à l’autre (See kisutu) (Sx). Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).
mswano [adj.] Good (invariable; origin apparently Hehe; slang? Not in common use; may be a regionalism (West Lake)). Not in FJ. Na kumbato lao lali ni mswano; And its embrace was good (M&K-MU2).
mtaji/mi- [n. 3/4] Wealth, capital (TJH). Mali iliyotumika kuanzishia biashara au kazi nyingine yoyote ya kuzalisha mali. 2. mali inayotumiwa katika shughuli za chama au shirika ambayo kwayo faida iliyopatikana hutegemea mali iliyokadiriwa. 3. komwe katika mchezo wa bao zinazomwezesha mchezaji kula komwe za mpinzani wake (KKS). Dawa ya wenye mitaji ni risasi matakoni, The cure for the capitalists is a bullet in the ass (M&K-ML3).
mtanga/mi- [n. 3/4] Sand, dirt (TJH). See St. mchanga. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhuri, Wakanakiliwa ili safari, Washukiye nyumba za makaburi, Mtanga na fusi ziwafusiye; Even if wealth is ostentatious, They were carried off on (lit. for purpose of) death’s journey, They descended into the dwelling places of the dead (lit., graves), Sand and rubble entombed them. (Ink-44). {Dental t}
mtapaa/wa- [n. 1/2] One who butts with the head (see –ta strike, hit, and paa crown of the head) (WH). Ni kama kisima kisicho ombe, Chenye mtapaa mwana wa ng’ombe, Endao kwegema humta pembe, Asipate katu kunwa maiye; It (the world) is like a deep well without a protecting wall, Where lies a head-butting young bull, The person who goes and gets too close, it gores, He never succeeds in drinking water from it (lit. its water) (Ink-14).
mtatuzi/wa- [n. 1/2] Puzzle solver, decoder (TJH). Not in FJ. See St. –tatua unravel, etc. Kibafute natatiya, tatuwaniwatatuzi; I propose a guessing game, Figure it out you solvers (ASN-S2).
mtezateza [n. 1/2] One who plays a lot, one who messes around, fiddles about, a meddler (TJH). See –cheza play FJ. Haitawali mnyau, mtezateza na vumba, A cat, one who fiddles around with smelly fish, is not a ruler (lit., does not rule) (MY-KT).
mtima/mi- [n. 3/4] Heart, soul, spirit (TJH). Heart; 2. feeling, emotion. 3. rel. soul (CR). Listed in FJ as “seldom used now”. Mtima ukajifunda kikaka, My heart tied itself firmly (M&K-NJL2).
mtokoto/mi- [n. 3/4] Boiling, seething with heat, act of – (WH). Bubbling (LH). See –tokota become boiled, fried, be boiled, boiling, frying (FJ). Moto wa sairi ufahamuto, Ni moto mkali katika nyoto, Ni mngi wa moshi na mitokoto, Majoka na pili waikaliye; Understand totally the fire of the fourth level of hell, It’s the fiercest of all fires, There is much smoke and bubbling, Vile snakes and adders live in it (Ink-75).
mtumbuizi/wa- [n. 1/2] Singer of ballads (WH). One who soothes by singing songs (FJ). See –tumbuiza (FJ). Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi, Wali na wakandi na wapepezi, Na wake wapambe watumbuizi, Wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye; When they sleep from drosiness, They had masseurs and fanners, And well-dressed ladies as singers, Singing lullabies and never becoming quiet (Ink-41).
mtwa [n. 3/4] Termites, “white-ants”; see St. mchwa (TJH). Wasiriye wote kula kwa dudi, Na kuwatafuna zao jisadi, Na mtwa na tungu huwafisidi, Majoka na nge wawatatiye; They have all become food for insects, That chewed on their bodies, And termites and ants corrupted them, Fearsome snakes and vipers wound about them (Ink-47).
muanga [n. 3] Light; see mwanga and mwangaza (FJ). Mimi nakwambia nipulikiza, Watiziwe nyumba za jizajiza, Zisizo muanga na muwangaza, Ndio mashukio walishukiye, I tell you listen to me, They have been forced down into dark gloomy houses, That have neither light nor brightness, These indeed are the depths they had descended into (Ink-58).
muhibaka [n. 9/10 an.] Lover (TJH). Muhibu, mpenzi (ASN). Not in FJ, Sx. K’aya kwako muhibaka, nikaketi mapajani, So I might come to you (my) love, And sit on your lap (ASN-Nd3). Ar.
muhibu/wa- [n. 1/2] Sweetheart (MASB). Beloved, lover, friend  (K&K). Not in FJ. Ar. Na mumtibu Muhibu, kwa idhini ya Mwenyezi; And are you curing my Sweetheart, with God Almighty’s blessing (MASB-Au4).
Mukidhi/wa- [n. 1/2] Satisfier, Judge of Needs, one of the names of God (WH). Grantor (WH, LH). See –kidhi Grant, give to, satisfy, e.g. Mungu ndiye anayekidhi haja (or ni mkidhi haja), God is the granter (satisfier) of all needs, Amekidhi maombi yako, he has given you (granted) what you asked or prayed for (FJ). Ar. المقيت Nourisher. Allahumma Rabbi Mukidhi haja, Msalie Tumwa aliyekuja, Na tauhidiyo Mola wa waja, Akatusomesha tafsiriye; O my Lord Allah, Granter of (our) needs, Let us pray for the Prophet, Your dvine unity God Almighty of all people, And he taught us its meaning (i.e., the Koran). (Ink-5).
muluku [n. 9/10] Ownership, state of command, dominion (WH). Ar. Uwene wangapi watu wakwasi, Walo wakiwaa kama shamsi, Wa muluku zana za adharusi, Dhahabu na fedha wakhiziniye; How many rich people have you seen, Who were blazing brightly like the sun, Who control the weapons of war, Who have layed up gold and silver (Ink-34).
mumo [dem.] There inside, inside there (TJH). Ngome imetuumiza, naswi tu mumo ngomeni, The Fort has harmed us, (but) we as well are now inside the fort itself (MY-Ng).
murua [adj.] Excellent, outstanding, perfect (TJH). Nice, pleasing, beautiful, elegant (FJ). Tutalipatia murua afia; We will furnish perfect health for it (M&K-MU8).
muushi/wa- [n. 1/2] Flier, one that flies; see –ruka, -rusha (TJH). Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wote kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).
muuya/mi- [n. 3/4] Breaker, foaming wave (TJH). Vague, lame, flot, syn. de wimbi. Prov.: Mwenda na kuu k’owi, wala haonimiuya, qui va sur un grand (bateau) ne se mouille, et ne sent pas la vague; DN et poet. (Sx). {TJH: The one who travels on a large boat does not get wet nor feel the waves}. Wazami wa uziwani, wa mawimbi na miuya; Divers in the ocean, in waves and breakers (ASN-S1).
muwamu [n. 1] Brother-in-law, father-in-law, male relative by marriage (WH). See mlamu and mwamu (FJ). U wapi Ali bin Nasiri, Na muwamu wake Abubakari, Mwinyi Idarusi na Muhudhari, Wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye; Where is Ali bin Nasir, And his brother-in-law Abu Bakr, The Chief Idarusi and Muhudhari, Where have they gone over there, show me their (lit. his) way (i.e. where they went). (Ink-57).
muwanga/mi- [n. 3/4] Light, illumination, brightness (TJH). See mwanga a light, shining, that which gives light (FJ). Mwime na mikono t‘ani, muombe lenyi muwanga, Stand-up straight with your arms facing towards heaven, and pray for enlightenment (something possessing light) (MY-KY2).
muwangaza/mi- [n. 3/4] Light, etc. See mwangaza Light, brightness, cleanness (FJ). Mimi nakwambia nipulikiza, Watiziwe nyumba za jizajiza, Zisizo muanga na muwangaza, Ndio mashukio walishukiye, I tell you listen to me, They have been forced down into dark gloomy houses, That have neither light nor brightness, These indeed are the depths they had descended into (Ink-58).
muwashi/mi- [n. 3/4] Firebrand, blazing thing (WH). See –waka, -washa (FJ). Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of hell, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).
muyuzi/wa- [n. 1/2] Expert, skilled, capable, learned, clever, skillful person (TJH). See St. –juaYafumbuweni wayuzi, mutongowe moyamoya; Reveal those things, you learned ones, Speak clearly (of them) one by one (ASN-S2).
mvazi/mi- [n. 3/4] Part or division or joint of a necklace or chaplet; personal jewelry and apparel (WH) Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7).
mvi/mi- [n. 3/4] Arrow (FJ). Mvi wa manaya ukawafuma, Akatubukia katika nyama, Pasiwe mwatami mwenye kwatama, Au mwamba nini yalikuwaye; Death’s arrow struck them, And he (i.e., death) plunged it in their flesh, Without any dumbfounded gawker there with mouth wide open, Or speaker saying, “What, how has this happened?” (Ink-24).
mwako/mi- [n. 3/4] Blaze, flame, blazing, burning (FJ). See –waka burn (FJ). Chenda akaona mwako wa yuwa, Mai alotaka akayatuwa, Asifidi yambo ila shakawa, Ikawa mayuto yasimsiye; When he goes he then sees only the blazing sun, As for the water he wants, he rends himself (fig. is disappointed), Without gaining a thing except trouble, And so it was for him, remorse has never ended (Ink-17).
mwamba/w- [n. 1/2] Speaker (WH). See –amba (FJ). Mvi wa manaya ukawafuma, Akatubukia katika nyama, Pasiwe mwatami mwenye kwatama, Au mwamba nini yalikuwaye; Death’s arrow struck them, And he (i.e., death) plunged it in their flesh, Without any dumbfounded gawker there with mouth wide open, Or speaker saying, “What, how has this happened?” (Ink-24).
mwandani/w- [n. 1/2] Close friend, dear friend, intimate friend (TJH). Rafiki wa ndani ya moyo; rafiki wa kuaminika kupewa siri. Pengine mwendani (KKS). Nipe moyo wa tabaka na ujasiri, mwandani, Encourage me with bravery in the class struggle, my loving friend (M&K-ML1).
mwandi/mi- [n. 3/4] Luminescence, ray of light, beam; see kandi‘treasure’, and chand‘silver’ (TJH). Not in FJ or Sx with this sense. Miangaza na miandi; Eneo hung’eng’ezuka, With brightness and beams of light, The whole area glows (ASN-S7).
mwangaza/mi- [n. 3/4] Light, brightness, clearness (FJ). Miangaza na miandi, Eneo hung’eng’ezuka; With brightness and beams of light, The whole area glows (ASN-S7).
mwango/mi- [n. 3/4] Echo (WH). See mwangwi (FJ). Kwamba husadiki hwamba mbwongo, Enda nyumba zao uzinde shingo, Ukita hwitikwi ila ni mwango, Sauti ya mtu itindishiye; If you do not believe it and say it’s a lie, Go to their houses and look around (lit. turn neck), If you call out you get no answer but an echo, The human voice has been cut off (Ink-54).
mwasi/wa- [n. 1/2] Maverick, disenter, dissident (TJH). Rebel, disobedient person (FJ). Tyrant (LH, WH). Désobéissant, rebelle, insurgé, insubordonné, indiscipliné (Sx). Suu ulimwengu bahari tesi, Una matumbawe na mangi masi, Aurakibuo juwa ni mwasi, Kwa kula khasara ukhasiriye; This world is a stormy sea, With coral reefs and many shell-encrusted shoals, The one who rides it out (i.e., the world), knows that it is a maverick, It has brought harm with every disaster (Ink-13).
mwatami/w- [n. 1/2] Gawker, starer with open-mouth (TJH). Person who gapes, one dumbfounded (WH). Mvi wa manaya ukawafuma, Akatubukia katika nyama, Pasiwe mwatami mwenye kwatama, Au mwamba nini yalikuwaye; Death’s arrow struck them, And he (i.e., death) plunged it in their flesh, Without any dumbfounded gawker there with mouth wide open, Or speaker saying, “What, how has this happened?” (Ink-24). dental t
mwelevu/w- [n. 1/2] Clever, sly one (TJH). See St. –erevu. Shrewd, clever, cunning, resourceful, crafty — not often a term of praise, but not always in disparagement (FJ).Welevu kitatuweni, munambiye nielewe; Experts, work it out (the puzzle), Tell me (what it means) so I may understand (ASN-3).
mwende/w- [n. 1/2] Companion, friend. See St. mwenzi (FJ); A. mwendi (Sx). Walitaka mashindano, kobe na mwende sungura, They wanted a competition, Tortoise and his friend Hare (ASN-KS1).
mwendo/w- [n. 1/2, contr.] Your companion; mwendi + (wak)o; see mwenzio/w- (TJH). Moyo taadabu sipeketeke, Ata ya jauri haki ushike, Wendo wachokoka nawe wokoke, Moto wa jahimu usikutwaye; Oh heart, behave, don’t be fooled by your arrogance, Stop your oppression hold on to justice, If your friends are saved then you too ought to be saved, So hell fire does not carry you off (Ink-65).
mwenendi/w- [n. 1/2] One who goes, a goer, passerby, etc. (TJH). See –enenda & -enda go (FJ). Huvuta kila mwenendi; Kijopo hukusanyika, It attracts every passerby, They gather in small groups (ASN-S7).
mwenyi/w- [n. 1/2] Owner, possessor, one possessing a quality (TJH). See –enye (FJ). Haiyebu mwenyi makuu ndiani mwenda sambamba, It (Mombasa) does not want an arrogant person, walking along with others in the streets (MY-KT).
mwiso [n. 3] End. See St. mwishoHutompata Qaruni, mwiso aliangamiya, You will never get (as far ahead as) Qaruni, and in the end even he perished (ASN-AD6).
mwiso [n. 3] End. See St. Sw. Mwisho (FJ). Sasa t’akhitimu t’atia tama, Atakofuata na kuyandama, T’apata khatima na mwiso mwema, Rabbi twakuomba tujaaliye; Now I will finish I’ll put in the conclusion, He who will follow and go along with it, He will finally have a good ending, Oh Lord we pray that you grant us this (Ink-78).
mwiya [n. 3] Time, opportunity (TJH). Nafasi (INS). Wakati (ANS). Not in FJ or Sx. Nitawapa mwingi mwiya; Fundo hili funguwani, I shall give you a lot of time, open this knot (ASN-S8).
mwongo/wa- [n. 1/2] Liar, impostor, inventor of falsehoods, deceiver, perverter of the truth (FJ). Wengine mashujaa walo waongo; Others with false bravado (Other brave ones who are imposters) (M&K-MU7).
mwujiza/mi- [n. 3/4] Unusual, special (TJH). Anything wonderful, extraordinary, supernatural, a wonder, a surprise, a miracle (FJ). Si miti ya miujiza, Yenezee duniyani; They are not unusual trees, They are spread throughout the world (ASN-S5).
mzagao/mi- [n. 3/4] Bauble, trinket, cheap decoration, bling; fig. ostentatious lifestyle (TJH). A glittering, shining thing (JK). See –zagaa shine, glisten, give light, illuminate (FJ). Yenye kushangaza (MM). WH is uncertain of the etymology of this word and speculates it derives from –gagaa roll about; he thus gives “rolling about” as the meaning; this seems unlikely. Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).
mzami/wa- [n. 1/2] Diver (ASN). See St. –zama. Wazami wa uziwani, wa mawimbi na miuya; Divers in the ocean, in waves and breakers (ASN-S1).
mzazi/wa- [n. 1/2] Progenitor, ancestor (WH). Parent, etc. (FJ). Sasa moyo pako t’auza nawe, Nelezato sana nami nelewe, Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe, Nambia walipo kawamkiye; Now oh soul, for your part I will ask even you, Explain it to me most clearly so I understand, Where are your forebears who gave you birth, Tell me where they are so I may go and greet them (Ink-56).
nabahi ~ nabihi 26 [v. tr.] Heed a warning, perceive, be aware of, be informed about, be conscious of , take notice of (TJH). Remember, perceive (FJ). Be mindful, take heed, take warning (WH). Ar. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi, Ukanabihika hukunabihi, Utaata lini ya usafihi, Nambia ukomo niusikiye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-26).
nabihika [v. i.] Be warned (WH) Be made aware of, be in a conscious state, have heeded a warning (TJH). Ar. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi, Ukanabihika hukunabihi, Utaata lini ya usafihi, Nambia ukomo niusikiye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-26).
nafsi [n. 9/10] Heart, being (TJH). Vital spirit, breath, soul, self, person, individuality, essence; generally used to emphasize personality (FJ). Tuziridhishe zetu nafsi, Let us satisfy our hearts. (M&K-WJLL1)
nahari [n. 9] Daytime (K&K). Jour, journée (Sx). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of shell and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37).
nahudha [n. 9/10 an.] Captain; see nahodha (FJ). Nahudha ni Nabahani, Bahari alozoweya; The captain is Nabhany, Who is accustomed to the ocean (ASN-S9). Ar.
nakawa [adj.] Clear, good-looking, in sound condition, of fine quality—of persons and things (FJ). Na ardhi yenye rutuba nakawa; And a land with the finest fertility (M&K-MU13).
nakiliwa [v. ps] Be conveyed, transmitted, transferred (WH). Chukuliwa (MMM). Ar. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhuri, Wakanakiliwa ili safari, Washukiye nyumba za makaburi, Mtanga na fusi ziwafusiye; Even if wealth is ostentatious, They were carried off on (lit. for purpose of) death’s journey, They descended into the dwelling places of the dead (lit., graves), Sand and rubble entombed them. (Ink-44).
nakishia [v. appl.] Decorate with, engrave with, adorn with (TJH). See nakshi n. carving, carved ornament, fine chisel-work, engraving, and used of any ornamentation of similar appearance, e.g. fancy work, embroidery (FJ). Kwa maao mema ya kukhitari, Iyu la zitanda za majodori, Na mito kuwili ya akhadhari, Kwa kazi ya pote wanakishiye; On fine well-chosen couches, On beds of padded cushions, With green pillows at both ends, Decorated with embroidered work (Ink-42).
nakishiwa [v. ps.] Be decorated with (TJH). Wapambiye sini ya kuteuwa, Na kula kikombe kinakishiwa, Kati watiziye kuzi za kowa, Katika mapambo yanawiriye; They decorated with choice china, And every cup was adorned with etching, In the center they placed pitchers of crystal, Among the glittering ornaments (Ink-38).
namua [v. phrase] Judge me; n-amua < ni-amua (TJH). Namua na hoyo menidhilimu, Kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu, Mungu Jabari akahukumu, Amtendeleo amlipiye; Judge me as well as the one (who) persecuted me, With your judgement which is hard, God the All-Powerful will judge, What he did to another may He pay him (in kind) (Ink-69).
naswi [pro. contr.] And we, with us, we also, we as well, etc.; contraction of na + swiswi (q.v.) (TJH). Ngome imetuumiza, naswi tu mumo ngomeni, The Fort has harmed us, (but) we as well are now inside the fort itself. (MY-Ng)
nawiri [v. i.] Shine, glitter, gleam, be brilliant; under nuru in FJ. Shine, but only used of a person’s countenance. Uso wake unanawiri, her face shines, i.e., is healthy looking, pleasant (FJ). Briller, avoir de l’éclat, être éclantant de lumière; luire, reluire (Sx). Jan Feidel translates the verse: “And looks lovely in the land.” Ikaiyanga mimeya, na kunawiri kondeni, Then the plants will flourish, and look lovely in the field (ASN-AD4).
nawiri [v. i.] Shine (LH) Ar. Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7).
nawiri [v. i.] Be aglow (WH). Shine, but only used of a person’s countenance. Uso wake unanawiri, her face shines, i.e. is healthy looking, pleasant (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of shell and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37).
ndako [v. cop.] It is yours, they are yours. St. ni yako ~ ni zako. See Nurse 1982, p. 83. Crase pour ni ya avec extensions aux locutions possessives ndangu, ndako, ndake, ndetu, ndenu, ndao. Ces forms sont plus usitées dans les Dial. Am. G. Ng. qu’ailleurs … (Sx). K’ongole ndako mwendani, kwa bidii ulotiya, Congratulations are yours, Oh friend, for the effort you put in to it (ASN-KS10).
nde [n. 9] Outside; see nje (FJ). Nyumba kati zao huvuma mende, Kumbi za msana hulia ngende, Yalifiye vumi makumbi ya nde, kuwa mazibala yalisiriye; Inside the buildings the cockroaches rustle around, In the men’s halls the crickets are chirping, The noise of the ante-chambers died away, For they had become dungheaps (Ink-52).
ndeo ~ ndweo [n. 9/10] Pride; The old name of Lamu was Kiwa Ndeo the popular translation of which is “The Proud Island” (WH). Swollen headedness (CHS). Make difficulties; hinder, cause a project to tarry (WH). Delay by the way (CHS). See –a kuusiri procrastination, postponing, putting things off (TJH). Ichamba hayani ndio safari, Yakomele tena ya kuusiri, Bidhaa ya ndeo na takaburi, Mutendele kwangu nishuhudiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-23).
ndezi [n. 9/10] Pride, boasting, bragging (TJH). Taraghani (ASN). Sipite ukiyongoya, kwa ndezi na taraghani, Don’t pass along taking the lead boastfully and arrogantly (ASN-AD6). {See homonym ndezi: 1. the name of a kind of rat; 2. drowsiness (FJ). Nom d’un petit gibier très apprécié. l’aulacode (Aulacodus swinderianus). Nom d’un grand poisson de mer (Mr. Mv. Am.; (Sx).
ndimi [n. 10] Tongues. See ulimi tongue. Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73).
ndiya ~ ndia [n. 9/10] Road, way, path, etc. See St. njia. Wawapi wa ziungini, ufu wamepita ndiya, Where are those on top, in a pffff they are gone (ASN-AD3).
ndra [n. 9/10] Field newly opened for cultivation (ASN/TJH). Konde, shamba (INS). Not in Sx, either under nda or ndra. (Note /nd/ in Am is pronounced [ndra] with a rhotacized /d/, thus the spelling). Uwapo nayo mp’iya, ndra ukatumaini, When you have a new field you have hopes for it (ASN-AD4).
ndu- [n. 9/10 an.] Contracted form of nduu brother, sister, relative, etc. used in conjunction with possessive pronouns (TJH). See St. ndugu (FJ). Lakini sina uweza, nduyangu nifanye nini? But I am unable (to fly), my sister, what must I do? (ASN-Nd4).
nduli [n. 9/10] Pitiless, merciless person (TJH). A savage person, a killer, murderous, blood-shedding person; 2. the angel of death, Izraili. (Perh. from ua (ula), kill) (FJ). Mtoa roho; adui asiye na huruma; dhalimu, katili. 2. malaika wa mauti; Izraili (KKS). Tuwe tayari kulikabili jua kali, Kuwakabili nduli waharibifu, Let’s be ready to face the hot sun, To face the pitiless, destructive enemy (M&K-WJLL2).
nduli [n. 9/10] Beast (see TUKI for ‘beast’: katili) (TJH). Savage person, a killer, murderous, blood-shedding; 2. the angel of death, Izraili. (Perh. from ua (ula), kill) (FJ). Mtoa roho; adui asiye na huruma; dhalimu, katili. 2. malaika wa mauti; Izraili. Toboa litumbo la nduli kafiri; Puncture open the odious stomach of the accursed beast (M&K-MU11).
nduye [n. 9/10 an.] Ndugu yake, his brother, relation, peer thus fig. his equal (TJH). Nataka himdi nitangulize, Alo mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza illa isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So he who is a pious scholar not ask, And then say, “don’t stop us from praising”, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other. (Ink-2).
nduye [n. 9/10 an.] Equal, like; lit. his brother, relative; see St ndugu yake. NB: in the citation this is used metaphorically to express a comparison, something “related” (TJH). Unparalled (JVA). Nataka himdi nitangulize, Alo mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza ila isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So that the pious scholar not ask, And say, don’t stop us from praising, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other (Ink-2).
nenepesha [v. cs.] Fatten, make fat; see –nene fat, in good shape, healthy (TJH). Make stout (FJ). Tutaoza tulinenepeshe zimwi, We will rot to fatten the monster (M&K-MU8).
ng’andu [n. 9] Gold (ASN).Copper colored (TJH). Nom que les marins donnent à l’étoile du matin. V. zuhura; 2. (Mr. par emprunt au Zig.). Se dit parfois pour mamba-ng’andu, variété de crocodile de couleur claire, cuivrée.  Wengi wametajirika, Kwa ng’andu na tu chandi; Many have become rich, With gold and even silver (ASN-S7).
ng’eng’ezuka [v. i.] Shine, glow (TJH). Ng’ara (ASN). See –ngara be bright, glitter, gleam, shine (FJ). Not in SX, not in FJ.Miangaza na miandi, Eneo hung’eng’ezuka, With brightness and beams of light; The whole area glows (ASN-S7).
ngapo [phrase] Though it befall, or has befallen; -nga- conditional of the verb be; plus -po (WH). Zituko zingapo hutanabahi, Ukanabihika hukunabihi, Utaata lini ya usafihi, Nambia ukomo niusikiye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-26).
ngeya [n. 9/10] Death blow (TJH). Parry, side-thrust, coup-de-grace (WH). Kima ina ila ilio mbovu, Ilikithiriye ungi welevu, I kalifu mno kuta kiwavu, Kupa watu ngeya ikithiriye; Finally it has the worst evil, It grows ever larger with an abundance of cunning, It is exceedingly violent striking at the heart, Inflicting on people death blows, it has exceeded all bounds (Ink-20).
ngeya ~ ngea [adv.] Go this way and that. Enda hivi na hivi (ASN). Not in FJ, not in KKS. See ngei: –enda ngei, plier sous l’effort du vent (arbre) (G.; Sx). Mishuu henenda ngeya, yakifunda zijambani, Breakers come suddenly as they will, pounding down on the reefs (ASN-AD2).
ngome [n. 9/10] Fort, fortress, citadel (TJH). Ngome ni ngome ya mawe na fusi la kufusiza, The Fort is a fortress of stone with a foundation of hard-packed rubble. (MY-Ng). See fusi.
ngondo [n. 9/10] Strength. Nguvu (INS). Usiiyone kwa ziya, una ngondo muilini, Don’t think of yourself, of your limbs, you are strong in body (ASN-AD5). (Guerre; Syn vita. – Terme emprunté au Yao {inv. poét. = kondo} (Sx).
ngowa ~ ngoa [n. 9/10] Passion (WH). See ngoa desire, passion, lust, jealousy; timiza ngoa satisfy the passions; lia ngoa weep for jealousy (FJ). Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wot’e kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).
Ngwa [n. 1] God (MHA). A contaction of Mungu+a used in prayers and curses: Ngwakujazi may God reward you; Ngwakupe may God give you (success). Ngwamlaani, may God condemn him (Sx). Rabi, Ngwaipa afua! Na kuiafu si kazi; Lord, May God give it relief! And providing relief (for Him) is not difficult (MY-KY1).
ninga/ma- [n. 5/6] Eye. Oeil, dans les expressions consacrées suivantes: -vua maninga, ouvrir les yeux (pour voir), syn. Am. G. -vua mato (DS, etc. –funua macho). -inua maninga lever les yeux pour voir. — Am. maninga ya kionana = G. maninga ya kivonana, l’instant précis quand le jour commençant (à l’aurore) permet de distinguer les objets. (Ng. Am. et G. arch.) — Dans un chant (G.): (Sx here gives a 4 line poem, p. 684). Not in FJ. Na maninga kodoleya, usipumbae jizani Focus your eyes, don’t be confused in the dark (ASN-AD3).
njozi [n. 9/10] Dream (TJH). Vision, apparition (FJ). Maono yatokeayo usingizini; ndoto, ruia (KKS). Phantom, apparition, ghost (CR). Toka njozini nikavuvumka, As from a dream I jolted awake (M&K-NJL2).
nofu/ma- [n. 5/6] Lumps of flesh torn from a corpse (WH). See mnofu/mi- (FJ). Na moto wa ladha nao pulika, Moto ukitiwa mara huwaka, Huona manofu yakikwambuka, Waona ziungo ziungushiye; And as for the fire of the second hell listen, If you are put into its fire you burn immediately, You see chunks of flesh being stripped from you, You see that your limbs have been utterly consumed (Ink-76).
nono [n. 14; adj.] Deep sleep; deep and undisturbed (sleep), soundly (as in sleep) (TJH). See lala unono sleep well (FJ). Tuliulala usingizi nono; We slept a deep sleep (M&K-MU2).
nti [n. 9/10] Land, country, etc. (TJH). See nchi (FJ). Humwangusha kwa mimba juu lat‘i kamwawaa, It knocks him face down to the ground, and annihilates him (MY-KT). Note the loss of the nasal prefix when combined with the preceding la ‘of’.
nudumu ~ nuduma [n. 9/10] Poem, lit. a string of pearls (WH). Bismiliahi naikadimu, Hali ya kutunga hino nudhumu, Na ar-Rahmani kiirasimu, Basi ar-Rahimi nyuma ikaye; I put first In the Name of God, While composing this poem, And writing The Merciful One, And so may the invocation “The Benign One” be the last in order (Ink-1). Ar.
nusuha 27 [n. 9] Advice, counsel, entreaty; also as nasiha, nasaha, nisaha and the verb –nasihi (WH). Hiki ewe moyo kievu changu, Hukengeukii nusuha yangu, Huza akherayo kwa ulimwengu, Ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-27).
nwa [v. tr.] Drink, see nywa (FJ). Ni kama kisima kisicho ombe, Chenye mtapaa mwana wa ng’ombe, Endao kwegema humta pembe, Asipate katu kunwa maiye; It (the world) is like a deep well without a protecting wall, Where lies a head-butting young bull, The person who goes and gets too close, it gores, He never succeeds in drinking water from it (Ink-14).
nyamaa [v. i.] Be silent, stop talking, hold one’s tongue, be (become) quiet, die away, cease, be still—usu. not only of talking and noise, but of anything violent, troublesome, or painful, e.g. of mental or bodily suffering (FJ). Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi, Wali na wakandi na wapepezi, Na wake wapambe watumbuizi, Wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye; When they sleep from drosiness, They had masseurs and fanners, And well-dressed ladies as singers, Singing lullabies and never becoming quiet (Ink-41).
nyang’au/ma- [n. 5/6 an.] Wild person, beast, savage, brute (TJH). Mtu mwenye tabia ya kinyama; mtu asiyekuwa na tabia ya kiutu (KKS). Tuporomoshe milima na kuwalima nyang’au, Let us crumble the mountains and cultivate those beasts (M&K-ML7).
nyani [n. 9/10 an.] Baboon (FJ). Nina mwili kama nyie, Mwili wangu si wa nyani; I have a body like you, it’s not a baboon’s (M&K-SKN4). 
nyemi [n. 9/10] Sweetness of life, joyousness, gaity (TJH). Merriment (LH). Qq. ch. d’agréable, agrément (Furaha kidogo); archaïsme conservé dans le Prov. Kipya kinyemi kingawa kiovu le neuf plait, fût-il mauvais; also mnyemi archaïque Pate, Mvita, Amu, personne qui éprouve de la joie (mwenye furaha) (Sx). Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).
nyonda [n. 9/10] Desire, wish, longing (TJH). Désir bon ou mauvais. -ngia nyonda ya kupenda mtu, ya kutaka kitu, éprouver le désir d’aimer qqn., de souhaiter une chose (Am. G.; Sx). ASN: < –onja. ASN: nyonda zangu = mpenzi wangu thus the 2nd person singular waniliza ‘you make me cry’ in the citation. Nyonda zangu waniliza, kunepukiya matoni, My desire, you make me cry, avoiding (to look) into my eyes (ASN-Nd4).
nyongoza [n. 9/10] Shallow water, inlet, bay; sea ocean; tidal waters (TJH). Bahari ndogo ndogo; bahari (ASN). Bahari ya maji madogo (INS). Not in SX, not in FJ. Shaza lengetwe mtini; Zizimbwini mwa nyongoza,The shell is held in the tree, In the depths of the ocean (ASN-S5).
nyongoza [n. 9/10] Inlet, bay; shallow water (TJH). Bahari ndogo ndogo (ASN). Bahari ya maji madogo (INS). Not in Sx. Jan Feidel: shallow waters. Migoromo hueneya, na mivundu nyongozani, Their roar spreads along, with turbulence in shallow water (ASN-AD2).
nyotea [v. appl.] Rain upon (TJH). Not in FJ/K&K. See nyotanyota drizzle, used of drizzling rain, and nyonyota drizzle (FJ). Kwamba leo utawanyotea ufu; That today death would rain down upon them (M&K-MU4).
nyoto [n. 10] See moto n. 3/4 fire. WH identifies this as the plural augmentative of joto. However, nyoto is usually understood as the normal dialectal plural of moto fire (TJH). Moto wa sairi ufahamuto, Ni moto mkali katika nyoto, Ni mngi wa moshi na mitokoto, Majoka na pili waikaliye; Understand totally the fire of the fourth level of hell, It’s the fiercest of all fires, There is much smoke and bubbling, Vile snakes and adders live in it (Ink-75).
nyuma [n. 9/10] End, on the end, at the end (TJH). Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7).
nyumba ya ti [n. 9/10] Grave, sepulchre. Lit. house of/in the ground; see nti land, earth, ground, St. nchi (TJH). Watoto wangapi uwaweneo, Ukawayakini kupona kwao, Sasa nyumba za ti ziwateteo, Katika luhudi iwafundiye; How many children have you seen, And are you certain about their well-being, Whose sepulchres have now enshrouded them, In a grave that binds them (Ink-33).
nyumu [adj.] Hard, difficult; see ngumu (TJH). Namua na hoyo menidhilimu, Kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu, Mungu Jabari akahukumu, Amtendeleo amlipiye; Judge me as well as the one (who) persecuted me, With your judgement which is hard, God the All-Powerful will judge, What he did to another may He pay him (in kind) (Ink-69).
nyundo [n. 9/10] Hammer (FJ). Kula aliye mfuzi, na nyundo huitumiya,For anyone who is a smith; And who uses a hammer (ASN-S2).
nyunyu/ma- [n. 5/6] Drizzle, light rain, gentle rain (TJH). Mostly used in the plur. manyunyu, sprinkled liquid, sprinklings, drizzle, light rain (FJ). P’epo husukuma pwani, nyunyuni kama zijiwe; The wind pushes (it) to the coast, the drizzle is like little pebbles (ASN-S3).
nywea [v. i.] Vanish, fade away, dwindle. See -nywa: drink, absorb, suck up, exhaust, consume. -nywewa be drunk up, be absorbed, dwindle, pine away, evaporate, vanish. -nyweakila siku mkewe huzidi kunywea every day his wife gets thinner; nyama imenyea the meat has dried up in cooking; be absorbed, e.g. maji yamenywea the water has dried up, is absorbed (FJ). Kama povu utaseya, unywee ulimwenguni, Like foam you will fade away, and vanish from the world (ASN-AD5).
oka [v. i.] Be, become straight (as of a road or a purpose); see -nyoka (WH). Malimwengu yote yawatiile, Na dunia yao iwaokele, Wachenda zitwa zao zilele, Mato mafumbuzi wayafumbiye; The whole world has submitted to them, And their world was laid out straight for them, Walking along, their heads held distainfully, Their staring eyes looking darkly (Ink-35).
okoka [v. st.] Be saved (TJH). See –okoa save, rescue, deliver, preserve (FJ). Na kwokoka kumezwa na zimwi baa; And be saved from being swallowed by the monster (M&K-MU3).
ombe [n. 9/10] Wall around mouth of a well (CHS). Edge of an abyss, escarpment, brink, protecting wall round a well, parapet, ledge (K&K). See ombwe edge, brink as of a well or seashore (FJ). Bord du gouffre, comme à l’extrémité de la falaise, ou à l’endroit où la mer gagne subitement en profondeur; usilewelewe na ombe ne prends pas le vertige sur le bord de l’abîme; -tumbukia ombeni tomber dans l’abîme (Sx). Shallow waterpool (WH). Wall around the mouth of a well (CHS). Ni kama kisima kisicho ombe, Chenye mtapaa mwana wa ng’ombe, Endao kwegema humta pembe, Asipate katu kunwa maiye; It (the world) is like a deep well without a protecting wall, Where lies a head-butting young bull, The person who goes and gets too close, it gores, He never succeeds in drinking water from it (lit. its water) (Ink-14).
omo/ma- [n. 5/6] Bow, prow (FJ gives an Arabic etymology, but I suggest this is from *-lomo ‘mouth, beak, etc. thus that which protrudes in front, thus bow or prow of a boat. Moya tezi na omoni, sambo ipate tuliya; One at the stern and (another) at the bow, So that the dhow may lie at rest (ASN-S9).
ondo [n. 5/6] Knee (CHS). Genou, -pija ondo faire une génuflexion (Sx). See –ta ondo –piga magoti. Not in FJ. Tafakari siku ya kwima kondo, Ya kuaridhiwa kula kitendo, Pindi madhulumu atapo ondo, Achamba ya Rabbi namua naye; Think about the day when multitudes will assemble(i.e., the Day of Judgment), The day when every deed will be unveiled, When the persecuted one kneels, Saying, “oh Lord judge between me and him.” (Ink-68).{dental}
oneana [v. rcp.] Have mutual feelings for each other; oneana huruma be empathetic towards each other, have mercy for each other (TJH). Tease each other, as well as ‘feel towards each other’ (FJ). See –onea huruma pity someone (Brill). Ndugu walioshibana, huruma huoneana, Brothers who are content with one another, Show mercy to each other (MASB-Ud4).
oneshana [v. cs. rcp.] Direct each other to a result, goal, end (TJH). See –onyesha cause to see, show, point out, demonstrate, make clear, exhibit, place on view (FJ). Ndugu walioshibana, huruma huoneana, Shida kusaidiana, makosa sameheana, Mema kushauriana, mazuri kuoneshana, Brothers who are content with one another, Show mercy to each other, Helping each other (when) in trouble, and forgiving each others’ mistakes, They consul each other on proper behavior, and direct each other in good deeds (MASB-Ud4).
onja [v. tr.]  Taste, take a taste of; (2) try, test, examine (FJ). Mzee kidogo, maisha ‘meonja; Somewhat old, he had already tasted life (M&K-MU8).
onjesha [v. cs.] Give someone something to taste, make taste (TJH). In FJ, but no gloss given. See -onja taste (FJ). Pengine hukuonjesha nyingi dhiki; Sometimes it makes you taste much agony (M&K-MU-1)
onya [v. cs] Make see, show, etc., now mainly replace by St. –onyesha except in the sense of ‘warn, etc.’ (TJH). Faire voir, montrer, indiquer, laisser voir, être transparent, fig. Averter, prévenir, donner u conseil à qqn., donner à entendre, remontrer, corriger, reprendre (Sx). U wapi Ali bin Nasiri, Na muwamu wake Abubakari, Mwinyi Idarusi na Muhudhari, Wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye; Where is Ali bin Nasir, And his brother-in-law Abu Bakr, The Chief Idarusi and Muhudhari, Where have they gone over there, show me their (lit. his) way (i.e. where they went). (Ink-57). NB: note the form mbonya is an archaic form derived from Proto-Sabaki *ni-Wonya via vowel loss (n-Wonya), progressive assimilation of *n > m/___[+labial] (m-Wonya) and regressive assimilation wherein *W > b/[+nas]___ (mbonya); see uwingu/mbingu 11/10 ‘sky, cloud’, mwovu ‘evil person’ and mbovu 9 adj. ‘rotten’; Nurse & Hinnebusch 1993 passim).
opoka [v.i.] Take off, spring forth, pull out quickly, pull away quickly (TJH). Be saved (rescued, cured) (FJ). –Opoa take (fetch, pull, draw) out (FJ). –Opoa: 1. (DS. Mv, = Ngw. -lopola, -opola, -opoa). retirer, tirer, enlever ou arracher del’intérieur de; repêcher; prendre dedans; dégager, dépêtrer …; 2. (Mv) Enlever ou ravir sa proie (oiseau); 3. (Am) faire tomber d’un endroit élevé. Tartibu! utamwopoa (katika mti), Attention! Tu le feras tomber (de l’arbre). Sungura akishopoka, nyuma hakuangaliya, Once Hare sprang forth, he never looked back (ASN-KS4). {See –ng’oa root up, pull out, –ng’oka be pulled up; colloq. Go away in a hurry, pull away, be on one’s way}
ororo [adj.] Soft, tender, delicate, sensitive, gentle, smooth, velvety (TJH). Soft, smooth, velvety, tender (FJ). Nitaweka kiitikio cha wimbo mwororo, I will set (in verse) a refrain of a tender song (M&K-WJLL4).
ororo [adj.] Wanja mwororo shavuni na manukato mwilini, Velvety rouge on your cheeks and perfume on your body (M&K-ML5).
ororo [adj.] Wanja mwororo shavuni na manukato mwilini, Velvety rouge on your cheeks and perfume on your body (M&K-ML5).
otea [v. prep.] Dream about (FJ). Usiku huo twali tumesinzia, Na ndoto kwa wingi tukijiotea; That night we were carelessly asleep, And dreams in abundance dreaming of ourselves (M&K-MU2).
ovu/ma- [n. 5/6] Evil, wickedness. Lema ovu zingatiya, uufahamu undani, Consider carefully both good and evil, understand their secrets (ASN-AD7).
pa ngeya [phrase] Inflict, deliver blows, deal a death blow; see ngeya (TJH). Kima ina ila ilio mbovu, Ilikithiriye ungi welevu, I kalifu mno kuta kiwavu, Kupa watu ngeya ikithiriye; Finally it has the worst evil, It grows ever larger with an abundance of cunning, It is exceedingly violent striking at the heart, Inflicting on people death blows, it has exceeded all bounds (Ink-20).
pako [2nd poss 16] For your part (WH). Chez toi; près de ou vers chez toi (Sx). Sasa moyo pako t’auza nawe, Nelezato sana nami nelewe, Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe, Nambia walipo kawamkiye; Now oh soul, for your part I will ask even you, Explain it to me most clearly so I understand, Where are your forebears who gave you birth, Tell me where they are so I may go and greet them (Ink-56).
paliya [v. appl.] Soar, fly high, ascend to great heights (TJH). See -paa go up, ascend, mount, rise; –palia (FJ). Mwendao mbiyo upeo, mukipaliya yangani, You who go so quickly as far as one can see, soaring high into the sky (ASN-Nd1).
pamoya ~ pamoja [n. 16, adv.] Together, in the company with (< pa– + –moja one place). See St. pamoja (FJ). Faru ndovu wakatoka, t’ui na nyati pamoya, Rhinos and elephants came out, along with leopards and buffalo (ASN-KS3).
panda [v. tr.] Perch upon (WH). Go up, ascend, climb, mount, get upon, ride upon (FJ). Wana wa zipungu wapende zango, Na wana wa ndiwa humia shingo, Na kupija mbawa matongotongo, Ziku na zitati waliwashiye; Young vultures have perched on clothes-rack pegs, And the squab of doves bob their heads (lit., necks) to and fro, And flutter their wings ceaselessly, (Where) wood-pigeons and swallows have built their nests (Ink-51).
panda [n. 9/10] Horn, trumpet, war-horn (WH). ). Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73). {dental d}
papasa [v. tr.] Caress, fondle (TJH). Stroke with the hand, touch gently, rub lightly; (2) grope about, feel about, feel one’s way in the dark with hands spread out (FJ). Kumpapasa, kumtoa matongo; Caressing him, taking away his sleep (M&K-Mk2).
papatuka [v. st.] Be in a state of expansion, be bursting under inner pressure, be palpitant (WH). Go away, come off (FJ). See –papatua Am = -babatua Mv. See –babatua split, crack, break in pieces (K&K). Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67).
parura [v. tr.] Abrade, cut, lacerate (TJH). Scrape, scratch (FJ). Chochote kinachoweza kuparura; Whatever would be able to scratch (at him) (M&K-MU10).
pata [v. tr.] Get, procure; happen to etc. Khasaisi zote na makatayo, Shida na shakawa likupeteyo, Ni dunia sii uipendayo, Yenye dhuli nyingi na makataye; All your vices and deprivation, Difficulties and trouble that have happened to you, Because of (lit., by) this world which you love, With its many miseries and its hardships (Ink-18).
peketeka [v. i.] Be arrogant, insolent (TJH). Froisser (-fikicha), mettre en désordre, brouiller; troubler l’eau, etc. (-p. mai). -p. kartasi, zuo x réfi. -ipeketa Se déprécier par son arrogance ou son insolence (-ishaua) (Sx). Danganyika (MMM). Be drilled, bored, as by a pointed instrument; (2) be confused, mixed up, slack, stirred up (FJ). Moyo, taadabu sipeketeke, Ata ya jauri haki ushike, Wendo wachokoka nawe wokoke, Moto wa jahimu usikutwaye; Oh heart, behave, don’t be fooled by your arrogance, Stop your oppression hold on to justice, If your friends are saved then you too ought to be saved, So hell fire does not carry you off (Ink-65).
pepea [v. tr.] Blow on to cool, refresh, fan (TJH). Fan, wave (like a fan), wave about in the air, make a current of air (FJ). Pia pepo baridi kumpepea; The cool winds to refresh him as well (M&K-Mk2).
pete [-ile perf.] Perfect stem; see –pata See get, happen to, etc. (FJ).
pete [-ile perf.] Perfect stem, see –pita pass, etc. (FJ). Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).
pete [-ile perf.] Perfect stem, see –pata (FJ). Moyo, ya kwambia ya watu sawo, Kalamu ya Mungu iwapetewo, Nawe wa yakini kuwa kamawo, Au una yako uyashishiye; Oh my soul, the things to tell about these people, The pen of God that has ordained their fate (lit. has gotten them), And you for sure are like them, Unless (lit. or) you have your own (i.e., Islamic faith) to which you cling (Ink-64).
pi [enclitic] Truncated variant of wapi where (TJH). Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67).
pigo/ma- [n. 5/6] Rhythm, beat, tempo, cadence; throb (TJH). Blow, stroke, beat, e.g. aliwafundisha mapigo ya ngoma, he taught them the proper beats of the drum; pigo mbili (tatu, etc.), two (three, etc.) pulse measure. (2) calamity, plague, etc. Nikisifu uzuri wa jua kuwaka… Na mvuto wa mapigo ya maisha. Praising the beauty of the dazzling sun… And the attraction of the rhythm of life (M&K-WJLL4).
pija [v. tr.] Hit, etc.; See –piga (FJ). Wana wa zipungu wapende zango, Na wana wa ndiwa humia shingo, Na kupija mbawa matongotongo, Ziku na zitati waliwashiye; Young vultures have perched on clothes-rack pegs, And the squab of doves bob their heads (lit., necks) to and fro, And flutter their wings ceaselessly, (Where) wood-pigeons and swallows have built their nests (Ink-51).
pili [n. 9/10 an.] Adder (FJ). Cobra; sometimes puff-adder (WH). Moto wa sairi ufahamuto, Ni moto mkali katika nyoto, Ni mngi wa moshi na mitokoto, Majoka na pili waikaliye; Understand totally the fire of the fourth level of hell, It’s the fiercest of all fires, There is much smoke and bubbling, Vile snakes and adders live in it (Ink-75).
pinde [adj.] Folded (TJH). Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).
pindiwa [v. ps. appl.] Be folded for, etc. (TJH). See –pinda bend, twist, fold, bend up, strain, put a strain on, make tense (stiff, hard); (2) hem (FJ). Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).
pindukia (~ (-a) kup.) [adj.] Total, complete, absolute (TJH). Ni jambo la kijinga kupindukia; It is something completely stupid (M&K-MU8).
pisha [v. cs.] Cook; cs.of -pika (TJH). Make heated by fire (WH). Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of hell, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).
pita ndiya [v. t.] Pass along, go along; lose one’s way, disappear (TJH). Wawapi wa ziungini, ufu wamepita ndiya, Where are those on top, in a pffff they are gone (have passed on the road) (ASN-AD3).
piya [adj.] New. See St. –pyaUwapo nayo mp’iya, ndra ukatumaini, When you have a new field you have hopes for it (ASN-AD4).
pomo [adv.] Full to the brim, over-full (TJH). Kabisa (Kahigi). See pomoni: mpaka juu; tele (KKS); chock-full, crowded, full to overflowing (FJ). Tulikuwa humo tumejaa pomo; We were inside there, we filled it up completely (M&K-MU3).
pomoka [v.i.] Fall down, collapse. Am. G. tomber, s’abattre (Am. G.): verbe distinct de -poromoka également us. à Am. — Doublet de -bomoka, rac. -omoa > omo (Sx). Fall down, collapse (FJ). T’iyati akapomoka, kwa mbiyo akaikuwa He collapsed on the ground (but) as for the race he was in command (ASN-KS5).
pona [v. i.] Become safe, escape, be rescued (saved, delivered); (2) get a living, subsist, preserve one’s life, live; and esp. (3) get well (from illness), recover health, be convalescent, regain strength (FJ). Watoto wangapi uwaweneo, Ukawayakini kupona kwao, Sasa nyumba za t’i ziwateteo, Katika luhudi iwafundiye; How many children have you seen, And are you certain about their well-being, Whose sepulchres have now enshrouded them, In a grave that binds them (Ink-33).
ponza [v. cs.] Caused to be crushed, etc. but esp. 2. put in danger, risk, speculate with, make a venture, do by hazard, be reckless (FJ). Tazama, jama, janga limetuponza; Look, folks, a calamity has put us in danger (M&K-MU8).
poromosha [v. cs.] Knock down, cause to crumble, fall down (TJH). See –poromoa (FJ). Fanya mkusanyiko wa vitu vingi vianguke kwa mfululizo kutoka juu (KKS). Tuporomoshe milima na kuwalima nyang’au, Let us crumble the mountains and cultivate those beasts (M&K-ML7).
pota [v. t.] Twist (FJ). –legealegea (ASN). See –legea be loose (slack, relaxed, soft, pliable) (FJ). Kama uzi sindanoni, Upote pota hariri, Like thread through a needle; A single, soft thread (of) silk (ASN-S4).
powa [v. ps] Be given; Am form for –pawa and –pewa < -pa give (WH). Na malipwa yao wadhilimuwa, Si dhahabu timbe si ya kufuwa, Fedha hawatwai na wangapowa, Ila hasanati ni malipwaye; And the compensation for the oppressed, It is not mined gold (right from the ground) nor is refined (lit. washed), They are not grasping after silver even though they might be given it, Only virtue is their (lit. his) reward (Ink-70).
pulikiza [v. cs/ints.] Listen, for the more common sikiliza (FJ). Mimi nakwambia nipulikiza, Watiziwe nyumba za jizajiza, Zisizo muanga na muwangaza, Ndio mashukio walishukiye, I tell you listen to me, They have been forced down into dark gloomy houses, That have neither light nor brightness, These indeed are the depths they had descended into (Ink-58).
pumbaa [v.i.] Be muddled, confused, thus be in the dark, stay in the dark (TJH). Baki gizani (ASN). 1. be speechless, because of astonishment, fear, etc; 2. be foolish, silly, weak-minded, negligent. Pumbaa kazi take no pains about a job, do it carelessly, be idle (FJ). Sx: ….à se divertir, à s’amuser; avoir pas faire attention, n’y être pas. Twende kunako arusi (kunako mtezo, kunako wimbo), tupumbae, allons nous récréer à la noce, etc. (Sx). Na maninga kodoleya, usipumbae jizani Focus your eyes, don’t be confused in the dark (ASN-AD3).
pumbao/ma- [n. 5/6] Comfort, pleasure, joy, happiness (TJH). See St. -pumbaa be speechless, because of astonishment, fear, etc.; 2. be foolish, silly, weak-minded, negligent…. (FJ). Distraction, récréation, divertissement, causerie ou entretien familier (Am. G., Sx). See -pumbaa être à l’aise, content, au point d’oublier toute occupation voire même son devoir; s’attarder à jouir, à se divertir, à s’amuser; avoir une attitude béate; être distrait, ne pas fair attention, n’y être pas (TJH: to be comfortable, happy, to the point of forgetting all work including one’s duty (voire même “nay even, and indeed”); lingering to enjoy, to be entertained, to be amused; having an complacent attitude; being inattentive, not paying attention, not being there (being out of it). Twende kunako arusi (kunako mtezo, kunako wimbo), tupumbae, allons nous récréer la noce, etc. (Am. G.; Sx). Mwambiye sina pumbao, mpenzi nina huzuni, Tell my lover I have no comfort, I am (full of) sadness (ASN-Nd2).
pumbaza [v. cs.] Delight, entertain, amuse (TJH). Divertir, distraire,
 récréer, amuser; empêcher de vaquer à ses occupations (Am. G.; Sx). See pumbao above and meaning in Am. Sina wa kunipumbaza, ila ni wewe Fulani, I have no one to entertain me, except you my unnamed love (ASN-Nd7).
pumu(w)a ~ pumua [v. i.] Draw breath, breath; rest. See St. –pumua 1. draw breath, breathe… 2. …. rest… (FJ). Kitunguwe akifika, katikati kapumuwa, Upon reaching half way Hare took a rest (ASN-KS5).
pumuzi [n. 9/10] Breath; see St. Sw. pumzi (TJH). ). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).
punda miliya ~ punda milia [n. 9/10 an.] Zebra; See St. punda milia (FJ). Hapo wakakusanyika, simba na punda miliya, Then lions and zebras gathered together, (ASN-KS3).
pwayi ~ pwai [n. 9/10] Beach, shore (TJH). The area of the shore left exposed after the tide goes out (ASN). Not in FJ. See Pwayi (Am, Shela, Pa = DS. Mv. pwaji plage (Sx). Yot’e hurudi zimbwini, pwai wanda husaliya, It (water) all returns to the deep, (and) the wide open beach remains (ASN-AD1).
Qaruni [p. n.] Qaruni is a legendary figure who was immensely rich, but nonetheless died. Hutompata Qaruni,mwiso aliangamiya, You will never get (as far ahead as) Qaruni, and in the end even he perished (ASN-AD6).
Rabuka [n. pers.] Almighty God (MASB). Thy Lord (K&K). Ar. Tunamuomba Rabuka, madhila kutuepuka; We are praying to Almighty God, to keep us from such suffering (MASB-Au3).
rahamu [v. tr.] Grant enternal life to (TJH). Have pity for another, have mercy on (WH). See –rehemu pity, have mercy on, commiserate, and as a euphemism, end the life of, grant rest to (FJ). Rabbi mrahamu mwenye kutunga, Na mezokhitimu mja malenga, Sala na salamu ni zao kinga, Rabbi takabali ziwashukiye; Oh Lord grant eternal life to the poet, And to the humble bard who finished them (i.e., verses), Prayers and peace are their shield, Oh Lord grant that they (i.e. prayers and peace) descend upon them (Ink-79).
rajai [adv.] Free, free floating, freely, every which way (TJH). Arijojo (INS). Harjojo a loose kite (ASN). See arijojo:Out of control, aimlessly, carelessly, at random (K&K). Not in SX or FJ. Rajai naregezeya, Kishada changu bwagani; I am setting it free, My kite into the sky above (ASN-S8). Ar.
rajimi [n. prop.] The Stoned Satin (WH). Satan was called as-Shaitan ar-rajim, i.e., the Satan stoned, from the tradition that Abraham, tempted not to sacrifice his son, drove Satan away by pelting him with stones; or, in another tradition, Adam, meeting with Satan at the valley of Mina, near Mecca, was adjured by Allah to drive Satan away with stones. A journey to Mina, where the pilgrims throw stones at three pillars representing Rajim, is part of the ritual of the Meccan Pilgrimage (WH & LH). Ar (ash-shaitan ar-rajim). Ewe moyo enda sijida yake, Hela tafadhali unabihike, Shetani rajimi asikuteke, Kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye, Oh, heart, bow down in prayer to Him, Hela please, be warned, So that Satin the Stoned One not laugh at you, And tomorrow see that you are like him (Ink-30).
rajua/ma- [n. 5/6] Hope (FJ). Ndipo akatutazama kwa raja; And then he looked at us with hope (M&K-MU8).
rakibu [v. tr.] Ride an animal; sail the sea (WH). Ride, mount (FJ). Ar. Suu ulimwengu bahari tesi, Una matumbawe na mangi maasi, Aurakibuo juwa ni mwasi, Kwa kula khasara ukhasiriye; This world is a stormy sea, With coral reefs and many shell-encrusted shoals, The one who rides it out (i.e., the world), knows that it is a maverick, It has brought harm with every disaster (Ink-13).
rasimu [v. tr.] Write (WH). Bismiliahi naikadimu, Hali ya kutunga hino nudhumu, Na ar-Rahmani kiirasimu, Basi ar-Rahimi nyuma ikaye; I put first In the Name of God, While composing this poem, And writing The Merciful One, And so may the invocation “The Benign One” be the last in order (Ink-1). Ar.
ratili [v. tr.] Place, arrange, lay out in order (TJH). Agencer, disposer avec ordre (son discours, ses paroles) (Sx). Set in order (LH). Recite (the Koran); say, speak, tell (K&K). Kwimakwe kwisa kuzikamili, Himdi na sala kaziratili, Niyadhihirishe yangu makali, Ambayo moyoni nikusudiye; At the end of that, finally, bringing them (i.e., needs, see Ink-5) to perfection, And lay out praise and prayers in order, So I might set down clearly my writing, Those things in my heart that I intend (Ink-6).
regezeya [v. cs. appl.] Loosen, let loose, release, etc. (TJH). –Legeza (ASN). Loosen, slacken, exhaust, cause to yield, etc. (FJ).Rajai naregezeya, Kishada changu bwagani; I am setting it free, My kite into the sky above (ASN-S8).
ridhika [v. i.] Be happy, be content, be satisfied, be in accord, be in agreement (TJH). See radhi (FJ). Kwa sut’e tumeridhika, mk’oni kusikiliya, As for us all we agree, you have reached the finish line (ASN-KS9).
ridhisha [v. cs.] Cause to be content, satisfy, please, win approval of (FJ). Tuziridhishe zetu nafsi, Let us satisfy our hearts. (M&K-WJLL1).
rihi [n. 9/10] Scent, smell (TJH). Harufu (KKS). Gas in the stomach (FJ). Rihi ya maua zikimletea; Bringing him the scent of flowers (M&K-Mk2).
rikabu [n. 9/10an.] Steed, mount, an animal one rides; see Sx (TJH). Riding animal (WH). Not in FJ. Monture, coursier, bête que l’on monte (Sx). Aso hasanati wala thawabu, Hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu, Akatwekwa dhambi za maghusubu, Akambiwa haya mtukuliye; The one who has neither merit nor gifts from God, His jaw is bridled like a steed, And is loaded down with the sins of a violated one, And finally he is told, “Alright, carry them (i.e., sins) for him.” (Ink-71). Ar.
ruhu [n. 9/10] Spirit, heart, soul (TJH). See St. roho (FJ). Nikazidi wayowayo, na ruhu kiungulika; So that I become even more worried, and suffer even more with a love-sick heart (with a heart on fire) (ASN-Nd6). Ar.
rurumika [v. i] Be roaring as a fire, be burning, be on fire, spread as a fire (TJH). See –ruruma roar, crackle (fire), thunder, roar (like storm) (K&K). Not in FJ or Sx but see –roromoka S’étendre (plaie, incendie) in Sx. Vuvumka (MM). Au enga moto kururumika, Ulio weuni katika tuka, Pakashuka wingu katika chaka, Ikawa kuzima usiviviye; Or look at a spreading fire, That is in a forest clearing among the thickets, And then there descends a cloud over the forest, And it puts it out so that it does not blow to life (Ink-29).
sa [v. i.] Be finished, be complete (TJH). End, finish, archaic form (WH). See St. –isha (FJ). Ikisa himdi kutabalaji, Ikituzagaa kama siraji, Sala na salamu kiidariji, Tumwa Muhammadi tumsaliye; Once praise is manifest, Shining on us like a lamp, Prayers and peace follow after it (i.e., praise), Let us pray for the Prophet Mohammed (Ink-3).
saa [n. 9/10] Hour, moment, etc. (TJH). See saa an hour, a twelfth part of the day or night; (2) time, period of time; (3) a timepiece, watch, clock (FJ). Nisikia sana nikwambiapo, Roho enga taa katika pepo, Haiziwiliki izimikapo, Saa moya hwona izimishiye; Listen carefully to me when I tell you, Look, oh my soul, a lamp in the wind, It cannot be stopped (from shining even) when it is extinguished, Then in a moment one sees it has gone out (Ink-28).
safari [n. 9/10] Trip, etc. (TJH). Death’s journey (WH). Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhuri, Wakanakiliwa ili safari, Washukiye nyumba za makaburi, Mtanga na fusi ziwafusiye; Even if wealth is ostentatious, They were carried off on (lit. for purpose of) death’s journey, They descended into the dwelling places of the dead (lit., graves), Sand and rubble entombed them. (Ink-44).
saidiana [v. rcp.] Help one another (TJH). See –saidia aid, help, assist, support, countenance, abet (FJ). Ndugu walioshibana, huruma huoneana, Shida kusaidiana, makosa sameheana, Mema kushauriana, mazuri kuoneshana, Brothers who are content with one another, Show mercy to each other, Helping each other (when) in trouble, and forgiving each others’ mistakes, They consul each other on proper behavior, and direct each other in good deeds (MASB-Ud4).
Sairi [n. 9] Fourth of the Islamic seven hells (WH). Moto wa sairi ufahamuto, Ni moto mkali katika nyoto, Ni mngi wa moshi na mitokoto, Majoka na pili waikaliye; Understand totally the fire of the fourth level of hell, It’s the fiercest of all fires, There is much smoke and bubbling, Vile snakes and adders live in it (Ink-75).
salimu [v. tr.] Express good wishes to, salute, greet, accost, congratulate, e.g. fulani anakusalimu, so-and-so sends his compliments; (2) hand over safely, consign, deliver, rescue; (3) give up, surrender, yield, resign. Nimesalimu fedha kwa fulani, I have paid so-and-so his money; Salimu roho, give up the ghost, die (FJ). Surrender (WH). Capitulate (JVA). Wakazisalimu umri zao, Hadimu Ladhati achenda nao, Pasi mkohozi akohowao, Au mwenye kwenda asiridhiye; Then they surrendered their lives, Death going with them, Without (so much as) a cougher who coughes, Or any traveler who is content (Ink-25).
salubeti [adv.] Firmly, strongly, energetically; see Arabic loans with the root s-l-b: msalaba cross, sulubisha crucify; sulubu firmness, strength, vigor (TJH). Jilabisi salubeti nami nipe kisibau, Dress yourself with determination as for me give me a vest  (M&K-ML7).
sambamba [adv.] Alongside, abreast, side by side, shoulder to shoulder, in line, parallel (FJ). Haiyebu mwenyi makuu ndiani mwenda sambamba, It (Mombasa) does not want an arrogant person, walking along with others in the streets (MY-KT).
sambamba [adv.] Parallel, along side, shoulder to shoulder, side by side (TJH). Iliyo ubavu kwa ubavu na bila ya kugusana: Magari yamefuatana sambamba; Mistari hii imechorwa (KKS). Twende sambamba sawia, tutafute cha thamani, And then let’s go along together, let’s look for something of value (M&K-ML1).
sambo [n. 9/10] Type of dhow, boat; see Nabhany’s poem Sambo ya Kiwandeo q.v. Bibliography (TJH). Also see Sx where sambo = sambu (Ng.). Syn. de càmbo, boutre. Aph.: Fulani atekéa sambu mai, ce vieux est comme un boutre qui embarque de l’eau (sur le point de sombrer). Aph.: Kulla mwata samboye, hwenda ali mwana-madyi, quiconque laisse son boutre, redevient un simple matelot. Cf. Mal. sambu, navire. See Ar. sombûq, petite barque. Moya tezi na omoni, sambo ipate tuliya; One at the stern and (another) at the bow, So that the dhow may lie at rest (ASN-S9).
sameheana [v. rcp.] Forgive one another, etc. (TJH). See –samehe pardon, forgive, remit, pass over, e.g. of offenses, debts, etc. (FJ). Ndugu walioshibana, huruma huoneana, Shida kusaidiana, makosa sameheana, Mema kushauriana, mazuri kuoneshana, Brothers who are content with one another, Show mercy to each other, Helping each other (when) in trouble, and forgiving each others’ mistakes, They consul each other on proper behavior, and direct each other in good deeds (MASB-Ud4).
sarakasi [n. 9/10] Circus; see acha sarakasi quit playing around, stop the tricks (TJH). Circus (FJ). Acha hiyo sarakasi unaitwa kitaluni, Stop playing around; you are being called to the garden (M&K-ML5).
Sarambi [prop. n.] Neighborhood in Pate where the wealthy lived (WH). Wapi wa Kiungu wayaza kumbi, Na mashekhe mema wa Ki-Sarambi, Walaliye nyumba za vumbivumbi, Ziunda za miti ziwaaliye; Where are the people from Kiungu they filled the reception halls, And its good Sarabian sheiks, They now live in crumbling dusty houses, Wooden grave boards press upon them (Ink-59).
sawa [v. tr.] Be called, archaic (WH). Not in FJ, Sx. Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye; There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded (Ink-62).
sawia [adv.] Then, at that time, just then, on the spot (TJH). Twende sambamba sawia, tutafute cha thamani, And then let’s go along together, let’s look for something of value (M&K-ML1).
sawidi [v. i.] Become dark-hued (WH). Not in FJ. Être noir (Sx). Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh have shriveled (Ink-48).
sawo ~ sao [dem. 2] Those (people); see hao (WH). Moyo, ya kwambia ya watu sawo, Kalamu ya Mungu iwapetewo, Nawe wa yakini kuwa kamawo, Au una yako uyashishiye; Oh my soul, the things to tell about these people, The pen of God that has ordained their fate (lit. has gotten them), And you for sure are like them, Unless (lit. or) you have your own (i.e., Islamic faith) to which you cling (Ink-64).
seleya ~ selea [v. i.] Remain. See St. –selea: 1. remain in a place, as a person who visits a town and likes it so much  that he remains there and does not return to his country; 2. be attached to, like, as name, town, etc. (FJ). Wendako huonekani, mayuto yataseleya, Where you are going you cannot be seen, (only) regret remains behind (ASN-AD5).
sewe [-ile perf.] Perfect stem; see –sawa be called.
seya ~ sea [v. i.] Wane, decline, subside, dwindle, decrease, fade, diminish, abate (TJH). See -sea (Am. G.) diminuer de volume, se dégonfler, éprouver du retrait, subir une dépression, baisser (en parlant de ce qui était gonflé), DS. –nywea, See –pweaMaziwa yasea, le lait baisse (après avoir bouilli). Makama kifaru kimo tasea, Makama le gros comme un rhinocéros, son embompoint tombera (Sx). Not in FJ. Kama povu utaseya, unywee ulimwenguni, Like foam you will fade away, and vanish from the world (ASN-AD5).
shabaha [n. 9/10 an.] Companions, friends, usually for the Four Companions of the Prophet—Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman and ‘Ali (WH). Ar. Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).
shakawa [n. 9/10] Trouble, difficulty, danger (FJ). Chenda akaona mwako wa yuwa, Mai alotaka akayatuwa, Asifidi yambo ila shakawa, Ikawa mayuto yasimsiye; When he goes he then sees only the blazing sun, As for the water he wants, he rends himself (fig. is disappointed), Without gaining a thing except trouble, And so it was for him, remorse has never ended (Ink-17).
shamsi [n. 9/10] Sun (WH). Ar. Uwene wangapi watu wakwasi, Walo wakiwaa kama shamsi, Wa muluku zana za adharusi, Dhahabu na fedha wakhiziniye; How many rich people have you seen, Who blaze brightly in the sun, Who control the weapons of war, Who lay up gold and silver (Ink-34).
shani [n. 9/10] Splendor, grandeur, ornateness (TJH). Startling (rare, unlocked for) thing or occurrence, a wonder, novelty, a curiosity; an adventure, sudden mishap, accident (FJ). Wenye urembo na shani, waungwana wa kutunga, You men of beauty and splendor, free-born who respect themselves (MY-KY2).
shani [n. 9/10] Startling (rare, unlocked for) thing or occurrence, a wonder, novelty, a curiosity, an adventure, sudden mishap, accident, e.g. patwa na shani, have an accident, meet with an adventure; nguo za shani, fine, new clothes, latest fashion; mambo haya si shani, that is nothing to be surprised at, that is no wonder (FJ). Vice, immorality, dishonesty (K&K). Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess, it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).
shauriana [v. rcp.] Advise one another, counsel one another, etc. (TJH). See –shauri ask counsel, get advice, consult; -shauriana consult together (FJ). Ndugu walioshibana, huruma huoneana, Shida kusaidiana, makosa sameheana, Mema kushauriana, mazuri kuoneshana, Brothers who are content with one another, Show mercy to each other, Helping each other (when) in trouble, and forgiving each others’ mistakes, They consul each other on proper behavior, and direct each other in good deeds (MASB-Ud4).
shaza [n. 9/10] Oyster, oyster shell (ASN). See St chaza oyster (FJ). Huître, spécial. huître adhérente aux rochers. Cf. G.ishazha, H. T. P. Mv. Nyamata; (P. Mv. Am. = Mr. Z.chaza, S. G. chazha). ma- (Sx). Shaza lengetwe mtini, zizimbwini mwa nyongoza; The shell is held in a tree, In the depths of the ocean (ASN-S5).
shibana [v. rcp] Be content with one another, be gratified with each other, be satisfied with one another (TJH). See –shiba have enough to eat or drink, have a full meal, be satisfied with food; (2) sometimes used fig. of being wholly filled with, and so under the influence of something, e.g. shiba Mungu, be wholly given to worship and religion, be a devotee (FJ). Udugu ni kushibana, kwa hali kujuliana, Fraternity is being content with one another, by showing concern for each other (MASB-Ud3).
shika [v. tr.] Seize, take, take hold of, etc. Au enga vumbi la muangaza, Wakati wa yua likitepuza, Mwenda kulegema akilisoza, Asione kitu ukishishiye; Or look at the dusty streams of light, As the sun is breaking through the clouds, Someone who goes to get close to it, grasping at it, He fails to see anything that he took hold of (Ink-15)
shika ubele [v. t.] Come in first, be first in a race; See ubele (TJH). Ubeleumeushika, kuongoza yako ndiya, You have come in first, to be a leader (to lead) is your way (ASN-KS8).
shime [intrj.] Come on now, let’s take action, let’s get going (TJH). Used as a call or appeal urging on to further effort (FJ). Shime wananchi tutafute njia; Come on now, countrymen, let us look for a way (M&K-MU8).
shish- [-ile perf.] Perfect stem; see –shika; k > sh / ___ile.
shisha [v. cs.] Lay hold upon, hold fast to (WH). Not in FJ or Sx. Cause to seize, order someone arrested (K&K). Moyo, ya kwambia ya watu sawo, Kalamu ya Mungu iwapetewo, Nawe wa yakini kuwa kamawo, Au una yako uyashishiye; Oh my soul, the things to tell about these people, The pen of God that has ordained their fate (lit. has gotten them), And you for sure are like them, Unless (lit. or) you have your own (i.e., Islamic faith) to which you cling (Ink-64).
shisha [v. cs.] Take hold of (TJH). Lay hold upon (WH). See –shika (FJ). Au enga vumbi la muangaza, Wakati wa yua likitepuza, Mwenda kulegema akilisoza, Asione kitu ukishishiye; Or look at dusty streams of light, When the sun breaks through, And the one who approaches grasping at it, Without seeing anything on which he might take hold (Ink-15).
shtadi [v. i.] Increase, grow (WH). Ar. Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).
shubiri [n. 9/10 ~ 5/6] Insignificant size fig., of no size at all fig. (TJH). Finger’s span (WH). Empan, espace entre les extrémités du pouce et du petit doigt écartés. Il y a un petit empan allant du pouce à l’index, syn. futuri (Sx). See St. futuri a short span, as a measure, from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the forefinger—as distinct from shibiri, a full span from thumb to little finger; shibiri a span, from thumb to little finger of the open hand, about nine inches, half a cubit (FJ). Sasa walaliye mji shubiri, Pasipo zuliya wala jodori, Ikawa miwili kutaathari, Dhiki ya kaburi iwakusiye; Now they’re asleep in a town of no size at all (lit. a finger’s span), Without carpet or cushion, And their bodies are disfigured, The misery of the grave has tormented them (Ink-45).
shukio/ma- [n. 5/6] Landing place, place of arrival, destination (WH). Place of descent (CHS). Depth (JVA). Mimi nakwambia nipulikiza, Watiziwe nyumba za jizajiza, Zisizo muanga na muwangaza, Ndio mashukio walishukiye, I tell you listen to me, They have been forced down into dark gloomy houses, That have neither light nor brightness, These indeed are the depths they had descended into (Ink-58).
shuu/ma- [n. 5.6] Wave that breaks on the beach or on a reef, sudden wave, a breaker, a rogue wave (TJH). Wimbi kuu kwa ghafula; also see mshuu (ASN). Brisant; lame qui se brise soit en pleine mer, soit sur un récif. (Sx; DN. = G. ishuu). Not in FJ. Hachi shuu na miuya, wala wimbi uziwani, He’s not afraid of breaking or foaming waves; Nor any other wave in the sea (ASN-S9).
sia [v. appl.] Come to an end, -sa end, finish (WH). Finir, DS –isha (Sx). Chenda akaona mwako wa yuwa, Mai alotaka akayatuwa, Asifidi yambo ila shakawa, Ikawa mayuto yasimsiye; When he goes he then sees only the blazing sun, As for the water he wants, he rends himself (fig. is disappointed), Without gaining a thing except trouble, And so it was for him, remorse has never ended (Ink-17).
sii [dem.] This; see St. Sw. hii. Khasaisi zote na makatayo, Shida na shakawa likupeteyo, Ni dunia sii uipendayo, Yenye dhuli nyingi na makataye; All your vices and deprivation, Difficulties and trouble that have happened to you, Because of (lit., by) this world which you love, With its many miseries and its hardships (Ink-18).
sijida [n. x] Prostration in prayer (WH). Prayer, prostration in prayer (CHS). Callosity made on the forehead by prostration at Moslem prayer; see –sujudu bow down (to) prostrate oneself (before), adore, worship (FJ). See sigida manière, action d’adorer, de se prosterner; 2. Marque (kipaji cha uso, Ar . asari sudjudi) que les Musulmans se font sur le front pour témoigner de leur assiduité à faire les prostrations de la prière; also –sijidi ~ -sujudu (Sx). See –enda sijida go and worship God (MMM). Ewe moyo enda sijida yake, Hela tafadhali unabihike, Shetani Rajimi asikuteke, Kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye; Oh, heart, bow down in prayer to Him, Hela please, be warned, So that Satin the Stoned One not laugh at you, And tomorrow see that you are like him (Ink-30).
sikili(y)a ~ sikilia [v. intns, appl.] Arrive. See St. –fikilia (ND si : SD fi). Sx identifies –sikiliya as a synonym for St. –fika in Amu and Tikuu. Kitunguwe kizunduka, fududu mesikiliya, When Hare awoke with a start, Tortoise had already arrived (and gone on) (ASN-KS7).
sikitika [v. i.] Be sorry, grieve, feel regret (pity, remorse) (FJ). Nikumbukiya mwenziyo, kwa huruma sikitika, Keep this for me in your thoughts, have pity on your Companion with sympathy (ASN-Nd-7).
sikizi/ma- [n. 5/6] Ears ; see –sikiliza, -sikia (FJ). See masikizi coll. Syn. de usikizi. Entendement, attention. 2. pl. se dit pour masikio, oreilles (Sx). Moyo huyatasa kunabihika, Zituko zingapo huyaidhika, Hata masikizi ya kupulika, Naona kwa haya yafuatiye; Oh heart, you have not yet managed to heed the warning, How many horrors before you are troubled, Even when (you have) have ears for listening, I know from these following things (Ink-55).
silisia [n. 9/10] Chains, bonds; see under silisila (FJ). Moyo tafakari na Jahanamu, Wenye silisia na azmamu, Pindi ya dayani akiukimu, Unene labeka niitishiye; Oh my heart, think about the deepest hell-fire, About those chained and roped, When the Judge summons you (i.e., your heart) to prayer, You should say: “May I respond with ‘Yes, I am your servant.’” (Ink-72).
singirika [v. i.] Roll along, go by rolling (TJH). See Sx under –vingirika: Rouler en progessant, advancer en roulant, rouler; pouvoir rouler, Jiwe likavingirika, likashukia chini {-singirika (Am.), –bingirika (DS, Mv.), –viringika (G.), –bimbirika (Mr.)}; See DS –vingirika, –bimbirika; –singirika < *-fingirika < –vingirika métathèse de –viringika (Sx). See –fingirika go by rolling (by turning round or over and over), roll round, be rolled along, as a log, not as a stationary revolving wheel (FJ). Na kobe kasingirika, kiyandama yake ndiya, And Tortoise rolled along, going along his way (ASN-KS4).
sinzia [v. i.] Doze, be drowsy; (2) be inattentive, absent-minded, make a foolish mistake; (3) of a lamp or fire, flicker. This word is used to describe thieves who steal while one of their number distracts the attention of the victim, wevi sinzia (FJ). Usiku huo twali tumesinzia; That night we were carelessly asleep (M&K-MU2).
sio [dem.} This; see hio (WH). Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of hell, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).
siraji [n. 9/10] Lamp, torch (FJ). Ikisa himdi kutabalaji, Ikituzagaa kama siraji, Sala na salamu kiidariji, Tumwa Muhammadi tumsaliye; Once praise is manifest, Shining on us like a lamp, Prayers and peace follow after it (i.e., praise), Let us pray for the Prophet Mohammed (Ink-3).
siri [v. i.] Become (WH). Wasiriye wote kula kwa dudi, Na kuwatafuna zao jisadi, Na mtwa na tungu huwafisidi, Majoka na nge wawatatiye; They have all become food for insects, That chewed on their bodies, And termites and ants corrupted them, Fearsome snakes and vipers wound about them (Ink-47).
siri [v. i.] Become (WH). Become, change into — seldom used Ar. Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wot’e kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).
sitawi [v. i.] Look well, be fine (TJH). Be in good condition, reach full development, flourish, succeed, go off well, be in full swing, be at the height, e.g. of healthy plants, of social functions, dances (ngoma), a feast (karamu), a wedding (arusi), or of trade (biashara) (FJ). Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi, Naapa kwa Mungu Mola Mkwasi, Zali za msaji kwa abunusi, Zitile sufufu zisitawiye; Decorated hanging-pegs that are pleasing to behold, I swear by God, Source of all Wealth, They were of teak and ebony, Placed in line to look their best. (Ink-39).
siza [v. ints.] Make something come to an end (WH). Complete, cause to finish, end (K&K). Not in FJ. See –sia. Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wot’e kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).
siza [v. cs.] Fail, collapse, come to nothing, come to naught (TJH). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).
siza ~ saza [v. cs.] Make something come to an end; < –sa v. end, finish (WH). See -sia finir (Sx). Nataka himdi nitangulize, Ili mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza illa isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So that the pious scholar not ask, And say, don’t stop us from praising, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other (Ink-2). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74)
sona [v. i.] Rest, sleep (TJH). Se reposer, prendre du repos : syn.-pumua. Niate nisone, laisse-moi reposer (arch. des Dial. Am. G. Ng.; Sx). Pumzika rest (ASN). Nina mwingi mshangao, sili chakula sisoni, I am totally bewildered, I neither eat nor sleep (ASN-Nd2).
songa [v. tr.] Beat down, oppress (TJH). Dini za kudhani zamsonga roho; Religions of ??? beat down his spirit (M&K-Mk4).
songa [v. i.] Press, press together, press close, throng, meet in a mass; (2) close up by pressure, squeeze, contract, hem in; (3) act on (form, fashion) by pressing; and (4) fig. apply pressure to, urge, press, overwhelm (FJ). Mpendwa songa karibu tushikane mikononi, Mpendwa, squeeze close, so we may hold hands (M&K-ML2).
soza [v. tr.] Grasp at, reach for, clutch at (TJH). Reach, arrive at, meet with, approach, accost (FJ). Touch, snatch, make a grasp; scrape as of the feet on the soil when dancing; touch at a port–as of a vessel (WH). ). Au enga vumbi la muangaza, Wakati wa yua likitepuza, Mwenda kulegema akilisoza, Asione kitu ukishishiye; Or look at the dusty streams of light, As the sun is breaking through the clouds, Someone who goes to get close to it, grasping at it, He fails to see anything that he took hold of (Ink-15).
sufufu [n. 9/10] Rank, of people, soldiers; oderly rows of objects (WH). Not in FJ. Ar. Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi, Naapa kwa Mungu Mola Mkwasi, Zali za msaji kwa abunusi, Zitile sufufu zisitawiye; Decorated hanging-pegs that are pleasing to behold, I swear by God, Source of all Wealth, They were of teak and ebony, Placed in line to look their best. (Ink-39).
sufuri ~ sifuri [n. 9/10] Brass, mock-gold; Fedha, sifuri na ngandu, mkurufunzi ni chuma, As to silver, brass, and gold, the mastercraftsman is iron (WH). Brass, for the more usu. shaba; (also: a cipher, nought, zero); see sufuria metal cooking – pot — of copper or iron, sometimes of a very large size (FJ). Shine, but only used of a person’s countenance. Uso wake unanawiri, her face shines, i.e. is healthy looking, pleasant (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of shell and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37).
sumbika [v. t.] Plunge into, plunge, immerse, thrust between (TJH). -Pachika, ingia katika mawimbi (ASN). See -pachika secure in a particular position, i.e. between two things, fix, stick… (FJ). See msumbikoconnection, linking (K&K); Allonge de fil entre l’hameçon et la ligne (Sx). Wimbini huisumbika, Ikegesha ufuoni; Into the waves it plunged itself, Reaching safety on the beach (ASN-S6).
sumbika [v. tr.] Hit and knock down (MM). Bury in the earth (TJH). Make a thing be of the earth, i.e. make it thrusted earthward; = vumbika (WH). Caught (Tayl. See –vumbika enterrer le sable, dans la terre, dans la paille, sous des feuilles, etc. (Sx). Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).
sut‘e [pron.] All of us. See St. sote & -ote (FJ). Am. G. = DS sote (Sx). Kwa sut‘e tumeridhika, mk’oni kusikiliya, As for us all we agree, you have reached the finish line (ASN-KS9).
suta [v. tr.] Push, push away, reject, discriminate against, obliterate, abolish, banish, rebuke, withhold, boycott, accuse with emphasis; confuse, confound (K&K). See St. –futa (FJ). NB: ND –suta, SD –futa. St. Sw. also has –suta: make charges openly against, charge one openly with deceit or wrongdoing, confront a person who has spread an evil report about one (FJ). Tandi la mauti likawakuta, Wakauma zanda wa kuiyuta, Na dunia yao ikawasuta, Ichamba safari muniukiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-22).
suu [dem.] This. Suu ulimwengu uutakao, Emale ni lipi upendeao, Hauna dawamu hudumu nao, Umilikishwapo wautendaye; This world that you want, What is its goodness that you love, It has nothing enduring or lasting, When you are made ruler how will you deal with it (Ink-31).
swiswi [pro.] We, us (TJH). Not in FJ. See Sx: Mv. = St. sisi.
t‘ani [adv.] On the back, supine (TJH). See St. chaliKwa kuwama na kwa t‘ani, kubenuwa zenu ziya; On your stomachs and backs, flexing your joints (ASN-S1).
t‘ini [adv.] Down, on the ground. See St. chini. Yavuwe uchangaliyauso siiname t‘ini, Open them up (your eyes), being ever vigilant, do not lower your face (ASN-AD3).
t‘iyati [n. 9/10] Ground, on the ground (< t’i ya ti) (TJH). See St. nchichini (FJ). Dans les expressions nyuni wa t’iati, oiseau terrestre, oiseau coureur (Mv. Am.); noni wa it’i (G.) — ndege wa chini (DS); ket’i t’iati, assieds-toi à terre (G); keti it’i — DS kaa chini (G) (Sx) T‘iyati akapomoka, kwa mbiyo akaikuwa He collapsed on the ground (but) as for the race he was in command (ASN-KS5).
t‘ungu [n. 9/10] Ants; see St. chungu (TJH). Wasiriye wote kula kwa dudi, Na kuwatafuna zao jisadi, Na mtwa na tungu huwafisidi, Majoka na nge wawatatiye; They have all become food for insects, That chewed on their bodies, And termites and ants corrupted them, Fearsome snakes and vipers wound about them (Ink-47).
t‘unu [n. 9/10] Something rare, choice, valuable—keepsake, a souvenir, an heirloom, a special present, treasure, a rare sight, a curiosity (FJ). Niwapimiye kwa mani, Tuzo t‘unu na hidaya; Let me weigh it for you with a scale, The reward is a rare, precious gift (ASN-S8).
tani [adv.] Upright, up, facing upwards (TJH). See St. juu (MHA). ND  tani :: chani ‘in a supine position, upright’ (TJH; also FJ). Mwime na mikono t‘ani, muombe lenyi muwanga, Stand-up straight with your arms facing towards heaven, and pray for enlightenment (something possessing light) (MY-KY2).
t’at’azi [n. 9/10] Puzzle, mystery (INS). Difficulties (ASN). {NB. Progressive assimilation of medial consonant from aspirated initial consonant.} Not in Sx or FJ. Derived from *-tát- tie up. See Sx and other derived forms, e.g., (P.). Syn. de Z. –tatanyua, débrouiller, dêmêler. 2. (Mv.) fendre, fêler. déchirere, cf. –tatua. (SX). T’at’azi zingatatiya, Mafundi zitatuweni, Even though the puzzles are perplexing; Oh experts, figure them out (ASN-S8).
t’ui [n. 9/10 an.] Leopard. See St. chui (FJ). Faru ndovu wakatoka, t’ui na nyati pamoya, Rhinos and elephants came out, along with leopards and buffalo (ASN-KS3).
tuu [n. 9/10] Termite mound, mound, knoll; ND form tuu :: SD chuguu 5 ‘large termite mound’ (TJH). Nchi ya changarawe; hard coral land (MHA). Butte, tertre, monticule; termitière (Sx). Note: Termite mounds are often formed of hard, dry earth which is not conducive to plant growth. Kongowea ni t‘uu haimelezi mgomba, Mombasa is a termite mound; it does not allow a banana plant to flourish (MY-KT).
ta [v. tr.] Hit, strike (LH). See following entries.
ta kiwavu [phrase] Strike a glancing or sideways blow; strike a thrust in the ribs or a blow at the heart (WH). Smite under the ribs, and so to deal a knock-out blow (Taylor). Kima ina ila ilio mbovu, Ilikithiriye ungi welevu, I kalifu mno kuta kiwavu, Kupa watu ngeya ikithiriye; Finally it has the worst evil, It grows ever larger with an abundance of cunning, It is exceedingly violent striking at the heart, Inflicting on people death blows, it has exceeded all bounds (Ink-20).
ta ondo [v. phrase] Kneel (TJH). Bend the knee (WH). Tafakari siku ya kwima kondo, Ya kuaridhiwa kula kitendo, Pindi madhulumu atapo ondo, Achamba ya Rabbi namua naye; Think about the day when multitudes will assemble, The day when every deed will be unveiled (i.e., the Day of Judgment), When the persecuted one kneels, Saying, “oh Lord judge between me and him.” (Ink-68).
ta panda [v. phrase] Blow a trumpet; see –ta hit; also St. Sw. –piga panda blow a trumpet; -piga mbiu give public notice, announce, lit. hit the horn; mbiu buffalo horn (TJH). Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73). {dental d}
ta sauti [v. phrase] Call out, shout (TJH). Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73
taadabu [v. i.] Behave, be civil, etc. (TJH). See adabu good manners, politeness, proper behaviour, courtesy, civility, etiquette (FJ). Kuwa mtiifu (MMM). Moyo, taadabu sipeketeke, Ata ya jauri haki ushike, Wendo wachokoka nawe wokoke, Moto wa jahimu usikutwaye; Oh heart, behave, don’t be fooled by your arrogance, Stop your oppression hold on to justice, If your friends are saved then you too ought to be saved, So hell fire does not carry you off (Ink-65).
taamali [v. tr.] Consider carefully, contemplate, perceive, understand; hope, be hopeful, reflect, consider, meditate (TJH). Zingatia (CHS). Apply oneself to, strive for (WH). Ar. Kitamsi kiza cha ujuhali, Nuru na mianga itadhalali, Na ambao kwamba ataamali, Iwe toba yakwe aitubiye; May the darkness of benighted disbelief be erased, May light and radiance gleam, And whoever meditates (upon it), May it be his pardon (who) seeks repentance for himself (Ink-9). Ar.
taanusi [v. i.] Be pleasing to the eye (WH). Not in FJ. Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi, Naapa kwa Mungu Mola Mkwasi, Zali za msaji kwa abunusi, Zitile sufufu zisitawiye; Decorated hanging-pegs that are pleasing to behold, I swear by God, Source of all Wealth, They were of teak and ebony, Placed in line to look their best. (Ink-39).
taathari [v. tr.] Mark with blemishes, destroy, disfigure (TJH). See athari n. 9/10 mark, spot; (2) deficiency, blemish; (3) a wound, sore, hurt; -athiri hurt, blemish, mar, destroy (FJ). Sasa walaliye mji shubiri, Pasipo zuliya wala jodori, Ikawa miwili kutaathari, Dhiki ya kaburi iwakusiye; Now they’re asleep in a town of no size at all (lit. a finger’s span), Without carpet or cushion, And their bodies are disfigured, The misery of the grave has tormented them (Ink-45).
tabaka [n. 9/10] Social class, e.g. tabaka ya wafanyakazi ‘worker’s class, class struggle (TJH). Anything laid on another—and so lid, cover, lining (of a dress, &c.), layer, row, stratum, stage, story (of a house) (FJ). Nipe moyo wa tabaka na ujasiri, mwandani, Encourage me with bravery in the class struggle, my loving friend (M&K-ML1).
tabalaji [v. i.] Be clear, evident, obvious, manifest; see following WH gloss (TJH). Be shining, be clear, evident, cheerful (WH). Toa nuru (MM). Ar. Ikisa himdi kutabalaji, Ikituzagaa kama siraji, Sala na salamu kiidariji, Tumwa Muhammadi tumsaliye; Once praise is manifest, Shining on us like a lamp, Prayers and peace follow after it (i.e., praise), Let us pray for the Prophet Mohammed (Ink-3). Ar.
tabasamu [v. i.] Smile (FJ). Nimuonapo huwa atabasamu; Whenever I see him he is always smiling (M&K-Mk1).
tabiri [v. tr.] Interpret, explain, expound, e.g. of a fortune-teller, soothsayer, prophet, and so, foretell, predict, interpret a dream. Tabiri mwaka kwa chuo, foretell the (events of a) year by a book (FJ). Moyo wangu nini huitabiri, Twambe u mwelevu wa kukhitari, Huyui dunia ina ghururi, Ndia za tatasi huzandamaye; Oh my heart why not foretell the future for me. Let’s say you are clever in figuring things out, Don’t you know that the world is but vanity; How do you travel along on its jumbled maze? (Ink-12).
tadhalali ~ tadhayali [v. i.] Emit beams of light (WH). Shine, brighten up (CHS). Ar. Kitamsi kiza cha ujuhali, Nuru na mianga itadhalali, Na ambao kwamba ataamali, Iwe toba yakwe aitubiye; May the darkness of benighted disbelief be erased, May light and radiance gleam, And whoever meditates (upon it), May it be his pardon (who) seeks repentance for himself (Ink-9).
tafakhuri [n. 9] Flaunting, bragging, braggart, show-off (TJH). Boasting, vaunting (WH). Ufahari (MMM). See fahari grandeur, glory, pomp, sublimity, magnificence; (2) display, show, ostentation; (3) pride in the sense of feeling pride because of, e.g. aliona fahari juu ya mtoto wake, he was proud of his son (FJ). Ar. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhuri, Wakanakiliwa ili safari, Washukiye nyumba za makaburi, Mtanga na fusi ziwafusiye; Even if wealth is ostentatious, They were carried off on (lit. for purpose of) death’s journey, They descended into the dwelling places of the dead (lit., graves), Sand and rubble entombed them. (Ink-44).
tafsiri/ma- [n. 5/6 ~ 9/10] Interpretation (WH). Explanation, translation (FJ). Meaning (LH). Allahumma Rabbi mkidhi haja, Msalie Tumwa aliyekuja, Na tauhidiyo Mola wa waja, Akatusomesha tafsiriye; O my Lord Allah, Granter of (our) needs, Let us pray for the Prophet, Your dvine unity God Almighty of all people, And he taught us its meaning (i.e., the Koran). (Ink-5).
tagamia [v. appl.] Lean upon, incline to, resort to as a rest or refuge (WH). See St. Sw. –tegemea (FJ). Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67).{dental t}.
takabali [v. tr.] Vouchsafe (WH). Accept, receive, welcome, be agreeable (to), receptive (to); kutakabali ombi: to hear a prayer (K&K). See –kubali accept, approve, acknowledge, assent (to), agree (to), welcome (FJ). Rabbi mrahamu mwenye kutunga, Na mezokhitimu mja malenga, Sala na salamu ni zao kinga, Rabbi takabali ziwashukiye; Oh Lord grant eternal life to the poet, And to the humble bard who finished them (i.e., the verses), Prayers and peace are their shield, Oh Lord grant that they (i.e. prayers and peace) descend upon them (Ink-79).
takaburi [n. 9] Arrogance, pride, insolence (WH). See kiburi (FJ). Ar. Make difficulties; hinder, cause a project to tarry (WH). Delay by the way (CHS). See –a kuusiri procrastination, postponing, putting things off (TJH). Ichamba hayani ndio safari, Yakomele tena ya kuusiri, Bidhaa ya ndeo na takaburi, Mutendele kwangu nishuhudiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-23).
taladhadhi ~ taladhudhi ~ talathathi [v. i.] Be delightful, pleasant (WH). Enjoy life (LH). Enjoy the world, find sweet, take pleasure in (CHS). Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).
tama [n. 9/10] End, finis, completion, complement (WH). End, conclusion, final, stage (FJ). Ar. Sasa t’akhitimu t’atia tama, Atakofuata na kuyandama, T’apata khatima na mwiso mwema, Rabbi twakuomba tujaaliye; Now I will finish: I’ll put in the conclusion, He who will follow and go along with it, He will finally have a good ending, Oh Lord we pray that you grant us this (Ink-78).
tamazaka ~ tamazika [v. i.] Be shredded, ripped, slashed (TJH). Be torn, lacerated, cleft (WH). Not in FJ or Sx. Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh have shriveled (Ink-48).
tamba v. i.] Strut proudly, walk in a swaggering, conceited way, leap, dance, e.g., of warriors returning in triumph from victory (FJ). Rajua machoni mwao ilitamba; Hope leaped forth in their eyes (M&K-MU9).
tame [partic.] Abandoned, uninhabited, empty (WH). Abandonné, désert (lieu), syn. –hame Ngozi (Sx). See –tama move one’s place of abode (FJ) Also –tama émigrer (Sx). {dental}
tamkini [n. 9/10] Pronouncement, announcement, statement, affirmation, answer (TJH). Derived from –tamka (ASN). Hela nipa tamkini, nituze yangu fuwadi, Please give me an answer, so I may calm my heart (ASN-Nd5).
tamsi [v. i.] Be effaced, be obliterated (WH). Ar. Kitamsi kiza cha ujuhali, Nuru na mianga itadhalali, Na ambao kwamba ataamali, Iwe toba yakwe aitubiye; May the darkness of benighted disbelief be erased, May light and radiance gleam, And whoever meditates (about it), May it be his pardon (who) seeks repentance for himself (Ink-9).
tanabahi [v. tr.] See –nabahi ~ -nabihi, Ar.
tanafusi [v. i] Breathe, draw breath, recover breath (FJ). Also see nafasi: breathe, draw breath, recover breath (FJ). Tukatanafusi, vyema tukapumuwa; We recovered our breath, we breathed well (M&K-MU14).
tanda [v. tr.] Extend, spread, spread out, be spread out (over). The idea seems to be not of mere extension (enea) or dispersion (tawanya) but of something that is continuous and covers (FJ). Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo, Na nyuma na mbele ili miyongo, Wakaapo pote ili zitengo, Asikari jamu wawatandiye; While swaying their supple limbs and necks to and fro, Behind and in front were lines of people, Wherever they stayed were noble houses, Many guards spread around them (Ink-36).
tandazia [v. appl. cs.] Spread out for, extend for, disperse for (TJH). See –tandaa ‘be spread out over a large area, be open and wide, like a plain (FJ). Also see –tanda and –tandisha in FJ. Kuna kiwingu yangani, Mvuaitandaziwe; There is a small cloud in the sky, The rain is spread within (ASM-S3).
tandi [n. 9/10 ~5/6] Noose; see St. tanzi something spread out, hence a loop, noose, slipknot, snare, trap worked by a string (FJ). Tandi la mauti likawakuta, Wakauma zanda wa kuiyuta, Na dunia yao ikawasuta, Ichamba safari muniukiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-22).{dental d}
tandia [v. appl.] Spread out over, etc. (TJH). Extend, spread, spread out, be spread out (over) (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).
tandu/ma- [n. 5/6] Spider, an extension in meaning of utandu/tandu spider web q.v. (TJH). Spider (WH). Centipede (FJ). See utandu/tandu n. 11/10 used to describe anything spread out, extended, stretched…. e.g., spider’s web (FJ). Pers Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).
tandushia [v. appl. cs. cv.] Unfold for, unleash for, set free for (TJH). See –tandua ‘take off (fold up, remove) what is laid on (spread out, etc.), and so of unfurnishing a bed or room, unharnessing an animal, etc. (FJ). Kwa kasizitandushiwe; Na kushukiya maini, Quickly they are unleashed, And descend into the water.
tangatanga [n. 9/10] Sand, a lot of sand, an abundant amount of sand; see St. Sw. mchanga sand, etc, (TJH). Wa wapi ziuli wa Pate Yunga, Wenye nyuso ali zenye mianga, Wangiziye nyumba za tangatanga, Daula na ezi iwaushiye; Where are the gallent men of Pate Yunga, With exceptionally shiny faces, They have been thrust into sandy dwellings, Sovereignty and power have deserted them (Ink-60).{dental t}
tanguliza [v. cs.] Cause to go before, send on in advance, prefer, give precedence to (FJ). Nataka himdi nitangulize, Alo mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza ila isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So he who is a pious scholar not ask, And say, don’t stop us from praising, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other (Ink-2).
taniza [v. cs/int.] Taunt, goad, make fun of, poke fun at, deride, mock, ridicule, treat impolitely (TJH). See –tani {note dental consonant.} Traiter sans façon, abuser de qqn., permettre tout chez qqn, se donner toute liberté chez lui (Am. arch.; Sx). Nayuwa siwatanizi; hamugagwi yaweleya, I know that I am not taunting you, You are not baffled, (about) things clear to you (ASN-S2).
tapatapa [v. redup.] Thrash about, struggle, move convulsively (TJH). Shiver, tremble, shudder, jump about convulsively, because of cold, fear, also as a man does struggling in the water in danger of being drowned (FJ). Ulipokithiri tukatapatapa; When it got worse, we struggled and thrashed about (M&K-MU6).
tarafi [n. 9/10] End, point, extremity (TJH). Side, part (WH). Nta see St. Sw. ncha (FJ). Not in FJ, Sx. Ar. T’atunga kifungo kwa kukisafi, Nikipange lulu kula tarafi, Na ina nikite Inkishafi, Kiza cha dhunubu kiniukiye; I will fix a clasp to finish it, So to set pearls on each end, And for a name let me call it the Soul’s Awakening, So that the darkness of sin leave me (Ink-8).
taraghani [n. 9] Pride, boasting, bragging. Hali ya mtu kujiona bora kuliko wengine; kichwa kikubwa; majivuno, jeuri (KK). Sipite ukiyongoya, kwa ndezi na taraghani, Don’t pass along taking the lead boastfully and arrogantly (ASN-AD6).
tariki [n. 9/10] Road, path, way, route; see tarishi runner, courier (WH). Make someone respond (TJH). Send somebody to call, cause to be called, order (FJ). Call (urgently), summon, convene; call upon, invite, make s.o. answer; Mungu huitisha wajawe: God calls his servants; kuitisha mkutano: to call for a meeting (K&K). Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye; There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded (Ink-62).
tasa [v. aux.] Succeed in, manage to (TJH). Used with an infinitive following; manage (to), get (to), finish (doing) the action of the following verb (FJ). Moyo huyatasa kunabihika, Zituko zingapo huyaidhika, Hata masikizi ya kupulika, Naona kwa haya yafuatiye; Oh heart, you have not yet managed to heed the warning, How many horrors before you are troubled, Even when (you have) have ears for listening, I know from these following things (Ink-55).
tata [v. tr.] Tangle, complicate, confuse; see tata/ma- n. tangle, mess, difficulty, perplexity (FJ) Kwimakwe kwisa dibaji yangu, Penda kuuonya na moyo wangu, Utetwe[3] na hawa ya ulimwengu, Hila za rajimi ziughuriye; So finally my preface has come to an end, I need (now) to admonish my heart, It is entangled by the lust of the world, The wiles of satan have beguiled it (Ink-10).
tata/ma- [n. 5/6; adj.] Something entangled, puzzle, mystery (TJH). Tangle, entanglement, mess, difficulty, perplexity; see –tata tangle, complicate, confuse (FJ). Masaibu haya njia zake tata; Such misfortunes, their ways are a mystery (M&K-MU2).
tatasi [n. 9] Maze, labyrinth; see Sx, tangle, jumble (TJH). Turmoil (LH). See tatasa: ndia za kutatasi dédale, labyrinth (Sx). Matata (WH). Moyo wangu nini huitabiri, Twambe u mwelevu wa kukhitari, Huyui dunia ina ghururi, Ndia za tatasi huzandamaye; Oh my heart why not foretell the future for me. Let’s say you are clever in figuring things out, Don’t you know that the world is but vanity; How do you travel along on its jumbled maze? (Ink-12).
tatia [v. appl.] Entangle in, tangle up in, etc.; see –tata tangle, etc. (TJH). Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, The evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73).
tatiya [v. appl.] Make a tangle of; (2) wind up in a skein or ball; (3) puzzle, perplex, make difficulties, e.g. tatia uzi kijitini, wind thread on a stick. Tatia kilemba, arrange the folds of a turban. Also used of a snake coiling round its prey (FJ). T’at’azi zingatatiya, Mafundi zitatuweni; Even though the puzzles are perplexing, Oh experts, figure them out (ASN-S8).
tatuwa [v. cv.] Solve, figure out, work out, decipher, decode; Untangle, undo, etc. (TJH). See -tatua disentangle, cut a knot, solve a difficulty; (2) tear, rend, cleave, rip open or apart (FJ). T’at’azi zingatatiya, Mafundizitatuweni; Even though the puzzles are perplexing, Oh experts, figure them out (ASN-S8).
tauhidi [n. prop.] Divine unity, One-ness (WH). Allahumma Rabbi mkidhi haja, Msalie Tumwa aliyekuja, Na tauhidiyo Mola wa waja, Akatusomesha tafsiriye; O my Lord Allah, Granter of (our) needs, Let us pray for the Prophet, Your dvine unity God Almighty of all people, And he taught us its meaning (i.e., the Koran). (Ink-5).
teka [v. tr.] Laugh at; see St. –cheka (TJH). Ewe moyo enda sijida yake, Hela tafadhali unabihike, Shetani Rajimi asikuteke, Kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye; Oh, heart, bow down in prayer to Him, Hela please, be warned, So that Satin the Stoned One not laugh at you, And tomorrow see in you his likeness (Ink-30).
telelezwa Be retarded while in motion; e.g., to slip as on a muddy path and so be brought to a standstill (WH). Sererezwa, potezwa (MMM). See –teleleza roll like a barrel (K&K). Yua siku yati kubadiliwa, Na mbingu sabaa zikageuwa, Ukatelelezwa mwezi na juwa, Hari na harara zisitusiye; Know about the day of the transformed earth (i.e., Day of Resurrection), And the seven heavens will change as well, The moon and sun will come to a standstill, Terrible heat and flames will never end for us (Ink-66).
tenda [v. tr.] Do, act, practice, etc. (FJ). Ichamba hayani ndio safari, Yakomele tena ya kuusiri, Bidhaa ya ndeo na takaburi, Mutendele kwangu nishuhudiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-23).
tendele [-ile perf.] Perfect stem; see –tenda do, etc. q.v. (FJ).
tepuza [v. int.] Flourish, burgeon, sprout prolifically, of plants (TJH). Sprout, shoot up of any plant showing life (FJ). -Tokeza matawi (ASN). See tepuzatepua DN. = DS. -chipua-chepuatepuza caus. et int. Miti yatepuza, yatoa mani (Sx). T‘andu hazionekani, Yapokuwa zatepuza; The branches are not visible, Even though they are burgeoning in growth (ASN-S5).
tepuza [v. cs.] Appear, break through–said of the sun shining through clouds, begin to shine; sprout (ND) (TJH). Synonyms: -chipuza, -chomoza, -awiza (MM). See –chomoza make a way out, come out, appear, stick out, esp. of the sun rising or appearing from behind a cloud; jua linachomoza, the sun bursts forth (FJ). See –chipuza Faire sortir de terre, faire germer, faire bourgeonner, etc. 2. int. Faire paraître, donner un germe, une pousse, un ou des bourgeons, une ou des feuilles (Sx). Au enga vumbi la muangaza, Wakati wa yua likitepuza, Mwenda kulegema akilisoza, Asione kitu ukishishiye; Or look at dusty streams of light, When the sun breaks through, And the one who approaches grasping at it, Without seeing anything on which he might take hold (Ink-15).
terema [v. i.] Be at ease, be free from care and anxiety, be cheerful, happy, comfortable (FJ]. Ring out as of a cry, a shriek (WH). See nderemo cheerfulness, happiness, comfort, relief from trouble (FJ). See also mteremeshi, mteremezi and mteremo. Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).
tesi [adj.] Tempestuous, seething, stormy (TJH). Raging (LH). Surging (WH). See St. utesi trouble, distress, annoyance, persecution; (2) strife, quarreling, antagonism (FJ). Suu ulimwengu bahari tesi, Una matumbawe na mangi maasi, Aurakibuo juwa ni mwasi, Kwa kula khasara ukhasiriye; This world is a stormy sea, With coral reefs and many shell-encrusted shoals, The one who rides it out (i.e., the world), knows that it is a maverick, It has brought harm with every disaster (Ink-13).
tete [-ile perf. stem] Perfect stem; see –tata tangle, complicate, confuse; -tatia make a tangle of; (2) wind up in a skein or ball; (3) puzzle, perplex, make difficulties, e.g. –tatia uzi kijitini, wind thread on a stick; -tatia kilemba, arrange the folds of a turban. Also used of a snake coiling round its prey (FJ). Watoto wangapi uwaweneo, Ukawayakini kupona kwao, Sasa nyumba za ti zi wateteo, Katika luhudi iwafundiye; How many children have you seen, And are you certain about their well-being, Whose sepulchres have now enshrouded them, In a grave that binds them (Ink-33).
teuwa ~ teua [v. tr.] Choose, make a choice (TJH). See St. –chagua choose, select, pick out, make a choice; (2) of biased or partial selection, garble, give a false colour to, be unfair (FJ). Am -choisir, élire; SD -chagua, Mv. tagua (Sx). Wapambiye sini ya kuteuwa, Na kula kikombe kinakishiwa, Kati watiziye kuzi za kowa, Katika mapambo yanawiriye; They decorated with choice china, And every cup was adorned with etching, In the center they placed pitchers of crystal, Among the glittering ornaments (Ink-38).
teya [v. i] Slip, fall; do wrong (metaph.) (TJH). –teleza (ASN). Glisser, Dy. telea. Usiliwate hapa utatea {Am = S. G. –chela} (Sx). Tahadhari na kuteya, asikughuri shetwani, Be careful of slipping, let Satan not deceive you (ASN-AD7).
tezi/ma- [n. 5/6] Stern, poop of a ship (FJ). Moya tezi na omoni, sambo ipate tuliya; One (anchor) at the stern and (another) at the bow, So that the dhow may lie at rest (ASN-S9).
thabiti [adj.] Firm, proved, constant, strong; (2) resolute, brave, steadfast (FJ). Ar. Mfa macho ni mbora, ukiwa thabiti moyo; A blind person is the best, if his heart is resolute (MASB-MM1)
thama [conj.] Alike, equally, therewith, at the same time (See mamoja); (2) then, next, also, too, e.g. thama wamwonapo na wasipomwona, alike whether they see him or not. Thama na wewe, and you as well (FJ). As well as (LH). Na alize thama banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).
thamaniana [v. rcp.] Esteem each other, show respect to each other, appreciate one another, etc. (TJH). Udugu si kufanana, bali kuthaminiana, Brotherhood is not being the same, but rather it is showing respect to one other (MASB-Ud3).
thawabu [n. 9/10] Reward, gift—but esp. as from God (FJ). Aso hasanati wala thawabu, Hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu, Akatwekwa dhambi za maghusubu, Akambiwa haya mtukuliye; The one who has neither merit nor gifts from God, His jaw is bridled like a steed, And is loaded down with the sins of a violated one, And finally he is told, “Alright, carry them (i.e., sins) for him.” (Ink-71).
ti(y)a tiya [v. t.] Put, place. See St. –tia (FJ). Kobe kazi akashika, na bidii akatiya, Tortoise held to his task, and put effort into it (ASN-KS6)
tia fora [v. i.] Win in a game, succeed in an undertaking, i.e. a particular task of work (FJ). Wakangoja mapambano, nani wa kutia fora, They waited for the struggle, who would be the winner (ASN-KS1).
tiile [-ile perf.] Perfect stem; see –tii obey, submit to, be docile (obedient, submissive) (FJ). Pay homage to (LH). Bow down in homage (JVA). Malimwengu yote yawatiile, Na dunia yao iwaokele, Wachenenda zitwa zao zilele, Mato mafumbuzi wayafumbiye; The whole world has submitted to them, And their world was laid out straight for them, Walking along, their heads held distainfully, Their staring eyes looking darkly (Ink-35).
timbe [partic.] Dug from the earth, i.e., as a mineral, etc.; mined (WH). See St. Sw. –chimba dig, make (get) by digging—of excavation, not as lima, of cultivation. Chimba shimo, dig a pit, sink a shaft (mine), make a hole; (2) fig. harm, cause trouble or misfortune to, esp. Parents (FJ). Na malipwa yao wadhilimuwa, Si dhahabu timbe si ya kufuwa, Fedha hawatwai na wangapowa, Ila hasanati ni malipwaye; And the compensation for the oppressed, It is not mined gold (right from the ground) nor is refined (lit. washed), The are not grasping after silver even though they might be given it, Only virtue is their (lit. his) reward (Ink-70}.
timua [v. tr.] Make something go off quickly (TJH). Fanya kitu k.v. mtu au mnyama kiende kwa ghafla; kurupusha (KKS). Not in FJ, but see –timka trot, run, amble—of the running movement of an animal (FJ). Lilizitimua mbio kifarasi; It took off speedily like a horse (M&K-MU12).
timua mbio [v. phrase] Send off in a great hurry, rush away, rush off, take off, bolt off (TJH). Lilizitimua mbio kifarasi; It took off speedily like a horse (M&K-MU12).
tindish- [-ile perf.] Perfect stem; see tindika come to an end, /k/ > sh /___ -ile perfect (TJH). Be cut off, fall short, fail, be finished, come to an end. (FJ). See chinja (FJ). Kwamba husadiki hwamba mbwongo, Enda nyumba zao uzinde shingo, Ukita hwitikwi ila ni mwango, Sauti ya mtu itindishiye; If you do not believe it and say it’s a lie, Go to their houses and look around (lit. turn neck), If you call out you get no answer but an echo, The human voice has been cut off (Ink-54).
tiririka [v. i.] Flow, move as a current, gush out (TJH). Glide, trickle, slide along, e.g. of the movement of a snake, of water, etc. (FJ). Enda kwa mfululizo k.v. maji katika mfereji au mto (KKS). Damu humo ikatiririka sana; Its blood inside was gushing out (M&K-MU11).
tiza [v. cs.] Thrust, plunge in, force down, etc. (TJH). Not in FJ or Sx. See –tia put, put in, etc. (FJ). Mimi nakwambia nipulikiza, Watiziwe nyumba za jizajiza, Zisizo muanga na muwangaza, Ndio mashukio walishukiye, I tell you listen to me, They have been forced down into dark gloomy houses, That have neither light nor brightness, These indeed are the depths they had descended into (Ink-58).
tiziwe [-ile perf.] Perfect stem of -tiziwa; see –tiza.
to [encl.] Emphatic enclitic to show emphasis (TJH). Sasa moyo pako t’auza nawe, Nelezato sana nami nelewe, Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe, Nambia walipo kawamkiye; Now oh soul, for your part I will ask even you, Explain it to me most clearly so I understand, Where are your forebears who gave you birth, Tell me where they are so I may go and greet them (Ink-56).
to [encl.] Totally, completely, entirely, thoroughly; emphatic enclitic (TJH). Moto wa sairi ufahamuto, Ni moto mkali katika nyoto, Ni mngi wa moshi na mitokoto, Majoka na pili waikaliye; Understand totally the fire of the fourth level of hell, It’s the fiercest of all fires, There is much smoke and bubbling, Vile snakes and adders live in it (Ink-75).
toba [n. 9] Repentance, penitence, regret, remorse (FJ). Kitamsi kiza cha ujuhali, Nuru na mianga itadhalali, Na ambao kwamba ataamali, Iwe toba yakwe aitubiye; May the darkness of benighted disbelief be erased, May light and radiance gleam, And whoever meditates (upon it), May it be his pardon (who) seeks forgiveness for himself (Ink-9).
toboa [v. tr.] Perforate, puncture, bore through (TJH). Bore a hole (in), make a hole (or passage), force a way (through) (FJ). Toboa litumbo la nduli kafiri; Puncture open the odious stomach of the accursed beast (M&K-MU11).
toleya salamu [v. appl.] Greet for, salute for, send greetings for (TJH). See St. –tolea and –toa in FJ. Enyi ndege murukao, salamu nitoleyani, Oh you flying birds (lit. you who fly), take my greetings for me (ASN-Nd1).
toma [v. tr.] Plunge in, throw into, thrust, sink (TJH). Thrust in, usu. with the Rf. kujitoma, to thrust oneself in, burst in (FJ). Mpendwa njoo karibu, tujitome kitaluni, Lover, come close, let’s plunge ourselves into the garden (M&K-ML1).
tongo/ma- [n. 5/6] Occular excretum, “sleepies, sleep” (TJH). Kumpapasa, kumtoa matongo; Caressing him, taking away his sleep (M&K-Mk2).
tongowa [v. tr.] Tease apart, cut into, dissect; sharpen to a point; articulate, make pronouncements, speak precisely (TJH). See St. –chongoa (FJ). See –tongoa: Parle; 2. Articuler, prononcer (-tamuka) (Am.; Sx). Maneno yako yatongoe, tupate kuyasikia. Yafumbuweni wayuzi, mutongowe moyamoya; Reveal those things, you learned ones, Speak clearly (of them) one by one (ASN-S2).
towa guguni [v. t.] Remove weeds from weedy ground, do weeding, weed; see St. -toa (TJH). Uguguni: Penye magugu (ASN) (kuitowa guguni: note use of pronoun, thus remove from it (the field). Yapo waipaliliya, na kuitowa guguni When you hoe it and rid it of weeds (ASN-AD4).
tozi/ma- [n. 5/6] Tear (TJH). See St. chozi (FJ). Huketi nikikuwaza, na matozi kifuwani, I sit here thinking of you with tears on my breast (ASN-Nd4).
tozi/ma- [n. 5/6] Tear. See St. chozi/ma– ‘tear’ (FJ). Taratibu kaondoka, na matozi akitowa, Slowly he left, with tears flowing (ASN-KS11).
tu [pro./cop.] We, us. 1st plural subject or object prefix.  Often functions as a 1st plural copula. Ngome imetuumiza, naswi tu mumo ngomeni, The Fort has harmed us, (but) we as well are now inside the fort itself (MY-Ng).
tubukia ~ tumbukia [v. i.] Plunge in (TJH). See –tumbua disembowel, rip up, cut open, make a hole (in), perforate; (2) lay open, display; -tumbukia break out into, burst suddenly into, of a sudden rush or fall, (2) get suddenly involved in, be caught or strangled in; -tumbukiza thrust into, push into, e.g. a well, pit, etc. (FJ). (Mr. Z. Mv. Ngw. = P. Mv. Am. -tubwikia, G. -chobokea).· a. Tomber en faisant sa trouée, se précipiter (dans un abîme) ; fig., se précipiter dans des difficultés insurmontables, dans la ruine (Sx). Mvi wa manaya ukawafuma, Akatubukia katika nyama, Pasiwe mwatami mwenye kwatama, Au mwamba nini yalikuwaye; Death’s arrow struck them, And he (i.e., death) plunged it in their flesh, Without any dumbfounded gawker there with mouth wide open, Or speaker saying, “What, how has this happened?” (Ink-24).
tufani [n. 9/10] Storm; see Eng. typhoon (TJH). Storm, gale, tempest, hurricane, e.g. of rain, wind, and thunder together (FJ). Palikuwa na tufani zenye meno makali ziangamizazo mimea, There were fierce storms with sharp teeth that devastated the vegetation (M&K-NJL3).
tuka [n. 9/10 ~ 5/6] Thicket, scrub, bush, wild bush-growth (WH). Mashaka ya miti, branches, foliage (CHS). Taillis ou bouquet de jeunes arbres rapprochés (Sx). Au enga moto kururumika, Ulio weuni katika tuka, Pakashuka wingu katika chaka, Ikawa kuzima usiviviye; Or look at a spreading fire, That is in a forest clearing among the thickets, And then there descends a cloud over the forest, And it puts it out so that it does not blow to life (Ink-29). Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, Ungi wa matuka na kutukutu, Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu, Kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye; The buildings’ courtyards became a forest, A profusion of bush and thick undergrowth, The outside doors terrified anyone (who saw them), For solitude and gloom had enshrouded them (Ink-53).
tukizwa [v. ps.] Be hated, reviled (TJH). Be profaned (LH). See –chukizwa be hated (FJ). See matukizo aversion, irritation (K&K). Dunia ni jifa siikaribu, Haipendi mtu ila kilabu, I hali gani ewe labibu, Kuwania na mbwa hutukizwaye; The world is putrifying death stay away from it, It favors no one except dogs, What is it that you of sound judgment, That you be so reviled to fight over it with dogs (Ink-19).
tulika [v. i.] Be lacerated, excoriated; see tua lacearate, scratch, irritate (WH). See St –chua apply friction, hence (1) file, rub as with a file, rub so as to remove the husk, e.g. of rice, &c.; (2) massage, chafe (FJ). Nyofoka, -katikakatika (MMM). Nyambulika (MM). Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu hawaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots dribble down from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).
tuliya [v. appl.] Alight, land on, settle down on (TJH). See –tulia be calm, settle down, etc. (FJ). Mutakapofika kwao, mtuliye ziweoni, When you reach her, alight on her lap (ASN-Nd1).
tuliya ~ tulia [v. i.] Be at ease, at rest, be calm, be tranquil. See St. –tuliaUkae na kutuliya, na moyo utamakani, Remain and be calm, and your heart will be at peace (ASN-AD-7).
tumbawe/ma- [n. 5/6] Light weight coral rock used with mangrove poles or beams in constructing ceilings (TJH). Coral rock in the intermediate stage between coral and rock—white and massive, but light and not fully consolidated.  Used largely (from its lightness) for concrete roofs, also for cornices, being easily cut to shape, and for lime burning (FJ). See more extensive entry for tumbawe/ma- in Sx.  Ngome ni ya matumbawe, na boriti kuikiza, The Fort’s (ceilings) are of coral rock with mangrove beams set in place (for rafters) (MY-Ng).
tumbawe/ma- [n. 5/6] Coral reefs (LH). See matumbawe soft white coral stone (much used for burning into lime), coral rag used in building (K&K). Pierre de corail (Sx). Suu ulimwengu bahari tesi, Una matumbawe na mangi maasi, Aurakibuo juwa ni mwasi, Kwa kula khasara ukhasiriye; This world is a stormy sea, With coral reefs and many shell-encrusted shoals, The one who rides it out (i.e., the world), knows that it is a maverick, It has brought harm with every disaster (Ink-13).
tumbuiza [v. tr.] Serenede, soothe by singing, make a soothing sound with or without words, sing to, sing by turns. Tumbuiza kwa nyimbo (kwa maneno mazuri), soothe by songs by gentle words (FJ).
tumbuza [v. intens.] Break through (TJH). Force a way through, penetrate, come out on the other side of, e.g. –tumbuza mwitu, pass through a forest; jua limetumbuza, the sun has burst out (See –penya and –chimbuza); (2) glare at, like tumbulia; See –chimbuza and –chimbuka used esp. of the sun or moon, ‘appear, begin to shine, rise’, i.e. come up from the earth, become visible, &c. Used whether from horizon or from cloud (FJ). Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi, Wali na wakandi na wapepezi, Na wake wapambe watumbuizi, Wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye; When they sleep from drosiness, They had masseurs and fanners, And well-dressed ladies as singers, Singing lullabies and never becoming quiet (Ink-41).
tumbwiza [n. tr.] Serenade, sing sweat songs (TJH). See –tumbuiza, soothe by singing, make a soothing sound with or without words, sing to, sing by turns (FJ). Anapotembea anasikiliza, Videge vya anga vinavyotumbwiza; While he walks along he’s listening, As the birds are singing sweetly in the sky (M&K-Mk2).
tumiana [v. rcp] Send to each other (TJH). See –tumia (FJ). Daima kukumbukana, salamu kutumiana, Always remembering each other, (and) exchanging greetings (MASB-Ud3).
tumiya [v.tr.] See St. –tumia. Kula aliye mfuzi, na nyundo huitumiya; For anyone who is a smith, And who uses a hammer (ASN-S2).
tunga [v. tr.] Take care of, guard, watch out for, etc. (TJH). See –a kutunga self-respecting (MHA); i.e., of to care for one’s reputation (TJH). ND –tunga :: SD –chunga q.v. Wenye urembo na shani, waungwana wa kutunga, You men of beauty and splendor, free-born who respect themselves (MY-KY2).
tupa [v. i.] Jump down from above, etc. (FJ). DN. = DS –chupa (Sx)
tupa [v. i.] Jump from above. Sauter par dessus Mr. Am. = Z. P. –chupa (Sx)
tupa turufu [v. phrase] Play one’s trump card, lit., throw the trump card; metaph. present a final solution, achieve unexpected results (TJH). Katika kitanda chako, watupe yao turufu; To your bed, for them to play their trump card (MASB-Au5).
tupi(y)a ~ tupiya [v. app.] Move quickly, rush, dash, gallop (FJ). Akakimbiya haraka, kwa kasi akitupiya, And then off in a rush he ran, pushing himself quickly at high speed (ASN-KS7)
turufu [n. 9/10] Trump card (TJH). Port. Katika kitanda chako, watupe yao turufu; To your bed, for them to play their trump card (MASB-Au5).
tuza [v. cs.] Calm, soothe, comfort, give comfort to (TJH). See –tuza = -tuliza dans le sens de calmer une personne soit affligée, soit irritée (Mv; Sx). Hela nipa tamkini, nituze yangu fuwadi, Please give me an answer, so I may calm my heart (ASN-Nd5).
tuzo [n. 5/6] A present, esp. of a reward for success (FJ).Niwapimiye kwa mani, Tuzo t‘unu na hidaya; Let me weigh it for you with a scale, The reward is a rare, precious gift (ASN-S8).
tweya ~ twea [v. appl.] Set for. See St. –chwea. La kuwaa hukutweya, kukakuweya iyoni, What shines (lit. of to shine, viz. the sun) will always set on you, and so there will be an evening for you (ASN-AD3).
u(w)adui [n. 14] Enmity, hostility (FJ). See adui/ma- enemy (FJ). Haifanyi ndicho sicho, na kuleta uchokozi, Uwadui wa kificho, fitina na ubazazi, They do not do what should not be, nor bring provocation, Hidden enmity, strife and dishonesty (MASB-Ud2).
uaua [v. redup.] Annihilate; ponda, ua (MHA). See -ua kill, etc. (FJ). Humwangusha kwa mimba juu lat‘i kamwawaa, It knocks him face down to the ground, and annihilates him (MY-KT). Note the phonological alternant in the citation: ka+m+ua+ua+a > kamwawaa. The final /-a/ is analogous to the vowel addition found in emphatics such as kulee ‘way over there’ in contrast to kule ‘there’. This would fit MHA’s glosses and translation (TJH).
ubabe [n. 14] Brutishness (MASB), See mbabe n. 1/2, a strong, tall man; hero (in film); (2) a bad man, a brute of a man (K&K). Ubabe na Ufisadi, Ugomvi na Uhasama, wamekuwa makuwadi (MASB-Au2). “Brutishness” and “Corruption”, “Conflicts” and “Disputes”! They have become pimps (MASB-Au2).
ubazazi [n. 14] Dishonesty (MASB). Sharp practice in trading, cheating (FJ). See bazazi/ma- trader, shopkeeper, but usually of one who pushes himself forward by advertising or using trickery or devices for getting people’s custom, hence a person who uses sharp practice, cheat, sharper, etc (FJ) Haifanyi ndicho sicho, na kuleta uchokozi, Uwadui wa kificho, fitina na ubazazi, They do not do what should not be, nor bring provocation,
Hidden enmity, strife and dishonesty (MASB-Ud2).
ubele [n. 11/10] Forward position, ahead, first; advancement, advancement in rank, progress (TJH). Position en avant; avancement, action de monter en grade, progress, < mbele (Am. G. ubee) (Sx). Feather, a sign of victory (ASN). See mbele before, in front, etc. (FJ). Ubele umeushika, kuongoza yako ndiya, You have come in first, to be a leader (to lead) is your way (ASN-KS8)
ubongo/bongo [n. 11/10] Brain substance, brain, marrow (FJ). Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of hell, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).
uchangalia [infl. v.] You being careful. See St. ukiangalia. Yavuwe uchangaliya uso siiname t‘ini Open them up (your eyes), ever vigilant, do not lower your face (ASN-AD3).
uchefuzi [n. 14] Nausea, foulness, pollution, corruption, defilement, contamination; see chefuka and chefuzi (TJH). See kichafuzi pollutant (TUKI). Ndipo mara uchefuzi ukazidi; It was then all of a sudden the foulness became excessive (M&K-MU5).
uchokozi [n. 14] Provocation (MASB). Teasing, annoyance, quarrelsomeness; obsession, instigation; insulting language (Brill). See –chokoza tease, bully, annoy, vex; -chokoa pick at, poke, esp. of working at a hard substance with a pointed instrument, knife, or finger (FJ). Haifanyi ndicho sicho, na kuleta uchokozi, They do not do what should not be, nor bring provocation (MASB-Ud2).
udhiko/ma- [n. 14/6] Trouble, annoyance, vexation (FJ). K’atowa moyo wahaka, na maudhiko ya ndani, And relieve (lit. take away ) (my) distressed heart, and deep-seated pain (ASN-Nd3).
udugu [n. 14] Fraternity, brotherhood (MASB). Fellowship (TJH). Huu ni bora mfano, wa udugu umaizi, This is the best example, of enlightened fraternity (MASB-Ud1).
ufisadi [n. 14] Vice, viciousness, corruption. Also in sense of slander, stir up strife, etc. (FJ). Ar. Ubabe na Ufisadi, Ugomvi na Uhasama, wamekuwa makuwadi; “Brutishness” and “Corruption”, “Conflicts” and “Disputes”! They have become pimps (MASB-Au2).
ufu [n. 14] State of being dead, death, deadness, numbness (FJ). Kwamba leo utawanyotea ufu; That today death would rain down upon them (M&K-MU4).
ufu [ideo.] Ideophone conveying notion of nothingness, a sound like a puff of air   (TJH). Not in FJ. See Fu ~ fuu onomat. Bruit de souffle ou de ce qui fuse; sifflement du serpent; bourdonnement ou bruissement d’abeille, etc. -piga fu, faire long feu (arme, fusée, etc.) (Sx).  See –fulia menacer par un sifflement, par un bruit de souffle fu… (Sx). Wawapi wa ziungini, ufu wamepita ndiya, Where are those on top, in a pffff they are gone (ASN-AD3).
ufuo [n. 11/10] Beach, shore, seashore, coastline. Wimbini huisumbika, Ikegesha ufuoni; Into the waves it plunged itself, Reaching safety on the shore (ASN-S6).
ufuo [n. 11] Beach, shore (TJH). Pwa, ukingo wa bahari (INS). Ya kutoka na kungiya, kwa mawimbi ufuoni, (Water at the shore) Which goes out (ebbs) and comes in (flows), in waves at the beach (ASN-AD1).
uganga [n. 14] Charm, spell, magic (TJH). Art (profession, fee) of a native doctor, doctoring, healing, surgical and medical aid—including use of charms, &c.; (2) medicine, charm, e.g. pika (fanya, weka) uganga, concoct (make, place in position) native medicine. Also ee topoa mtu uganga release a man from the power of a charm (FJ). Tulale fofofo kwa wake uganga; So we would be dead asleep from his spell (M&K-MU2).
uhasama [n. 14] Enmity, violence, sulkiness (FJ). Ar. Ubabe na Ufisadi, Ugomvi na Uhasama, wamekuwa makuwadi; “Brutishness” and “Corruption”, “Conflicts” and “Disputes”! They have become pimps (MASB-Au2).
uhondo n. 14 Sweet abundance, sweetness; pleasant situation, agreeable matter (TJH). Hali ya kufaidi vitu vitamu (KKS). Big feast, generous entertainment (FJ). Abundance of nice, sweet, fancy food, banquet; wealth, abundance; present, extra gift (K&K). Na baada ya kuvuna uhondo huo, And after that sweet harvest (M&K-WJLL4).
ujuhali [n. 14] Ignorance; the condition of those unconverted to Islam (in sacred contexts) (WH). Kitamsi kiza cha ujuhali, Nuru na mianga itadhalali, Na ambao kwamba ataamali, Iwe toba yakwe aitubiye; May the darkness of benighted disbelief be erased, May light and radiance gleam, And whoever meditates (upon it), May it be his pardon (who) seeks repentance for himself (Ink-9).
uk’eto/k’eto [n. 11/10] Depth (FJ). Hupenya ndani kwa ndani, Ya uk’eto wa bahari; They penetrate completely inside, The depth of the ocean (ASN-S4).
uka [v. i.] Leave, go away, etc. (TJH). Be in a state of going away; derivative of –uya leave away; also used as “depart”, “come from”; withdraw from (WH). Go away; seldom used (FJ). T’atunga kifungo kwa kukisafi, Nikipange lulu kula tarafi, Na ina nikite Inkishafi, Kiza cha dhunubu kiniukiye; I will fix a clasp to finish it, So to set pearls on each end, And for a name let me call it the “Soul’s Awakening”, So that the darkness of sin leave me (Ink-8).
uka [v. i.] Get away (TJH). Go away; seldom used (FJ). Depart (LH). Partir (-ondoka), se
retirer, s’en aller, s’ôter de là, se lever pour
s’en aller (se dit de l’homme et des animaux);
surgir. Uka, umpe kiti lève-toi, donne-lui le siege. See paukwa pakawa il surgit, il arriva = il arriva que : formule archaIque au début d’un récit historique; (2) {Am, G, Ng = DS –puka} sauter, bondir, franchir en sautant; voler (Sx). Tandi la mauti likawakuta, Wakauma zanda wa kuiyuta, Na dunia yao ikawasuta, Ichamba safari muniukiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-22).
ukata/ma- [n. 14/6] Poverty, deprivation, shortcoming, hardship (WH). Poverty, destitution, beggary (K&K). Msiba (MM). See mkata poor man (FJ). Khasaisi zote na makatayo, Shida na shakawa likupeteyo, Ni dunia sii uipendayo, Yenye dhuli nyingi na makataye; All your vices and deprivation, Difficulties and trouble that have happened to you, Because of (lit., by) this world which you love, With its many miseries and its hardships (Ink-18).
ukeme [n. 14] Outcry, shouting, hubbub, loud call (WH). See ukemi shout, call, cry (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).
uki [n. 14] Honey; see nyuki bee (FJ). Nchi ilojaa uki na maziwa; A land that is filled with honey and milk (M&K-MU13).
ukia [v. appl.] Be in state of going away from a person or place (WH). T’atunga kifungo kwa kukisafi, Nikipange lulu kula tarafi, Na ina nikite Inkishafi, Kiza cha dhunubu kiniukiye; I will fix a clasp to finish it, So to set pearls on each end, And for a name let me call it the “Soul’s Awakening”, So that the darkness of sin leave me (Ink-8).
ukomo/komo [n. 11/10] Act (manner, time, place, &c.), of coming to a stop, end, halting place, goal, end part, limit, destruction, death (FJ). Zituko zingapo hutanabahi, Ukanabihika hukunabihi, Utaata lini ya usafihi, Nambia ukomo niusikiye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-26).
ukumbi/kumbi [n. 11/10] Porch, vestibule, outer hall, ante-room, room first entered in going into a house or hut (FJ). Reception hall (WH). See also v. 52 & 59. Kumbi za msana, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).
ukwasi [n. 14] Wealth, opulence, riches, the condition of being wealthy (FJ). Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhuri, Wakanakiliwa ili safari, Washukiye nyumba za makaburi, Mtanga na fusi ziwafusiye; Even if wealth is ostentatious, They were carried off on (lit. for purpose of) death’s journey, They descended into the dwelling places of the dead (lit., graves), Sand and rubble entombed them. (Ink-44).
uma zanda [v. tr.] Bite the fingers literally, an expression to show regret or grief (TJH).Gnaw the finger of repent (WH). Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).
umaizi [n. 14] Knowledge, understanding, recognition; See –maizi know, understand, recognize (FJ). Huu ni bora mfano, wa udugu umaizi, This is the best example, of enlightened fraternity (MASB-Ud1).
umbo/ma- [n. 5/6] Figure, body shape (TJH). Shape, form, natural condition (appearance, constitution) (FJ). Shape, outward likeness; frame, form, fashion, natural condition, constitution, substance, appearance; beauty (Brill). Jamali wa umbo, Na wajihi mwema, (You sg have) a beautiful figure, With a pleasant countenance (KA-LL).
umri [n. 14] Age, time of one’s life (TJH). Time of life, age (FJ). Wakazisalimu umri zao, Hadimu Ladhati achenda nao, Pasi mkohozi akohowao, Au mwenye kwenda asiridhiye; Then they surrendered their lives, Death going with them, Without (so much as) a cougher who coughes, Or any traveler who is content (Ink-25).
undani [n.14] Secrecy, a secret grudge (FJ). Hali ya kuwa kinyongo na mtu: Kila mwenye undani ausafishie hapa. [B] hakika ya kitu au jambo (KKS). Lema ovu zingatiya, uufahamu undani, Consider carefully both good and evil, understand their secrets (ASN-AD7).
ungi [n. 14] Abundance, etc.; see St. Sw. wingi (FJ). Kima ina ila ilio mbovu, Ilikithiriye ungi welevu, I kalifu mno kuta kiwavu, Kupa watu ngeya ikithiriye; Finally it has the worst evil, It grows ever larger with an abundance of cunning, It is exceedingly violent striking at the heart, Inflicting on people death blows, it has exceeded all bounds (Ink-20).
ungulika [v. st.] Burn, chafe, glow; suffer, languish away from love-pain (K&K). Be hardened by fire, (2) be combustible (FJ). Nikazidi wayowayo, na ruhu kiungulika, So that I become even more worried, and suffer even more with a love-sick heart (with a heart on fire) (ASN-Nd6).
ungusha [v. cs./ints.] Burn, scorch, destroy by fire (WH). See St. Sw. –ungua (FJ). Na moto wa ladha nao pulika, Moto ukitiwa mara huwaka, Huona manofu yakikwambuka, Waona ziungo ziungushiye; And as for the fire of the second hell listen, If you are put into its fire you burn immediately, You see chunks of flesh being stripped from you, You see that your limbs have been utterly consumed (Ink-76).
upaa/p’aa [n. 11/10] Pate, crown of head (WH). Utosi (CHS). Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67).
upeo [n. 11; adv.] Horizon, limit, range of vision, etc.; as far as can be seen, as far as one can see (TJH). See upeo horizon, limit of vision, etc.; to the utmost, thoroughly, as much as possible (FJ). Mwendao mbiyo upeo, mukipaliya yangani, You who go so quickly as far as one can see, soaring high into the sky (ASN-Nd1).
upote/p’ote [n. 11/10] Thong, bowstring—of sinew or twisted string (FJ). Single thread or string (ASN). Kama uzi sindanoni,Upote pota hariri; Like thread through a needle, A single, soft thread (of) silk (ASN-S4).
upote/pote [n. 11/10] Cord, braid, embroidery, plaited work (WH). Thong, bowstring—of sinew or twisted string (FJ). See –pota twist, esp. of twisting the strands of flax, cotton, &c, to make string, twine, rope (FJ). Kwa maao mema ya kukhitari, Iyu la zitanda za majodori, Na mito kuwili ya akhadhari, Kwa kazi ya pote wanakishiye; On fine well-chosen couches, On beds of padded cushions, With green pillows at both ends, Decorated with embroidered work (Ink-42).
usafihi [n. 14] Contempt, derision, scornfulness (TJH). Pride, insolence, presumption, arrogance (FJ). Foolishness, ignorance (CHS). Ar. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi, Ukanabihika hukunabihi, Utaata lini ya usafihi, Nambia ukomo niusikiye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-26).
usha1 [v. cs.] Remove, pull out, take away; leave, depart from, withdraw from; abandon, desert (TJH). See under –uka in Sx: -usha oter, tirer d’un endroit, Enlever pour mettre de côté (Sx). Wa wapi ziuli wa Pate Yunga, Wenye nyuso ali zenye mianga, Wangiziye nyumba za tangatanga, Daula na ezi iwaushiye; Where are the gallent men of Pate Yunga, With exceptionally shiny faces, They have been thrust into sandy dwellings, Sovereignty and power have deserted them (Ink-60).
usha2 [v. tr. ~ i.] Fly, fly away; throw, cause to fly off (TJH). See –usha nyuni Am, Ng faire envoler un ou des oiseaux (Sx). Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wot’e kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).
ushindani [n. 14] Rivalry, competition, emulation, contest, fighting (FJ). Watizame ushindani, watakaokukimbiya, So they might see the contest and those who will (want to) run (ASN-KS2).
usiiyone [infl. v.] Do not see yourself (lit). See St. usijioneUsiiyone kwa ziya, una muilini, Don’t think of yourself, of your limbs, you are strong in body (ASN-AD5).
usindizi/ma- [n. 14/6] Sleep, repose, lethargy (TJH). See usingizi SD, Mvita = Amu usindizi sommeil, repos de la nuit; somnolence (Sx). See also –sinzia doze, be drowsy; (2) be inattentive, absent — minded, make a foolish mistake; (3) of a lamp or fire, flicker (FJ). Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi, Wali na wakandi na wapepezi, Na wake wapambe watumbuizi, Wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye; When they sleep from drosiness, They had masseurs and fanners, And well-dressed ladies as singers, Singing lullabies and never becoming quiet (Ink-41).
usiri [v. i.] Stay, delay, be detained (FJ). Make difficulties; hinder, cause a project to tarry (WH). Delay by the way (CHS). See –a kuusiri procrastination, postponing, putting things off (TJH). Ichamba hayani ndio safari, Yakomele tena ya kuusiri, Bidhaa ya ndeo na takaburi, Mutendele kwangu nishuhudiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-23).
usitawi [n. 14] Prosperity, thriving situation, fruition (TJH). Flourishing condition, healthy development, full activity, success (FJ). See –sitawi be in good condition, reach full development, flourish, succeed, go off well, be in full swing, be at the height, e.g. of healthy plants, of social functions, dances (ngoma), a feast (karamu), a wedding (arusi), or of trade (biashara) (FJ). Usitawi wa maisha yetu, The fruition of our life (M&K-WJLL4).
utandu/t‘andu [n. 11/10] Branch (TJH). Tagaa/ma-, tawi/ma- (ASN). Ramée, grosse branche avec ses rameaux et ses feuilles (Am. P. S. = G. itandu, tandu, Mv. tanzuma-. Augm. de utandu (Sx). T‘andu hazionekani, Yapokuwa zatepuza; The branches are not visible, Even though they are burgeoning in growth (ASN-S5).
utandu/tandu [n. 11/10] Something extended (TJH). Used to describe anything spread out, extended, stretched…. e.g., spider’s web (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).
utenzi/tenzi [n. 11/10] Story, tale, poem, epic poem (TJH). Poem, esp. of a religious kind, an old story told in verse (FJ). Nje, siku mpya ilikuwa na utenzi wa kutisha kusimulia, Outside, the new day had a frightful tale to tell (M&K-NJL3).
utongo/tongo [n. 11/10] Rheum, ocular secretion; “sleepies” (TJH). Discharge from the eyes (FJ). Uchafu au taka nyeupe zitakazo machoni (KKahigi). Nikazinawa tongo za usiku,
uuguzi [n. 14] Illness, sickness, disease (TJH). See –ugua fall ill (FJ). K’ongowea yaugua kwa kite na uuguzi, Kongowea is sick from suffering and disease (MY-KY1).
uwadilifu [n. 14] Righteousness (MASB). See –adilifu adj. upright, honorable, moral, righteous, impartial (FJ). Ar. Wako wapi ndugu zako, “Haki” na “Uwadilifu”? And where are your brothers, “Justice” and “Rightousness”? (MASB-Au5).
uweza [n. 14] Strength, might, power, capacity, authority, ability, faculty (FJ). Lakini sina uweza, nduyangu nifanye nini? But I am unable (to fly), my sister, what must I do? (ASN-Nd4).
uza [v. tr] Ask a question (TJH). See St. –uliza. Nauza changu kimiya, kichatiya chashikani; I pose a question about my net, if I cast it what will it catch? (ASN-S1).
uza [v. tr.] Ask; see St. Sw. –uliza (FJ). Sasa moyo pako t’auza nawe, Nelezato sana nami nelewe, Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe, Nambia walipo kawamkiye; Now oh soul, for your part I will ask even you, Explain it to me most clearly so I understand, Where are your forebears who gave you birth, Tell me where they are so I may go and greet them (Ink-56).
uziwa [n. 11] Sea, ocean (ASN). See ziwa/maziwa lake (FJ).Wazami wa uziwani, wa mawimbi na miuya, Divers in the ocean, in waves and breakers (ASN-S1).
vama [v. tr.] Oppress, depress, weigh heavily on (TJH). Lie heavy on, cut into, as of a rope which is tied tightly (FJ). Na maradhi kunipoza, yanivemeo moyoni, Or cure me of my illness, which weighs heavily in my heart (ASN-Nd7).
vivia [v. appl.] Come back to life, come to life, blow on a fire so it burns well (TJH). Revive (LH). Blow with the mouth, e.g. a fire, etc. (FJ). Blow into (a fire), blow up (a football, bladder); Blow (a dead fire) into life again; blow, play the flute (K&K). Vivia (Mv) = -vuvia souffler avec la bouche; souffler sur, dans; insuffler… (Sx). Au enga moto kururumika, Ulio weuni katika tuka, Pakashuka wingu katika chaka, Ikawa kuzima usiviviye; Or look at a spreading fire, That is in a forest clearing among the thickets, And then there descends a cloud over the forest, And it puts it out so that it does not blow to life (Ink-29).
vumba/ma- [n. 5/6] Stinky, rotten fish smell (TJH). Bad smell, always connected with fish (FJ). Haitawali mnyau, mtezateza na vumba, A cat, one who fiddles around with smelly fish, is not a ruler (lit., does not rule) (MY-KT).
vunda [v. tr.] Break, etc. See St. Sw. –vunja. Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of hell, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).
vuruga [v. tr.] Disrupt (MASB). Disturb, upset, create confusion; harass (TJH). Stir up, stir, stir round (about), mix by stirring, (2) fig. stir up the feeling of, excite, exasperate (FJ). Afaye moyo hatendi, huvuruga watendao; The unfeeling person does nothing, he only harasses those who act (MASB-MM2).
vurugika [v. st.] Be upside down (MASB). Be in turmoil (TJH). Be in a stirred-up, mixed-up condition, also used of things in a moldering (decaying, crumbling) condition, be completely decomposed or putrefied (FJ). Nyumba itavurugika, mauti yakikufika; The House will be in turmoil, if you die (MASB-Au3).
vuta khatuwa [v. t.] Take steps, make tracks, move along; see khatuwa ~ hatua (TJH). See St. –vuta (FJ). Dharau zikamshika, kobe havutikhatuwa, Scorn took hold of him, Tortoise isn’t taking any steps (ASN-KS5).
vuvumka [v. i.] Rise up suddenly, get up quickly, jolt up (TJH). Toka kwa nguvu (KKahigi). Grow up fast, develop quickly, shoot up—of vegetation and also animal life, e.g. of mangoes, children, of dough rising (FJ). Toka njozini nikavuvumka, From a dream I jolted awake (M&K-NJL2).
vuwa ~ vua [v. t.] Raise the eyes. See St. -vua: throw a glance or raise the eyes (FJ). Yavuwe uchangaliya uso siiname t‘ini, Open them up (your eyes), being ever vigilant, do not lower your face (ASN-AD3).
wa imara [v. i.] Be set, be established, be firm, be fixed in place (TJH). See imara (FJ). Wakafanya maagano, mambo yakawa imara, They made a pact, and so everything was firmly set (ASN-KS-1).
wa na sura [v. phrase] Be apparent, obvious (TJH). Wa na asili, -wa na msingi, -ingia sura, yaani anza kuimarika (MM). Moyo wangu nini huzundukani, Likughurielo hela ni nni, Hunelezi nami kalibaini, Liwapo na sura nisikataye; Oh my heart why don’t you wake up, Look now, what is it that misleads you, And why do you not explain it to me so that I as well may recognize it, If it is so obvious must I not reject it? (Ink-11).
waa [v. i.] Shine brightly, blaze—i.e. of the sun or moon, but not often used (See ng’aa) (FJ). Kuchomoza (INS). La kuwaa hukutweya, kukakuweya iyoni, What shines (lit. “of to shine, viz. the sun”) will always set on you, and so there will be an evening for you (ASN-AD3).
waa [v. i.] Shine brightly, blaze—i.e. of the sun or moon, but not often used (FJ). Uwene wangapi watu wakwasi, Walo wakiwaa kama shamsi, Wa muluku zana za adharusi, Dhahabu na fedha wakhiziniye; How many rich people have you seen, Who were blazing brightly like the sun, Who control the weapons of war, Who have layed up gold and silver (Ink-34).
wahaka [n. 9] Distress (TJH). Worry, doubt (K&K). Dhiki (ASN). See dhiki narrowness, want of space, confinement; 2. being pressed, annoyance, distress (FJ). K’atowa moyo wahaka, na maudhiko ya ndani, And relieve (lit. take away ) (my) distressed heart, and deep-seated pain (ASN-Nd3). Ar.
wajihi [n. 9/10] Form, appearance (FJ). Form, face, appearance; countenance of a man, dignity (Brill). Jamali wa umbo, Na wajihi mwema, (You sg have) a beautiful figure, With a pleasant countenance (KA-LL).
wakuzaawe [n. 1/2 phrase] Ancestors, progenitors; < wa kuzaa wewe = wazazi (WH). See mzazi. Sasa moyo pako t’auza nawe, Nelezato sana nami nelewe, Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe, Nambia walipo kawamkiye; Now oh soul, for your part I will ask even you, Explain it to me most clearly so I understand, Where are your forebears who gave you birth, Tell me where they are so I may go and greet them (Ink-56).
wama [v. i.] Be, lie in a prone position, face downward, on one’s stomach (TJH). Se coucher à plat ventre (-lala kwa kuwama), se pencher, être penché ou couché de manière à couvrir, DS. -fuama (Mv. Am. = G. –vama). (Sx). See -fuama: lie or bend down with the head on the arms, stomach downwards, but not touching the ground, and the buttocks raised.   Sometimes used in an obscene sense (FJ). Kifudifudi (INS). Kwakuwama na kwa t‘ani, kubenuwa zenu ziya; On your stomachs and backs, flexing your joints (ASN-S1)
wanda/ny- [n. 11/10] Open area, open space; ND wanda :: SD uwanja (TJH). Yot‘e hurudi zimbwini, pwai wanda husaliya, It all returns to the deep, (and) the wide open beach remains. Yot‘e hurudi zimbwini, pwai wanda husaliya, It (water) all returns to the deep, (and) the wide open beach remains (ASN-AD1).
wania [v. appl.] Fight with an opponent; see –wana fight together (WH). Fight for, over, with (TJH). Dunia ni jifa siikaribu, Haipendi mtu ila kilabu, I hali gani ewe labibu, Kuwania na mbwa hutukizwaye; The world is putrifying death stay away from it, It favors no one except dogs, What is it that you of sound judgment, That you be so reviled to fight over it with dogs (Ink-19).
wanja [n. 11/10] Rouge, eye make-up, make-up, cosmetics (TJH). Antimony, used by women to blacken the eyebrows, mostly imported from Arabia (FJ). Namna ya rangi…inayotumiwa aghalabu na wanawake kupaka machoni, usoni, mikononi au miguuni kuwa ni pambo (KKS). Wanja mwororo shavuni na manukato mwilini, Velvety rouge on your cheeks and perfume on your body (M&K-ML5).
wasakha [n. 9/10] Pus, suppurating matter, filth, mucus; also wasaa, wasaha (WH). See St. Sw. usaha (FJ). Ar. Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu hawaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots dribble down from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).
wasakha [n. 5] Supperating matter, pus, filth, mucus; also wasaa and wasaha (WH); see usaha (FJ). Ar. Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of hell, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).
washa [v. cs.] Construct a building < -waka build (WH). See –aka build, using stone, mortar, work as a mason, as opposed to jenga, which is used of building with poles, sticks, and mud (FJ). Wana wa zipungu wapende zango, Na wana wa ndiwa humia shingo, Na kupija mbawa matongotongo, Ziku na zitati waliwashiye; Young vultures have perched on clothes-rack pegs, And the squab of doves bob their heads (lit., necks) to and fro, And flutter their wings ceaselessly, (Where) wood-pigeons and swallows have built their nests (Ink-51).
washi [adj.] Burning, glowing, blazing, etc. (TJH). Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of hell, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).
watakaokukimbiya [infl. v.] See St. Watakao kukimbia. Normally the infinitival marker ku is dropped in St. Sw. constructions. Watizame ushindani, watakaokukimbiya, So they might see the contest and those who will run (ASN-KS2)
wayowayo [n. 14] Wavering, irresolution, indeciveness, worry, unease (TJH). Reeling, staggering; hesitating (FJ). Nikazidi wayowayo, na ruhu kiungulika, So that I become even more worried, and suffer even more with a love-sick heart (with a heart on fire) (ASN-Nd6).
wele [-ile perf., cop.] Perfect stem; see –wa be, become (TJH). Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).
wene [-ile perf. stem] Perfect stem; see–ona see. Watoto wangapi uwaweneo, Ukawayakini kupona kwao, Sasa nyumba za ti ziwateteo, Katika luhudi iwafundiye; How many children have you seen, And are you certain about their well-being, Whose sepulchres have now enshrouded them, In a grave that binds them (Ink-33).
weu/ny- [11/10] Clearing, open space for planting, place free from trees, forest glade (FJ). Forest clearing (Taylor). See peupe an open place, clearing in a forest, square in a town, unoccupied ground; -eua make white, whiten, clean, cleanse, purify (FJ). Au enga moto kururumika, Ulio weuni katika tuka, Pakashuka wingu katika chaka, Ikawa kuzima usiviviye; Or look at a spreading fire, That is in a forest clearing among the thickets, And then there descends a cloud over the forest, And it puts it out so that it does not blow to life (Ink-29).
weya ~ wea [v. BE appl.] Be for. See St. wea or wia < –wa be (FJ).  Kukawa jambo kwa ajili yako, kuwa rahisi kwako (INS). La kuwaa hukutweya, kukakuweya iyoni, What shines (lit. of to shine, viz. the sun) will always set on you, and so there will be an evening for you (ASN-AD3).
wimbi/ma- [n. 5/6] Wave (FJ). Wazami wa uziwani, wa mawimbi na miuya; Divers in the ocean, in waves and breakers (ASN-S1).
ya [v. i.] Come (TJH). See St. –ja (FJ). K’aya kwako muhibaka, nikaketi mapajani, So I might come to you (my) love, And sit on your lap (ASN-Nd3).
yafaani [infl. v.] See St. Yafaa nini? Of what use is it, of what good is it, what is it good for? See –faa (FJ). Kitunguwe yafaani, mbiyo alozikimbiya, As for Hare, what good was the speed with which he ran? (ASN-KS10)
yakini [v. i.] Be true, certain, proved (TJH). Be sure (FJ). Watoto wangapi uwaweneo, Ukawayakini kupona kwao, Sasa nyumba za ti ziwateteo, Katika luhudi iwafundiye; How many children have you seen, And are you certain about their well-being, Whose sepulchres have now enshrouded them, In a grave that binds them (Ink-33).
yaliya ~ yalia [v. prep.] Be full for, be full up for. See St. –jaliaSione kukuyaliya, kufuma ni kazi gani? Don’t think the tide rises for you, is its ebbing an effort? (ASN-AD1).
yanga [n. 5] Sky, etc. (TJH). See St. anga (1) light, etc.; (2) sky, etc. (3) illumination, etc. (FJ). Kuna kiwingu yangani, Mvua itandaziwe; There is a small cloud in the sky, The rain is spread within (ASM-S3).
yapokuwa [conj.] Even though, see St. ijapokuwa (TJH). T‘andu hazionekani, Yapokuwa zatepuza; The branches are not visible, Even though they are burgeoning in growth (ASN-S5).
yatua [v. reflex.] Be disappointed (TJH). Destroy oneself; kuyatua moyo to have a broken heart, to break one’s heart (WH). See -atua rend, cleave, split (FJ). Chenda akaona mwako wa yuwa, Mai alotaka akayatuwa, Asifidi yambo ila shakawa, Ikawa mayuto yasimsiye; When he goes he then sees only the blazing sun, As for the water he wants, he is disappointed, Without gaining a thing except trouble, And so it was for him, remorse has never ended (Ink-17).
yaza [v. cs.] Fill, etc.; see –jaza (FJ). Wapi wa Kiungu wayaza kumbi, Na mashekhe mema wa Ki-Sarambi, Walaliye nyumba za vumbivumbi, Ziunda za miti ziwaaliye; Where are the people from Kiungu they filled the reception halls, And its good Sarabian sheiks, They now live in crumbling dusty houses, Wooden grave boards press upon them (Ink-59).
yeo [adv.] Today (TJH). See St. leo (FJ). Huona yeo ni yeo, t‘akuona sikuoni, I feel today is the day, (that) I will see you (but) I do not see you. (ASN-Nd2).
yonda/ma- [n. 5/6] Baboon, ape (WH). Babouin, cynocephali (Sx). Not in FJ. Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73).
yongayonga [v. redup.] Totter and stumble, wobble along, move clumsily (TJH). See –yonga sway, bow or bend down, stagger under a weight or from feebleness (FJ). Tukayongayonga na pia kwanguka; We tottered and stumbled about and even fell (M&K-MU5).
yongoya ~ yongoa [v. reflx.] Lead, guide, walk in front, take the lead (TJH). See St. –ongoa (ongoza). Sipite ukiyongoya, kwa ndezi na taraghani, Don’t pass along taking the lead boastfully and arrogantly (ASN-AD6). {See –ji-vuna boast, –ji-ona be conceited}.
yuta [v. i.] Feel guilty; ND –yuta :: SD -juta (TJH). Regret, feel the loss of, miss, be sorry for, feel remorse for (FJ). Be penitent (JVA). Tandi la mauti likawakuta, Wakauma zanda wa kuiyuta, Na dunia yao ikawasuta, Ichamba safari muniukiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-22).
yuto/ma [n. 5/6] See juto/ma- regret, remorse, sorrow for what is past; us. in pl.; see –juta regret, feel the loss of, miss, be sorry for, feel remorse for (FJ). ND yuto :: SD yuto (TJH). Chenda akaona mwako wa yuwa, Mai alotaka akayatuwa, Asifidi yambo ila shakawa, Ikawa mayuto yasimsiye; When he goes he then sees only the blazing sun, As for the water he wants, he is disappointed, Without gaining a thing except trouble, And so it was for him, remorse has never ended (Ink-17).
yuu [n. 5; adv.] Above, up, etc.; ND :: SD juu (TJH).  Lulu ikikamilika,Yuu la mti shazani; Once the pearl has reached perfection; On the tree in its shell (ASN-S6).
yuwa ~ yua [v. tr. & i. ] Know, etc.; ND –yuwa :: SD –jua (TJH). Nayuwa siwatanizi, hamugagwi yaweleya; I know that I am not taunting you, You are not baffled, (about) things clear to you (ASN-S2). Kiwa huyuwi duniya, yatizame mai p’wani, If you do not understand the world, watch the sea (ASN-AD1).
zagaa [v. tr.] Shine, glisten, give light, illuminate (FJ). Ikisa himdi kutabalaji, Ikituzagaa kama siraji, Sala na salamu kiidariji, Tumwa Muhammadi tumsaliye; Once praise is manifest, Shining on us like a lamp, Prayers and peace follow after it (i.e., praise), Let us pray for the Prophet Mohammed (Ink-3).
zana [n. 10] Fittings, apparatus, gadgets, etc. Zana za vita, munitions. Zana za chombo, a boat’s fittings (FJ). Weapons, arms, armament (WH). Uwene wangapi watu wakwasi, Walo wakiwaa kama shamsi, Wa muluku zana za adharusi, Dhahabu na fedha wakhiziniye; How many rich people have you seen, Who were blazing brightly like the sun, Who control the weapons of war, Who have layed up gold and silver (Ink-34).
zanda [n. 8] Fingers; see chanda [n.7]. Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).
zidi [v. i.] Be too much, be excessive, get worse (neg. context) (TJH). 1. become more (greater, larger, taller, longer, etc.), grow, increase, multiply, be more and more… 2. be the greater, have more power (than), outstrip, gain on (in a race), be superior (to)… 3. get the better of, beat, overwhelm, reduce to straits, e.g. kazi imenizidi sana, the work has become too much for me, is too much for me … (FJ). Nje baridi imezidi, The cold outside has gotten worse (M&K-SKN2).
zimbwi [n. 9/10] Deep ocean; deep water, the deep — refers to the sea beyond the ‘pwani’ that is not affected by the ebb and flow of the tide along the shore (ASN). Shimo la bahari (INS).  See: dumbwidimbwi: (Z. Mv. = P dyimbu), ma- Augm. de kidumbwi. Mare profonde de la plage à marée basse ou dans le lit d’un fleuve à sec.  dyimbu (P = Z. Mv. dumbwi, dimbwi). ma- Mare profonde laissée par la mer qui se retire, et où l’eau atteint la hauteur d’un homme et plus, par opposition à pokezi où le fond est moins couvert (Sx).  Also see: dimbwi/ma– pool, puddle, etc. left on shore at low tide; and kidimbwi/vi-. Dim.:  pool, puddle, e.g. left on the shore at low water (FJ). Yot‘e hurudi zimbwini, pwai wanda husaliya, It (water) all returns to the deep, (and) the wide open beach remains (ASN-AD1).
zimika [v. st.] Be extinguished, be put out, be repressed; go out; see St. Sw. –zima repress, quench, extinguish, etc. (TJH). Nisikia sana nikwambiapo, Roho enga taa katika pepo, Haiziwiliki izimikapo, Saa moya hwona izimishiye; Listen carefully to me when I tell you, Look, oh my soul, a lamp in the wind, It cannot be stopped (from shining even) when it is extinguished, Then in a moment one sees it has gone out (Ink-28).
zimish- [-ile perf.] Perfect stem; also Cs.; see–zimika be extinguished, go out, etc.; –zima extinguish; /k/ > sh / ___ile [+perf. stm.].
zimwi [n. 5/6] Evil one, fiend, monster, creature (in the modern sense of something frightful) (TJH). Spirit, fairy, demon, goblin, ogre, ghost (FJ). Au ni zimwi lali limetuloga; Or had the evil one bewitched us (M&K-MU2).
zinda [v. tr.] Circle, turn, go round, twist, lead around; be fixed on (eyes) (K&K). Tourner, faire tourner; rouler, enrouler; faire le tour (de), promener autour (de); colporter (Sx). Kwamba husadiki hwamba mbwongo, Enda nyumba zao uzinde shingo, Ukita hwitikwi ila ni mwango, Sauti ya mtu itindishiye; If you do not believe it and say it’s a lie, Go to their houses and look around (lit. turn neck), If you call out you get no answer but an echo, The human voice has been cut off (Ink-54).
zinga [v. tr.] Go round, go about; (2) stroll, walk; (3) turn about, waver, change, chop, veer, e.g. of winds, change of mind, &c.; (4) turn round, roll round, coil, wind; (5) search; (6) loiter about aimlessly—and so with a bad object, i.e. go after women, solicit (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of shell and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37). Zisiwe nyoyo kuzinga, shauri jema mtende, So that your hearts may not waver, that you carry out a good plan (MY-KY2).
ziwilika [v. pot.] Be preventable, be restrainable; see –zuilika (WH). Nisikia sana nikwambiapo, Roho enga taa katika pepo, Haiziwiliki izimikapo, Saa moya hwona izimishiye; Listen carefully to me when I tell you, Look, oh my soul, a lamp in the wind, It cannot be stopped (from shining even) when it is extinguished, Then in a moment one sees it has gone out (Ink-28).
zongazonga [v. redup.] Creep up on and attack; –nyemelea (Kahigi). See -zonga: Wind, bend about, coil round; 2. fig. puzzle, confuse (FJ). Zunguka agh. kwa mambo mengi kumzunguka mtu mpaka yakakaribia kumshinda (KKS). When the feral cat sees chicks, Hujia daima kuwazongazonga; It always comes to creep up and attack them (M&K-MU16).
zuli(y)a/ma- [n. 5/6] Carpet (FJ). Mat, rug, carpet, cushion (K&K). Sasa walaliye mji shubiri, Pasipo zuliya wala jodori, Ikawa miwili kutaathari, Dhiki ya kaburi iwakusiye; Now they’re asleep in a town of no size at all (lit. a finger’s span), Without carpet or cushion, And their bodies are disfigured, The misery of the grave has tormented them (Ink-45).
zunduka [v. i.] Wake up suddenly with a start (TJH). Se réveiller en sursaut (Sx). Wake with a start, be suddenly wakened (FJ). Moyo wangu nini huzundukani, Likughurielo hela ni nni, Hunelezi nami kalibaini, Liwapo na sura nisikataye; Oh my heart why don’t you wake up, Look now, what is it that misleads you, And why do you not explain it to me so that I as well may recognize it, If it is so obvious must I not reject it? (Ink-11). Kitunguwe kizunduka, fududu mesikiliya, When Hare awoke with a start, Tortoise had already arrived (and gone on) (ASN-KS7). See St. –zinduka (FJ). 
zuo [n. 8] See chuo n. 7. Make someone respond (TJH). Send somebody to call, cause to be called, order (FJ). Call (urgently), summon, convene; call upon, invite, make s.o. answer; Mungu huitisha wajawe: God calls his servants; kuitisha mkutano: to call for a meeting (K&K). Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye; There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded (Ink-62).

 

 

[1] Harries gives upitwe, while Stigand (19xx, p. 73) has utwetwe in the Lamu version of the poem; Taylor (Stigand 19xx, p. 80) has the same. Hichens has utetwe, an ‘Old Swahili perfect’ which he renders as umetatiwa ‘it has become entangled’ in modern or standard Swahili. In a note Harries (p. 295) argues that Hichens’ transliteration is not supported by the manuscripts

[2]Harries gives upitwe, while Stigand (19xx, p. 73) has utwetwe in the Lamu version of the poem; Taylor (Stigand 19xx, p. 80) has the same. Hichens has utetwe, an ‘Old Swahili perfect’ which he renders as umetatiwa ‘it has become entangled’ in modern or standard Swahili. In a note Harries (p. 295) argues that Hichens’ transliteration is not supported by the manuscripts

[3] Harries gives upitwe, while Stigand (19xx, p. 73) has utwetwe in the Lamu version of the poem; Taylor (Stigand 19xx, p. 80) has the same. Hichens has utetwe, an ‘Old Swahili perfect’ which he renders as umetatiwa ‘it has become entangled’ in modern or standard Swahili. In a note Harries (p. 295) argues that Hichens’ transliteration is not supported by the manuscripts

 

 

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Discovering Swahili Poetry