Al-Inkishafi

Introduction

There are several published editions and translations of this poem (see following), all of which I consulted at one time or another in the course of providing a new translation that intends to help elucidate the meanings of vocabulary, grammar, and phraseology of the poem. The glossary, notes, and translation in Hichens (1939) were most helpful in spite of the quaintness of his own translation. Stigand (1915) contains two recensions of the poem, one a northern (ND), and a southern (SD) version from Mombasa. The former is untranslated but does have helpful notes; the later is translated by W. E. Taylor. The translation, however, departs radically from the Swahili text to a degree that makes it close to impossible to understand the Swahili poem. Harries’ and Allen’s translations are quite modern and useful in gaining an appreciation and understanding of the Swahili. The works in Swahili by Mulokozi and Mlamali, as they approach the poem from a modern perspective, are insightful and helpful. A recent discussion of the poem is provided by Kithaka wa Mberia (2015).

Allen, James de Vere. 1977. Al-Inkishafi, Catechism of a Soul. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau. [This is the most recent translation. The Swahili text and its English translation are in different sections of the book making it difficult to compare the translation side by side to the Swahili text. The seven pages of notes that focus on aspects of the poem’s cultural content are helpful, though there is no glossary nor textual notes to help in understanding the Swahili.] (JVA).

Allen, Roland. 1946. Inkishafi, a translation from the Swahili. African Studies 5.4:243-249. [Allen’s translation is of the text in Hichens (1939); he states that he “relied much on his Vocabulary, and sometimes on his notes.] (RA).

Harries, Lyndon. 1962. Swahili Poetry, Oxford: at the Clarendon Press. [Harries provides a side by side translation of the Swahili-Arabic script as found in Hichen’s edition (1939). It seems, however, that Harries modernized some of his text in favor of modern Swahili renderings, e.g., juu instead of ND iyu ‘up, high, etc (see vs. 42 &43)

Hichens, William. 1939. Al-Inkishafi, the Soul’s Awakening. Sheldon Press. [This is a valuable work with extensive grammatical and cultural notes with a helpful glossary. The translation, like that of Taylor’s, is so ornate and flowery to be almost useless in understanding individual words and phrases.] (WH).

Knappert, Jan. 1979. Four Centuries of Swahili Verse. London: Heinemann. [Knappert discusses and translates selected verses of the poem pp. 127-137] (JK).

Mlamali, Muhamadi wa. 1980. Inkishafi. Nairobi: Longman Kenya Ltd. [A discussion and analysis of the poem in Swahili, with a modern Swahili translation]. (MM).

Mulokozi, M. M. 1999. Tenzi Tatu Za Kale. Dar es Salaam: Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili, Chuo Kikuu cha Dar es Salaam. [Has a lengthy discussion (pp. 67-81) and a verse by verse explanation and glossary in Swahili; pp. 82-100.] (MMM).

Stigand, C. H. 1915. A Grammar of Dialectic Changes in the Kiswahili Language, with an introdution and a recension and poetical translation of the poem Inkishafi, a Swahili Speculum Mundi by the Rev. W. E. Taylor, M.A. Cambridge: at the University Press. [Contains two versions of the poem, one a northern version from the Lamu archipelago, and a southern recension from Mombasa and poetical translation of the southern version](CHS = C. H. Stigand; WET = W. E. Taylor).

Taylor, W. E. (1915). Mombasa recension of the Inkishafi, pp. 80-105. In Stigand 1915. [This is a highly literary, flowery translation, which Stigand calls a “poetical translation”.] (WET).

The text reproduced here is essentially that found in Hichens (1939:48-105) with some substitutions from other recensions which are indicated by footnotes.

Hichens does not mark dental consonants. Except for borrowed Arabic words I have endeavored to distinguish dental and alveolar consonants in native Bantu vocabulary by italicizing and underlining the former.

Since the main goal in this project is the documentation of vocabulary with citations from poetry, I have not done any work on reconciling various recensions, or in summarizing the work of others in this area. Most of the works consulted are careful in outlining the manuscript histories. In this connection it would be instructive if an ambitious graduate student of Swahili literature would take on the task of comparing and critiquing the various translations of the Inkishafi represented in the works cited above, both the English ones and those adaptations into modern Swahili.

Following Werner, Knappert (1979:129) identifies the meter of the poem as kisarambe where each stanza has 4 lines of 11 syllables each with a caesura after the 6th syllable.

Summary

(based on Hichens 1939:24-29)

The poem opens, as other poems often do, with praises to Allah and his Prophet followed by a few verses that lay out the goals for the poem (vs. 1-10). Then in vs. 11 – 33 the poet begins his pleas for reform both for his own soul and for those of others in his hearing and he outlines the vanities of the world and its transitoriness. The glories of power and wealth possessed by the rich, the beauty and sumptuousness of their palaces, and the luxury of their lives all come crashing down. Death and decay are inevitable (v. 44). He gruesomely describes the ravages of death (vs. 45-48) and what becomes of material possessions (vs. 49 – 54). In the remaining verses he turns to his listeners and asks where are those they once knew, the poet’s kinsman, as well as the important people of Pate and its neighborhoods; they have been consigned to their graves, shackled by death’s chains (vs. 55-64). Our fate is the same unless we embrace the True Faith (vs. 64; Hichens, p. 92). We will all be confronted on Judgement Day (vs. 68). Only His servants will be saved (vs. 71). Then after describing the different degrees of hellfire (vs. 72 – 77), the poem abruptly ends with the final two verses having been added by another. For a full discussion of the reasons for this conclusion, see Hichens, p. 29. It is Hichen’s view that he poem is unfinished (1939: 27-29).

The Poem

Utendi wa Inkishafi The Poem Inkishafi
1. Bismiliahi naikadimu, Hali ya kutunga hino nudhumu, Na ar-Rahmani kiirasimu, Basi ar-Rahimi nyuma ikaye. I put first “In the Name of God”, While composing this poem, And writing “The Merciful One”, And so may the invocation “The Benign One” be the last in order.
2. Nataka himdi nitangulize, Alo mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize[1], Kapakaza ila isiyo nduye. I want to start with praise, So he who is a pious scholar not ask, And then say, “Don’t stop us from praising”, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other.
3. Ikisa himdi kutabalaji, Ikituzagaa kama siraji, Sala na salamu kiidariji, Tumwa Muhammadi tumsaliye. Once praise is manifest, Shining on us like a lamp, Prayers and peace follow after it (i.e., praise), Let us pray for the Prophet Mohammed.
4. Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye. And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions[2], Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them.
5 Allahumma Rabbi Mukidhi haja, Msalie Tumwa aliyekuja, Na tauhidiyo Mola wa waja, Akatusomesha tafsiriye. O my Lord Allah, Granter of (our) needs, Let us pray for the Prophet, Your divine unity God Almighty of all people, And he taught us its meaning (i.e., the Koran).
6. Kwimakwe kwisa kuzikamili, Himdi na sala kaziratili, Niyadhihirishe yangu makali, Ambayo moyoni nikusudiye. At the end of that, finally, bringing them (i.e., needs; cf. previous verse) to perfection, And lay out praise and prayers in order, So I might set down clearly in my writing, The things in my heart that I intend.
7. Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye. My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end.
8. T’atunga kifungo kwa kukisafi, Nikipange lulu kula tarafi, Na ina nikite Inkishafi, Kiza cha dhunubu kiniukiye I will fix a clasp to finish it, So to set pearls on each end, And for a name let me call it the “Soul’s Awakening”, So that the darkness of sin leave me.
9. Kitamsi kiza cha ujuhali, Nuru na mianga itadhalali, Na ambao kwamba ataamali, Iwe toba yakwe aitubiye. May the darkness of benighted disbelief be erased, May light and radiance gleam, And whoever meditates (upon it), May it be his pardon (who) seeks repentance for himself.
10 Kwimakwe kwisa dibaji yangu, P’enda kuuonya na moyo wangu, Utetwe[3] na hawa ya ulimwengu, Hila za rajimi ziughuriye. So finally my preface has come to an end, I need (now) to admonish my heart as well, It is entangled by the lust of the world, The wiles of satan have beguiled it.
11. Moyo wangu nini huzundukani, Likughurielo hela ni nni, Hunelezi nami kalibaini, Liwapo na sura nisikataye. Oh my heart why don’t you wake up, Look now, what is it that misleads you, And why do you not explain it to me so that I, as well, may recognize it, If it is so obvious must I not reject it?
12. Moyo wangu nini huitabiri, Twambe u mwelevu wa kukhitari, Huyui dunia ina ghururi, Ndia za tatasi huzandamaye. Oh my heart why not foretell the future for me. Let’s say you are clever in figuring things out, Don’t you know that the world is but vanity; How do you travel along on its jumbled maze?
13. Suu ulimwengu bahari tesi, Una matumbawe na mangi masi, Aurakibuo juwa ni mwasi, Kwa kula khasara ukhasiriye. This world is a stormy sea, With coral reefs and many shell-encrusted shoals, The one who rides it out (i.e., the world), knows that it is a maverick, It has brought harm with every disaster.
14. Ni kama kisima kisicho ombe, Chenye mtapaa mwana wa ng’ombe, Endao kwegema humta pembe, Asipate katu kunwa maiye. It (the world) is like a deep well without a protecting wall, Where lies a head-butting young bull, The person who goes and gets too close, it gores, He never succeeds in drinking water from it (lit. its water).
15. Au enga vumbi la muangaza, Wakati wa yua likitepuza, Mwenda kulegema akilisoza, Asione kitu ukishishiye. Or look at the dusty streams of light, As the sun is breaking through the clouds, Someone who goes to get close to it, grasping at it, He fails to see anything that he took hold of.
16. Au enga meto limetukapo, Wakati wa yua lilinganapo, Mwenye nyota hwamba ni mai yapo, Kayakimbilia akayatwaye.[4] Or regard the glistening mirage, When the sun reaches high noon, The thirsty one says there is water there, And he runs to it that he might get some
17. Chenda akaona mwako wa yuwa, Mai alotaka akayatuwa, Asifidi yambo ila shakawa, Ikawa mayuto yasimsiye. When he goes he then sees only the blazing sun, As for the water he wants, he rends himself (fig. is disappointed), Without gaining a thing except trouble, And so it was for him, remorse has never ended.
18. Khasaisi zote na makatayo, Shida na shakawa likupeteyo, Ni dunia sii uipendayo, Yenye dhuli nyingi na makataye. All your vices and deprivation, Difficulties and trouble that have happened to you, Because of (lit., by) this world which you love, With its many miseries and its hardships.
19. Dunia ni jifa siikaribu, Haipendi mtu ila kilabu, I hali gani ewe labibu, Kuwania na mbwa hutukizwaye. The world is putrifying death stay away from it, It favors no one except dogs, What is it that you of sound judgment, That you be so reviled to fight over it with dogs?
20. Kima ina ila ilio mbovu, Ilikithiriye ungi welevu, I kalifu mno kuta kiwavu, Kupa watu ngeya ikithiriye. Finally it has the worst evil, It grows (lit. had grown) ever larger with an abundance of cunning, It is exceedingly violent striking at the heart, Inflicting on people death blows, it has exceeded all bounds.
21. Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye. How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers.[5]
22. Tandi la mauti likawakuta, Wakauma zanda wa kuiyuta, Na dunia yao ikawasuta, Ichamba safari muniukiye. And then the noose of death came upon them, And they chewed on their guilt-ridden fingers, And their world wiped them off the face of the earth, Saying “That’s it, it’s over (lit., it’s the safari), Go, get away from me.”
23. Ichamba hayani ndio safari, Yakomele tena ya kuusiri, Bidhaa ya ndeo na takaburi, Mutendele kwangu nishuhudiye. Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it
24. Mvi wa manaya ukawafuma, Na kutubukia katika nyama, Pasiwe mwatami mwenye kwatama, Au mwamba nini yalikuwaye. Death’s arrow struck them, And he (i.e., death) plunged it in their flesh, Without any dumbfounded gawker there with mouth wide open, Or speaker saying, “What, how has this happened?”
25. Wakazisalimu umri zao, Hadimu Ladhati achenda nao, Pasi mkohozi akohowao, Au mwenye kwenda asiridhiye. Then they surrendered their lives, Death going with them, Without (so much as) a cougher who coughes, Or any traveler who is content.
26. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi, Ukanabihika hukunabihi, Utaata lini ya usafihi, Nambia ukomo niusikiye. Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it.
27. Hiki ewe moyo kievu changu, Hukengeukii nusuha yangu, Huza akherayo kwa ulimwengu, Ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye. Oh my heart, by this beard of mine, You are not following my advice, You sell/exchange your salvation for the world, You have chosen to be deceived.
28. Nisikia sana nikwambiapo, Roho enga taa katika pepo, Haiziwiliki izimikapo, Saa moya hwona izimishiye. Listen carefully to me when I tell you, Look, oh my soul, a lamp in the wind, It cannot be stopped (from shining even) when it is extinguished, Then in a moment one sees it has gone out.
29. Au enga moto kururumika, Ulio weuni katika tuka, Pakashuka wingu katika chaka, Ikawa kuzima usiviviye. Or look at a spreading fire, That is in a forest clearing among the thickets, And then there descends a cloud over the forest, And it puts it out so that it does not blow to life.
30. Ewe moyo enda sijida yake, Hela tafadhali unabihike, Shetani Rajimi asikuteke, Kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye. Oh, heart, bow down in prayer to Him, Hela please, be warned, So that Satin the Stoned One not laugh at you, And tomorrow see that you are like him
31. Suu ulimwengu uutakao, Emale ni lipi upendeao, Hauna dawamu hudumu nao, Umilikishwapo wautendaye. This world that you want, What is its goodness that you love, It has nothing enduring or lasting, When you are made ruler how will you deal with it
32. Hakuwa mtumi Suleimani, Maliki wa insi na ajinani, Ulimfutuye ukamukhini, Akiwa mwengine wamtendaye. Was not the apostle Solomon, A ruler of (both) humanity and the spirit world, How is it then that it (i.e., the world) banished and withheld power from him, If it were someone else what would it do to him
33. Watoto wangapi uwaweneo, Ukawayakini kupona kwao, Sasa nyumba za ti ziwateteo, Katika luhudi iwafundiye. How many children have you seen, And are you certain about their well-being, Whose sepulchres have now enshrouded them, In a grave that binds them
34. Uwene wangapi watu wakwasi, Walo wakiwaa kama shamsi, Wa muluku zana za adharusi, Dhahabu na fedha wakhiziniye How many rich people have you seen, Who were blazing brightly like the sun, Who control the weapons of war, Who have layed up gold and silver
35. Malimwengu yote yawatiile, Na dunia yao iwaokele, Wachenenda zitwa zao zilele, Mato mafumbuzi wayafumbiye.[6] The whole world has submitted to them, And their world was laid out straight for them, Walking along, their heads held distainfully, Their shrewd eyes plotting mysteriously.
36. Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo, Na nyuma na mbele ili miyongo, Wakaapo pote ili zitengo, Asikari jamu wawatandiye. While swaying their supple limbs and necks to and fro, Behind and in front were lines of people, Wherever they stayed were noble houses, Many guards spread around them.
37. Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele[7] kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye. With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of crystal and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them.
38. Wapambiye sini ya kuteuwa, Na kula kikombe kinakishiwa, Kati watiziye kuzi za kowa, Katika mapambo yanawiriye. They decorated with choice china, And every cup was adorned with etching, In the center they placed pitchers of crystal, Among the glittering ornaments.
39. Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi, Naapa kwa Mungu Mola Mkwasi, Zali za msaji kwa abunusi, Zitile sufufu zisitawiye. Decorated hanging-pegs that are pleasing to behold, I swear by God, Source of all Wealth, They were of teak and ebony, Placed in line to look their best.
40. Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye. The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew.
41. Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi, Wali na wakandi na wapepezi, Na wake wapambe watumbuizi, Wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye When they sleep from drosiness, They had masseurs and fanners, And well-dressed ladies as singers, Singing lullabies and never becoming quiet
42. Kwa maao mema ya kukhitari, Iyu la zitanda za majodori, Na mito kuwili ya akhadhari, Kwa kazi ya pote wanakishiye. On fine well-chosen couches, On beds of padded cushions, With green pillows at both ends, Decorated with embroidered work
43. Misutu mipinde wakipindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye. They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood.
44. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhuri, Wakanakiliwa ili safari, Washukiye nyumba za makaburi, Mtanga na fusi ziwafusiye. Even if wealth is ostentatious, They were carried off on (lit. for purpose of) death’s journey, They descended into the dwelling places of the dead (lit. graves), Sand and rubble entombed them.
45. Sasa walaliye mji shubiri, Pasipo zuliya wala jodori, Ikawa miwili kutaathari, Dhiki ya kaburi iwakusiye. Now they’re asleep in a town of no size at all (lit. a finger’s span), Without carpet or cushion, And their bodies are disfigured, The misery of the grave has tormented them.
46. Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu huwaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye. Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots come from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted.
47. Wasiriye wote kula kwa dudi, Na kuwatafuna zao jisadi, Na mtwa na tungu huwafisidi, Majoka na pili wawatatiye. They have all become food for insects, That chewed on their bodies, And termites and ants corrupted them, Fearsome snakes and vipers wound about them.
48. Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye. Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh have shriveled.
49. Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye. Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds.
50. Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani, Sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni, Bumu hukoroma kati nyumbani, Zisiji na koti waikaliye. In the homes’ porcelain-ware niches, Now the fledglings of birds have taken up their abode, Owls hoot in the house, Mannikins and weaverbirds have settled themselves inside.
51. Wana wa zipungu wapende zango, Na wana wa ndiwa humia shingo, Na kupija mbawa matongotongo, Ziku na zitati waliwashiye.[8] Young vultures have perched on clothes-rack pegs, And the squab of doves bob their heads (lit., necks) to and fro, And flutter their wings ceaselessly, (Where) wood-pigeons and swallows have built their nests.
52. Nyumba kati zao huvuma mende, Kumbi za msana hulia ngende, Yalifiye vumi makumbi ya nde, kuwa mazibala yalisiriye. Inside the buildings the cockroaches rustle around, In the men’s halls the crickets are chirping, The noise in the ante-chambers had died away, For they had become dungheaps.
53. Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, Ungi wa matuka na kutukutu, Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu, Kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye The buildings’ courtyards became a forest, A profusion of bush and thick undergrowth, The outside doors terrified anyone (who saw them), For solitude and gloom had enshrouded them.
54. Kwamba husadiki hwamba mbwongo, Enda nyumba zao uzinde shingo, Ukita hwitikwi ila ni mwango, Sauti ya mtu itindishiye. If you do not believe it and say it’s a lie, Go to their houses and look around (lit. turn neck), If you call out you get no answer but an echo, The human voice has been cut off.
55. Moyo huyatasa kunabihika, Zituko zingapo huyaidhika, Hata masikizi ya kupulika, Naona kwa haya yafuatiye Oh heart, you have not yet managed to heed the warning, How many horrors before you are troubled, Even when (you have) have ears for listening, I know from these following things.
56. Sasa moyo pako t’auza nawe, Nelezato sana nami nelewe, Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe, Nambia walipo kawamkiye. Now oh soul, for your part I will ask even you, Explain it to me most clearly so I understand, Where are your forebears who gave you birth, Tell me where they are so I may go and greet them.
57. U wapi Ali bin Nasiri, Na muwamu wake Abubakari, Mwinyi Idarusi na Muhudhari, Wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye. Where is Ali bin Nasir, And his brother-in-law Abu Bakr, The Chief Idarusi and Muhudhari, Where have they gone over there, show me their (lit. his) way (i.e. where they went).
58. Mimi nakwambia nipulikiza, Watiziwe nyumba za jizajiza, Zisizo muanga na muwangaza, Ndio mashukio walishukiye. I tell you listen to me, They have been put down into dark gloomy houses, That have neither light nor brightness, These indeed are the depths they had descended into.
59. Wapi wa Kiungu wayaza kumbi, Na mashekhe mema wa Ki-Sarambi, Walaliye nyumba za vumbivumbi, Ziunda za miti ziwaaliye. Where are the people from Kiungu they filled the reception halls, And its good Sarabian sheiks, They now live in crumbling dusty houses, Wooden grave boards press upon them.
60. Wa wapi ziuli wa Pate Yunga, Wenye nyuso ali zenye mianga, Wangiziye nyumba za tangatanga, Daula na ezi iwaushiye. Where are the gallant men of Pate Yunga, With exceptionally shiny faces, They have been thrust into sandy dwellings, Sovereignty and power have deserted them.
61. Kwali na mabwana na mawaziri, Wenda na makundi ya asikari, Watamiwe nat’i za makaburi, Pingu za mauti ziwafundiye. There were important men and ministers, They went with groups of soldiers, They too were swallowed up by gaping earthly graves, The shackles of death have enfolded them.
62. Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye. There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded.
63. Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wot’e kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye. Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away.
64. Moyo, ya kwambia ya watu sao, Kalamu ya Mungu iwapeteo, Nawe wa yakini kuwa kamao, Au una yako uyashishiye Oh my soul, the things to tell about these people, The pen of God that has ordained their fate (lit. has gotten them), And you for sure are like them, Unless (lit. or) you have your own (i.e., Islamic faith) to which you cling.[9]
65. Moyo, taadabu sipeketeke, Ata ya jauri haki ushike, Wendo wachokoka nawe wokoke, Moto wa jahimu usikutwaye. Oh heart, behave, don’t be fooled by your arrogance, Stop your oppression hold on to justice, If your friends are saved then you too ought to be saved, So hell fire does not carry you off
66. Yua siku yat’i kubadiliwa, Na mbingu sabaa zikageuwa, Ukatelelezwa mwezi na juwa, Hari na harara zisitusiye. Know about the day of the transformed earth (i.e., Day of Resurrection), And the seven heavens will change as well, The moon and sun will come to a standstill, And terrible heat and flames will never end for us.[10]
67. Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye. On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on.
68. Tafakari siku ya kwima kondo, Ya kuaridhiwa kula kitendo, Pindi madhulumu atapo ondo, Achamba ya Rabbi namua naye. Think about the day when multitudes will assemble (i.e, the Day of Judgment), The day when every deed will be unveiled, When the persecuted one kneels, Saying, “Oh Lord judge between me and him.”
69. Namua na hoyo menidhilimu, Kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu, Mungu Jabari akahukumu, Amtendeleo amlipiye. Judge me as well as the one (who) persecuted me, With your judgement which is hard, God the All-Powerful will judge, What he did to another may He pay him (in kind).
70. Na malipwa yao wadhilimuwa, Si dhahabu timbe si ya kufuwa, Fedha hawatwai na wangapowa, Ila hasanati ni malipwaye. And the compensation for the unjustly treated, It is not mined gold (right from the ground) nor is refined (lit. washed), They are not grasping after silver even though they might be given it, Only virtue is their (lit. his) reward.
71. Aso hasanati wala thawabu, Hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu, Akatwekwa dhambi za maghusubu, Akambiwa haya mtukuliye. The one who has neither merit nor gifts from God, His jaw is bridled like a steed, And is loaded down with the sins of a violated one, And finally he is told, “Alright, carry them (i.e., sins) for him.”
72. Moyo tafakari na Jahanamu, Wenye silisia na azmamu, Pindi ya dayani akiukimu, Unene labeka niitishiye. Oh my heart, think about the deepest hell-fire, About those chained and roped, When the Judge summons you (i.e., your heart) to prayer, You should say: “May I respond with ‘Yes, I am your servant.’”
73. Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye. Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, The evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him.
74. Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, Ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi[11] angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye. And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him).
75. Moto wa sairi ufahamuto, Ni moto mkali katika nyoto, Ni mngi wa moshi na mitokoto, Majoka na pili waikaliye. Understand totally the fire of the fourth level of hell, It’s the fiercest of all fires, There is much smoke and bubbling, Vile snakes and adders live in it.
76. Na moto wa ladha nao pulika, Moto ukitiwa mara huwaka, Huona manofu yakikwambuka, Waona ziungo ziungushiye And as for the fire of the second hell listen, If you are put into its fire you burn immediately, You see chunks of flesh being stripped from you, You see that your limbs have been utterly consumed.
77. Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye. Understand furthermore that third level of hell, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him.
78. Sasa t’akhitimu t’atia tama, Atakofuata na kuyandama, T’apata khatima na mwiso mwema, Rabbi twakuomba tujaaliye. Now I will finish I’ll put in the conclusion, He who will follow and go along with it, He will finally have a good ending, Oh Lord we pray that you grant us this
79. Rabbi mrahamu mwenye kutunga, Na mezokhitimu mja malenga, Sala na salamu ni zao kinga, Rabbi takabali ziwashukiye. Oh Lord grant eternal life to the poet, And to the humble bard who finished them (i.e., the verses), Prayers and peace are their shield, Oh Lord grant that they (i.e. prayers and peace) descend upon them.

Notes

[1] Note the double object: u-i-tu-size (himdi) “you-it-us-bring to an end (praise), i.e. you cause us to end it.

[2] The four companions of the Prophet are the first four caliphs, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali.

[3]Harries gives upitwe, while Stigand (19xx, p. 73) has utwetwe in the Lamu version of the poem; Taylor (Stigand 19xx, p. 80) has the same. Hichens has utetwe, an ‘Old Swahili perfect’ which he renders as umetatiwa ‘it has become entangled’ in modern or standard Swahili. In a note Harries (p. 295) argues that Hichens’ transliteration is not supported by the manuscripts

[4]According to Hichens verses16 and 17 are quotes from the Koran, ch 24, vs 39 (1939:59).

[5]See Hichens’ note, p. 61: “to gnaw fingers” is an expression meaning “to express regret.”

[6] This verse is somewhat difficult to translate. The Taylor recension (in Stigand 1915:89) for the final kipande has Mato mafumbi walifumbie; Stigand’s version (1915:75) has Mato mafumbizi wayafumbiye as does Hichens’ version as given above. Further, the translations for this verse vary: James de Vere Allen has “their eyes screwed up in scorn”; Harries (1962:95) has “and eyes closed in scorn”; and Hichens has “eyes shrewn with scorn’s distain”. TJH, as here, gives “their shrewd eyes plotting mysteriously”. Given this range of interpretation in the translations, further research is necessary; the notion of “scorn” does not seem to be part of the meaning of the verse although that inference is possible given the context but not supported by any of the meanings of the various words that share the root, -fumb-; see the glossary below. The precise meaning of “zitwa zao zilele” is unclear as well.

[7]This verse uses the Proto Northeast Coastal *-ikala “be”. Derivatives thereof form the main BE auxiliary in Comorian and Mijikenda (Nurse & Hinnebusch 1993:374,472).

[8]Some versions of this verse instead of matongotongo give other words, viz., mitungo tungo (MM), and (Taylor in Stigand 1915, p. 91). There also seems to be no agreement on what either form of the word means; see matongotongo in the Glossary.

[9]Hichens (p. 92, fn. v.64) translates the line Au una yako uyashishiye as “lit. ‘unless thou has thy good counsel to which thou holdest fast,’ i.e. the True Faith of the context.”

[10]Hichens (p. 95, fn. v.66) cites several verses from the Koran that speak of the Day of Resurrection and how it will be manifested by physical changes to the earth.

[11]The Hichen text records this with an initial apostrophe to indicate an elision, i.e. ‘asi < mwasi rebel, etc.

Summary

(based on Hichens 1939:24-29)

The poem opens, as other homiletic poems often do, with praises to Allah and his Prophet followed by a few verses that lay out the goals for the poem (vs. 1-10). Then in vs. 11 – 33 the poet begins his pleas for reform both for his own soul and for those of others in his hearing and he outlines the vanities of the world and its transitoriness. The glories of power and wealth possessed by rich, the beauty and sumptuousness of their palaces, and the luxury of their lives all come crashing down. Death and decay are inevitable (v. 44). He gruesomely describes the ravages of death (vs. 45-48) and what becomes of material possession (vs. 49 – 54). In the remaining verses he turns to his listener and asks where are those they once knew, the poet’s kinsman, as well as the important people of Pate and its neighborhoods; they have been consigned to their graves, shackled by death’s chains (vs. 55-64). Our fate is the same unless we embrace the True Faith (vs. 64; Hichens, p. 92). We will all be confronted on Judgement Day (vs. 68). Only His servants will be saved (vs. 71). Then after describing the different degrees of hellfire (vs. 72 – 77), the poem abruptly ends with the final two verses having been added by another. For a full discussion of the reasons for this conclusion, see Hichens, p. 18. It is Hichens’ view that the poem is unfinished (1939: 27-29).

Grammar Notes

This section is under construction.

Glossary

This is a very long alphabetized list; use your browser’s search function to find a word, or scroll down through the list.

aali ~ ali                     [n. 9/10 an.]                              Family, race, kin, dynasty (WH). Kinsfolk (LH). Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).

abunusi                      [n. 9/10]                                   Ebony-wood from the ebony tree, Diospyros ebenus (WH). Not in FJ. Ar. Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi, Naapa kwa Mungu Mola Mkwasi, Zali za msaji kwa abunusi, Zitile sufufu zisitawiye; Decorated hanging-pegs that are pleasing to behold, I swear by God, Source of all Wealth, They were of teak and ebony, Placed in line to look their best. (Ink-39).

adharusi                     [n. 9/10]                                   Internecine war, a severe battle (WH). “The pernicious one”, i.e. war, internecine strife, civil war (K&K). Ar. Uwene wangapi watu wakwasi, Walo wakiwaa kama shamsi, Wa muluku zana za adharusi, Dhahabu na fedha wakhiziniye; How many rich people have you seen, Who were blazing brightly like the sun, Who control the weapons of war, Who have layed up gold and silver (Ink-34)

aimi                            [interj.]                                     Oh me, oh my! < ai mimi (TJH). Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wot’e kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).

ajinani                       [n. 9/10 an.]                              Spirit world (TJH). Jinn, lit. men possessed of demons (WH). See St. jinni/ma- (FJ). Ar. pl. Hakuwa mtumi Suleimani, Maliki wa insi na ajinani, Ulimfutuye ukamukhini, Akiwa mwengine wamtendaye; Was not the apostle Solomon, A ruler of (both) humanity and the spirit world, How is it then that it (i.e., the world) banished and withheld power from him, If it were someone else what would it do to him (Ink-32).

ajmaina                      [adj.]                                         All together, the whole lot (WH). Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).Ar.

akhadhari                  [adj.]                                         Green, grass-green (WH). Not in FJ. Ar. Kwa maao mema ya kukhitari, Iyu la zitanda za majodori, Na mito kuwili ya akhadhari, Kwa kazi ya pote wanakishiye; On fine well-chosen couches, On beds of padded cushions, With green pillows at both ends, Decorated with embroidered work (Ink-42).

ali                               [adj.]                                         High, fig. of high quality (WH). Ar. Wa wapi ziuli wa Pate Yunga, Wenye nyuso ali zenye mianga, Wangiziye nyumba za tangatanga, Daula na ezi iwaushiye; Where are the gallant men of Pate Yunga, With exceptionally shiny faces, They have been thrust into sandy dwellings, Sovereignty and power have deserted them (Ink-60).

alia                             [v. tr.]                                       Rest upon; see gloss (4) in K&K (TJH). Impress upon, leave mark on; sustain (WH). Make a mark on the body as by a blow with a stick, etc. (FJ). Place side by side; put down, lay down on; (2) press on, press down; (3) make a mark on the body as by a blow; (4) [v.i.] lie (down) on or in (K&K). Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).

alia                             [v. tr.]                                       Make a mark on the body as by a blow with a stick (FJ). Place side by side, put down, lay down on; 2. Press on, press down; 3. make a mark on the body as by a blow; 4. Lie down, on, in (K&K). Wapi wa Kiungu wayaza kumbi, Na mashekhe mema wa Ki-Sarambi, Walaliye nyumba za vumbivumbi, Ziunda za miti ziwaaliye; Where are the people from Kiungu they filled the reception halls, And its good Sarabian sheiks, They now live in crumbling dusty houses, Wooden grave boards press upon them (Ink-59).

Allahumma               [invoc.]                                     Oh, my God, Good Good (WH). Allah (LH). Allahumma Rabbi mkidhi haja, Msalie Tumwa aliyekuja, Na tauhidiyo Mola wa waja, Akatusomesha tafsiriye; O my Lord Allah, Granter of (our) needs, Let us pray for the Prophet, Your dvine unity God Almighty of all people, And he taught us its meaning (i.e., the Koran). (Ink-5).

alo                               [rel. phrase]                              One who is, s/he who is; frequently found in poetry for St. Sw. aliye (TJH). Nataka himdi nitangulize, Alo mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza ila isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So that the pious scholar not ask, And say, don’t stop us from praising, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other (Ink-2).

ambuka                      [v. cv. st.]                                 Be stripped off, be peeled off, be removed from (TJH). See –ambua remove, take off, separate something adhering, e.g. ambua ngozi (gamba, &c.), remove the skin (bark, etc (FJ). Na moto wa ladha nao pulika, Moto ukitiwa mara huwaka, Huona manofu yakikwambuka, Waona ziungo ziungushiye; And as for the fire of the second hell listen, If you are put into its fire you burn immediately, You see chunks of flesh being stripped from you, You see that your limbs have been utterly consumed (Ink-76).

andama                      [v. tr.]                                       Adhere to, see something through, continue with, go along with, carry through (TJH). Follow closely (WH). Follow in order, accompany, follow up, be next in order, succeed in order (FJ). Moyo wangu nini huitabiri, Twambe u mwelevu wa kukhitari, Huyui dunia ina ghururi, Ndia za tatasi huzandamaye; Oh my heart why not foretell the future for me. Let’s say you are clever in figuring things out, Don’t you know that the world is but vanity; How do you travel along on its jumbled maze? (Ink-12). Sasa t’akhitimu t’atia tama, Atakofuata na kuyandama, T’apata khatima na mwiso mwema, Rabbi twakuomba tujaaliye; Now I will finish I’ll put in the conclusion, He who will follow and goes along with them, He will finally have a good ending, Oh Lord we pray that you grant us this (Ink-78).

angama                      [v.i.]                                         Be suspended, be in mid-air, hang (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake ziwele t‘ame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders completely covered their beds (Ink-49).

ao/maao                      [n. 5/6]                                     Couch, bed (WH). Not in FJ. See ulalo/ma- place (time, accessories, manner) of lying down or sleeping, camping-place, bed; (2) something lying or laid down, e.g. a tree or plank laid as a bridge across a stream (FJ). Maao = malalo q.v (Sx). Kwa maao mema ya kukhitari, Iyu la zitanda za majodori, Na mito kuwili ya akhadhari, Kwa kazi ya pote wanakishiye; On fine well-chosen couches, On beds of padded cushions, With green pillows at both ends, Decorated with embroidered work (Ink-42).

aridhiwa                     [v.ps.]                                      Be laid bare, be set before, be made clear be unveiled (TJH). Explain, inform, set before, e.g. aliniaridhia maneno, he placed the matter before me (FJ). Be revealed (LH). Ar. Tafakari siku ya kwima kondo, Ya kuaridhiwa kula kitendo, Pindi madhulumu atapo ondo, Achamba ya Rabbi namua naye; Think about the day when multitudes will assemble (i.e., the Day of Judgment), The day when every deed will be unveiled, When the persecuted one kneels, Saying, “Oh Lord judge between me and him.” (Ink-68).

asi                               [v. tr.]                                       Disobey, fail to carry out instructions; (2) fail to carry out duties or obligations; (3) rebel (against), mutiny (FJ). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).

atama                          [v. i.]                                        Open the mouth wide, gape; see -achama (FJ). Be aghast (WH). Be open-mouth with shock (JVA). Mvi wa manaya ukawafuma, Akatubukia katika nyama, Pasiwe mwatami mwenye kwatama, Au mwamba nini yalikuwaye; Death’s arrow struck them, And he (i.e., death) plunged it in their flesh, Without any dumbfounded gawker there with mouth wide open, Or speaker saying, “What, how has this happened?” (Ink-24).

atamiwa                      [v. appl. ps.]                            Be opened for, be yawning open for someone, be swallowed up by a gaping mouth (TJH). Mezwa (MMM). See –achama open the mouth wide, gape (FJ). Kwali na mabwana na mawaziri, Wenda na makundi ya asikari, Watamiwe na nti za makaburi, Pingu za mauti ziwafundiye; There were important men and ministers, They went with groups of soldiers, They too were swallowed up by gaping earthly graves, The shackles of death being enfolded them (Ink-61).

atua ~ atuwa              [v. tr.]                                       Rend, cleave, split (WH). Split, crack (FJ). Fig. be disappointed (TJH).  Chenda akaona mwako wa yuwa, Mai alotaka akayatuwa, Asifidi yambo ila shakawa, Ikawa mayuto yasimsiye; When he goes he then sees only the blazing sun, As for the water he wants, he rends himself (fig. is disappointed), Without gaining a thing except trouble, And so it was for him, remorse has never ended (Ink-17).

azmamu                     [n. 9/10]                                  Rope, Rein, bonds (WH). Ar. Moyo tafakari na Jahanamu, Wenye silisia na azmamu, Pindi ya dayani akiukimu, Unene labeka niitishiye; Oh my heart, think about the deepest hell-fire, About those chained and roped, When the Judge summons you (i.e., your heart) to prayer, You should say: “May I respond with ‘Yes, I am your servant.’” (Ink-72).

baini                           [v. tr.]                                      See clearly, know for certain, distinguish, recognize; (2) make clear, prove, show (FJ). Moyo wangu nini huzundukani, Likughurielo hela ni nni, Hunelezi nami kalibaini, Liwapo na sura nisikataye; Oh my heart why don’t you wake up, Look now, what is it that misleads you, And why do you not explain it to me so that I as well may recognize it, If it is so obvious must I not reject it? (Ink-11).

bangu                         [n. 9]                                       Claim, demand, dispute, contention; -shamiri bangu make war, -liwa bangu be utterly deceived, teza bangu act in a manner to precipitate war (WH). Used in the expression kuliwa bangu to be deceived, to be made a fool (K&K). Hiki ewe moyo kievu changu, Hukengeukii nusuha yangu, Huza akherayo kwa ulimwengu, Ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-27).

banu                                                                           Clan (LH). Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).

bidhaa                        [n. 9/10]                                  Business (TJH). Trade goods, merchandise (FJ). Ar. Make difficulties; hinder, cause a project to tarry (WH). Delay by the way (CHS). See –a kuusiri procrastination, postponing, putting things off (TJH). Ichamba hayani ndio safari, Yakomele tena ya kuusiri, Bidhaa ya ndeo na takaburi, Mutendele kwangu nishuhudiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-23).

bombwe/ma-              [n. 5/6~9/10]                           Maggot, grub (TJH). Worms; creeping insects (WH). Ver blanc de la viande, des fruits; holothurie (Sx). Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu huwaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots come from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).

bumu/ma-                  [n. 5/6 an.]                               Owl (WH). Screech owl (Taylor). Ar. Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani, Sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni, Bumu hukoroma kati nyumbani, Zisiji na koti waikaliye; In the homes’ porcelain-ware niches, Now the fledglings of birds have taken up their abode, Owls hoot in the house, Mannikins and weaverbirds have settled themselves inside (Ink-50).

chaka/ma-                  [n. 5/6]                                    Clump of trees, dense part of a forest; (2) the hot season, i.e. December to February, but usu. called msimu and kaskazi (FJ). Au enga moto kururumika, Ulio weuni katika tuka, Pakashuka wingu katika chaka, Ikawa kuzima usiviviye; Or look at a spreading fire, That is in a forest clearing among the thickets, And then there descends a cloud over the forest, And it puts it out so that it does not blow to life (Ink-29).

chanda/z-                   [n. 7/8]                                    Finger (TJH). Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).

chango/z-                   [n. 7/8]                                    Peg, rail, hook, anything on which to suspend something (FJ). Peg or rail for hanging things from (WH). Hook, peg for hanging, stand for a lamp, hallstand, hat rack, portmanteau, brace, bracket (K&K). Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi, Naapa kwa Mungu Mola Mkwasi, Zali za msaji kwa abunusi, Zitile sufufu zisitawiye; Decorated hanging-pegs that are pleasing to behold, I swear by God, Source of all Wealth, They were of teak and ebony, Placed in line to look their best. (Ink-39).

chuo/zuo                    [n. 7/8]                                    Book, school (TJH). Make someone respond (TJH). Send somebody to call, cause to be called, order (FJ). Call (urgently), summon, convene; call upon, invite, make s.o. answer; Mungu huitisha wajawe: God calls his servants; kuitisha mkutano: to call for a meeting (K&K). Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye; There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded (Ink-62).

dariji                          [v. tr.]                                      Set in order, arrange by grade; also diriji (WH). Follow on, i.e., in order (LH). Ikisa himdi kutabalaji, Ikituzagaa kama siraji, Sala na salamu kiidariji, Tumwa Muhammadi tumsaliye; Once praise is manifest, Shining on us like a lamp, Prayers and peace follow after it (i.e., praise), Let us pray for the Prophet Mohammed (Ink-3).

daula                          [n. 9/10]                                  State, kingdom, government, sovereignty (WH). See St. Sw. dola. Wa wapi ziuli wa Pate Yunga, Wenye nyuso ali zenye mianga, Wangiziye nyumba za tangatanga, Daula na ezi iwaushiye; Where are the gallant men of Pate Yunga, With exceptionally shiny faces, They have been thrust into sandy dwellings, Sovereignty and power have deserted them (Ink-60).

dawamu                      [adv.]                                       Always, forever, lasting (TJH). See St. daima; also –a daima continual, permanent, lasting (FJ). Suu ulimwengu uutakao, Emale ni lipi upendeao, Hauna dawamu hudumu nao, Umilikishwapo wautendaye; This world that you want, What is its goodness that you love, It has nothing enduring or lasting, When you are made ruler how will you deal with it (Ink-31).

dawiri                         [v. tr.]                                      Make something round, circular (WH). Entwine (LH). See duara (FJ). Ar. Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7).

Dayani                       [n. prop.]                                Judge, Rewarder, Recompenser; one of the names of God; also Dayamu, Diyani (WH). Ar. Moyo tafakari na Jahanamu, Wenye silisia na azmamu, Pindi ya dayani akiukimu, Unene labeka niitishiye; Oh my heart, think about the deepest hell-fire, About those chained and roped, When the Judge summons you (i.e., your heart) to prayer, You should say: “May I respond with ‘Yes, I am your servant.’” (Ink-72).

dhamiri                      [v. tr.]                                      Intend, have in mind, hatch secret plans, keep council with someone (K&K). Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7).

dhiki                           [n. 9/10]                                  Misery, anguish, etc. (TJH). Narrowness, want of space, confinement; (2) being pressed, annoyance, distress, etc. (FJ). Sasa walaliye mji shubiri, Pasipo zuliya wala jodori, Ikawa miwili kutaathari, Dhiki ya kaburi iwakusiye; Now they’re asleep in a town of no size at all (lit. a finger’s span), Without carpet or cushion, And their bodies are disfigured, The misery of the grave has tormented them (Ink-45).

dhilimu                      [v. tr.]                                      Oppress, treat unjustly (WH). Persecute (TJH). Ar. Namua na hoyo menidhilimu, Kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu, Mungu Jabari akahukumu, Amtendeleo amlipiye; Judge me as well as the one (who) persecuted me, With your judgement which is hard, God the All-Powerful will judge, What he did to another may He pay him (in kind) (Ink-69).

dhuli                           [n. 9/10]                                  Udhaifu, dosari (MMM). Low position; distress, misery (K&K). Base condition (LH). See dhila mean condition, abasement, low state (FJ). Khasaisi zote na makatayo, Shida na shakawa likupeteyo, Ni dunia sii uipendayo, Yenye dhuli nyingi na makataye; All your vices and deprivation, Difficulties and trouble that have happened to you, Because of (lit., by) this world which you love, With its many miseries and its hardships (Ink-18).

dhunubu                    [n. 9/10]                                  Sins (WH). See St. dhambi (FJ). Ar. T’atunga kifungo kwa kukisafi, Nikipange lulu kula tarafi, Na ina nikite Inkishafi, Kiza cha dhunubu kiniukiye; I will fix a clasp to finish it, So to set pearls on each end, And for a name let me call it the “Soul’s Awakening”, So that the darkness of sin leave me (Ink-8).

duba                            [n. 9 an.]                                  Bear; see St. Sw. dubu (TJH). Ar. Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh have shriveled (Ink-48).

dudi                            [n. 9.10]                                  Insect; see mdudu/wa-; final vowel may be due to rhyming; see citation (TJH). Wasiriye wote kula kwa dudi, Na kuwatafuna zao jisadi, Na mtwa na tungu huwafisidi, Majoka na nge wawatatiye; They have all become food for insects, That chewed on their bodies, And termites and ants corrupted them, Fearsome snakes and vipers wound about them (Ink-47).

duri                             [n. 9/10]                                  Large and lustrous pearls; verse of a poem, dictum, precept (fig.) (WH). Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7). Ar.

egema                         [v. tr.]                                      Approach, draw close to, etc. (TJH). Karibia (MMM). S’approcher, venir près; ND (Sx). Au enga vumbi la muangaza, Wakati wa yua likitepuza, Mwenda kulegema akilisoza, Asione kitu ukishishiye; Or look at the dusty streams of light, As the sun is breaking through the clouds, Someone who goes to get close to it, grasping at it, He fails to see anything that he took hold of (Ink-15).

ema/mema                 [n. 5/6]                                    Good, goodness, virtue (TJH). See ema adj., good—including goodness of all kinds and degrees, whatever commends itself to feeling, taste, reason, or conscience, and translatable in a corresponding variety of ways, ‘pleasant, beautiful, sensible, right’ (FJ). Suu ulimwengu uutakao, Emale ni lipi upendeao, Hauna dawamu hudumu nao, Umilikishwapo wautendaye; This world that you want, What is its goodness that you love, It has nothing enduring or lasting, When you are made ruler how will you deal with it (Ink-31).

emale                         [phrase]                                   Its good, its goodness; see –ema lake (TJH). Suu ulimwengu uutakao, Emale ni lipi upendeao, Hauna dawamu hudumu nao, Umilikishwapo wautendaye; This world that you want, What is its goodness that you love, It has nothing enduring or lasting, When you are made ruler how will you deal with it (Ink-31).

emi                             [adj.]                                        Sweet, affable, pleasant, nice (TJ). Doux, agréable, archaïque des DiaI. P. Mv. Am. (Sx). Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).

endele                        [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem; see –enda. U wapi Ali bin Nasiri, Na muwamu wake Abubakari, Mwinyi Idarusi na Muhudhari, Wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye; Where is Ali bin Nasir, And his brother-in-law Abu Bakr, The Chief Idarusi and Muhudhari, Where have they gone over there, show me their (lit. his) way (i.e. where they went). (Ink-57).

enga                            [v. tr.]                                      Look, regard, consider (TJH). Behold (usually from a distance); fig. picture mentally (WH). Anagalia (CHS). Tazama (MM). Au enga meto limetukapo, Wakati wa yua lilinganapo, Mwenye nyota hwamba ni mayi yapo, Kayakimbilia akayatwaye; Or regard the glistening mirage, When the sun reaches high noon, The thirsty one says there is water there, And he runs to it that he might get some (Ink-16).

engeme                      [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem, see –angama hang, etc. (TJH). Nyumba zao mbake ziwele t‘ame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).

enye maana               [adj. phrase]                            See –enye maina ~ enye majina; note maina > maana; lit, having a name, thus renowned, esteemed, celebrated, prominent (TJH). Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).

fidi                              [v. tr.]                                      Gain, redeem, benefit, do well (TJH). Gain (LH). Gain profit (WH). Ransom, pay ransom for, deliver by payment (FJ). Chenda akaona mwako wa yuwa, Mai alotaka akayatuwa, Asifidi yambo ila shakawa, Ikawa mayuto yasimsiye; When he goes he then sees only the blazing sun, As for the water he wants, he rends himself (fig. is disappointed), Without gaining a thing except trouble, And so it was for him, remorse has never ended (Ink-17).

firasha                        [n. 9/10]                                  Bedspread, cover, throw, duvet (TJH). Rug, carpet, coverlet of a divan (WH). See firashi bed coverlet, quilt (FJ). Ar. Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).

fisidi                           [v. tr.]                                      Destroy, abuse, use in a wrong way, corrupt, seduce, esp. of corrupting women (FJ). Lay waste (LH). Gâter. corrompre (rarem. us. au propre) ; dépraver; séduire; semer la discorde (Sx). Wasiriye wote kula kwa dudi, Na kuwatafuna zao jisadi, Na mtwa na tungu huwafisidi, Majoka na nge wawatatiye; They have all become food for insects, That chewed on their bodies, And termites and ants corrupted them, Fearsome snakes and vipers wound about them (Ink-47).

fuma                           [v. t.]                                       Strike or pierce with a sharp instrument, i.e. a spear (FJ). Mvi wa manaya ukawafuma, Akatubukia katika nyama, Pasiwe mwatami mwenye kwatama, Au mwamba nini yalikuwaye; Death’s arrow struck them, And he (i.e., death) plunged it in their flesh, Without any dumbfounded gawker there with mouth wide open, Or speaker saying, “What, how has this happened?” (Ink-24).

fumbia                        [v. appl.]                                 Shut up in (for, by, &c.), talk darkly about, etc (FJ). Malimwengu yote yawatiile, Na dunia yao iwaokele, Wachenenda zitwa zao zilele, Mato mafumbuzi wayafumbiye; The whole world has submitted to them, And their world was laid out straight for them, Walking along, their heads held distainfully, Their staring eyes looking darkly (Ink-35).

fumbuzi                     [adj.]                                        Wide open, held open (eyes), staring; see –fumbua unclose, open, lay open, reveal, disclose by separating things or parts which were close together (FJ). Discerning, perspicacious, exploratory (K&K). Malimwengu yote yawatiile, Na dunia yao iwaokele, Wachenenda zitwa zao zilele, Mato mafumbuzi wayafumbiye; The whole world has submitted to them, And their world was laid out straight for them, Walking along, their heads held distainfully, Their staring eyes looking darkly (Ink-35).

funda                          [v. tr.]                                      Enfold closely, enrap, enclose, enshroud (WH). Tie a knot, tie up, bind; possible back formation from fundo ‘knot’; not in FJ or Sx with this meaning (TJH). Watoto wangapi uwaweneo, Ukawayakini kupona kwao, Sasa nyumba za t’i ziwateteo, Katika luhudi iwafundiye; How many children have you seen, And are you certain about their well-being, Whose sepulchres have now enshrouded them, In a grave that binds them (Ink-33).

funga kitaya              [v. phrase]                               Bridle, put a bridle on; lit. tie the jaw (TJH). Aso hasanati wala thawabu, Hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu, Akatwekwa dhambi za maghusubu, Akambiwa haya mtukuliye; The one who has neither merit nor gifts from God, His jaw is bridled like a steed, And is loaded down with the sins of a violated one, And finally he is told, “Alright, carry them (i.e., sins) for him.” (Ink-71).

funikiwa                    [v. appl. ps.]                           Be covered by (TJH). See –funika cover, cover up, put a covering on; (2) fig. conceal, disguise (FJ). Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).

fusi/ma-                      [n. 5/6]                                    Rubble, debris (TJH). The mud of the walls, etc., of a house which has been demolished (FJ). Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhuri, Wakanakiliwa ili safari, Washukiye nyumba za makaburi, Mtanga na fusi ziwafusiye; Even if wealth is ostentatious, They were carried off on (lit. for purpose of) death’s journey, They descended into the dwelling places of the dead (lit., graves), Sand and rubble entombed them. (Ink-44).

fusia                           [v. appl.]                                 Fill in a hole, a grave; bury (TJH). Lay down a bed of small stones and rubbish for a concrete floor or roof, or fill in foundations (FJ). See –fukia fill in (a hole, grave, etc.), dig in, cover in; fukia kaburi, fill up a grave (FJ). (Am. -fusia). a. Enfouir, enterer qqch. : pour l’enterrement rituel d’une personne il est convenable d’employer –zika; fukia pesa katika mchanga; nyumba ilimfukia, la maison (en s’écroulant) l’avait enseveli. 2. Combler, remplir un trou, un fossé, etc. fukia kaburi, fukia kisima, fukia shimo kwa mchanga, combler une fosse avec du sable (Sx). Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhuri, Wakanakiliwa ili safari, Washukiye nyumba za makaburi, Mtanga na fusi ziwafusiye; Even if wealth is ostentatious, They were carried off on (lit. for purpose of) death’s journey, They descended into the dwelling places of the dead (lit., graves), Sand and rubble entombed them. (Ink-44).

futa                             [v. tr.]                                      Obliterate, abolish, banish; drive away (WH). See –suta (WH). Hakuwa mtumi Suleimani, Maliki wa insi na ajinani, Ulimfutuye ukamukhini, Akiwa mwengine wamtendaye; Was not the apostle Solomon, A ruler of (both) humanity and the spirit world, How is it then that it (i.e., the world) banished and withheld power from him, If it were someone else what would it do to him (Ink-32).

geuka                         [v. i.]                                       Be changed radically, be changed drastically, become different, undego a change (TJH). Be changed, be changeable, be alterable, alter; (2) change position, turn oneself, turn round; (3) change in appearance, be transformed, be disguised; -geuza Cs. cause to change, alter, pervert, turn round, etc, (FJ). Note this is a perfect root: geushie where /k/ of the root > /sh/ before the reflex of the Bantu perfect –ile (TJH). Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu huwaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots come from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).

geush-                        [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem; see –geuka, /k/ > /sh/___-ile perfect.

ghuria                        [v. prep.]                                 Mislead, deceive (TJH). See –ghuri cheat, beguile, deceive (FJ). Danganya (MM). Kwimakwe kwisa dibaji yangu, Penda kuuonya na moyo wangu, Utetwe[1] na hawa ya ulimwengu, Hila za rajimi ziughuriye; So finally my preface has come to an end, I need (now) to admonish my heart as well, It is entangled by the lust of the world, The wiles of satan have beguiled it (Ink-10).

ghururi                      [n. 9/10]                                  Arrogance, self-conceit, infatuation, vanity, folly, blindness, but all with the meaning of because of transient things (FJ). Deceit (WH). Ar. Moyo wangu nini huitabiri, Twambe u mwelevu wa kukhitari, Huyui dunia ina ghururi, Ndia za tatasi huzandamaye; Oh my heart why not foretell the future for me. Let’s say you are clever in figuring things out, Don’t you know that the world is but vanity; How do you travel along on its jumbled maze? (Ink-12).

hadimu ladhati         [n. prop.]                                Depriver of Pleasures, i.e., Death (WH). Smasher of Delights (JK). Depriver of all joy (JVA). Wakazisalimu umri zao, Hadimu Ladhati achenda nao, Pasi mkohozi akohowao, Au mwenye kwenda asiridhiye; Then they surrendered their lives, Death going with them, Without (so much as) a cougher who coughes, Or any traveler who is content (Ink-25).

haiba                          [n. 9/10]                                  Beauty of countenance, appearance, but esp. of character (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of crystal and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37).

haiba                          [n. 9/10]                                  See earlier: Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu huwaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots dribble down from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).

hakiki                        [v. tr.]                                      Evaluate, assess, analyze, etc. (TJH). Make sure about, ascertain, investigate, prove, know for certain (FJ). Ar. Make someone respond (TJH). Send somebody to call, cause to be called, order (FJ). Call (urgently), summon, convene; call upon, invite, make s.o. answer; Mungu huitisha wajawe: God calls his servants; kuitisha mkutano: to call for a meeting (K&K). Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye; There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded (Ink-62).

harara                                                                        Flames, fire; see MMM (TJH). Heat, warmth, (1) of the body, high temperature, inflammation, prickly heat, rash produced by heat. Ameshikwa na harara he is hot, feverish. (2) fervency, hot temper, rashness, precipitancy; harara ya moyo, moyo wa harara, moyo harara, a passionate disposition, quick temper beat (FJ). Moto mkali (MMM). Flamming (WH). Yua siku yati kubadiliwa, Na mbingu sabaa zikageuwa, Ukatelelezwa mwezi na juwa, Hari na harara zisitusiye; Know about the day of the transformed earth (i.e., Day of Resurrection), And the seven heavens will change as well, The moon and sun will come to a standstill, Terrible heat and flames will never end for us (Ink-66).

hari                                                                             Fierce heat; see MMM (TJH). Fervor; (2) heat in general, and esp. perspiration, sweat; hari ya jua the heat of the sun (FJ). Joto kali (MMM). Fire (WH). Ar. Yua siku yati kubadiliwa, Na mbingu sabaa zikageuwa, Ukatelelezwa mwezi na juwa, Hari na harara zisitusiye; Know about the day of the transformed earth (i.e., Day of Resurrection), And the seven heavens will change as well, The moon and sun will come to a standstill, Terrible heat and flames will never end for us (Ink-66).

hasanati                     [n. 9/10]                                  Kindness, favour, goodness; see under hisani (FJ). Merit, virtue (WH). Aso hasanati wala thawabu, Hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu, Akatwekwa dhambi za maghusubu, Akambiwa haya mtukuliye; The one who has neither merit nor gifts from God, His jaw is bridled like a steed, And is loaded down with the sins of a violated one, And finally he is told, “Alright, carry them (i.e., sins) for him.” (Ink-71).

hau                             [neg. cop.]                               It is not; ha- neg. + u- subj. prefix Cl. 3 (TJH). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).

hawa                           [n. 9/10]                                  Cunning, wile, ruse, trick, stratagem (TJH). Evil inclinations (WH). Lust (LH). Longing, strong inclination, passionate desire, lust, passion (FJ). Kwimakwe kwisa dibaji yangu, Penda kuuonya na moyo wangu, Utetwe[2] na hawa ya ulimwengu, Hila za rajimi ziughuriye; So finally my preface has come to an end, I need (now) to admonish my heart as well, It is entangled by the lust of the world, The wiles of satan have beguiled it (Ink-10).

Hawiya                       [n. prop.]                                Seventh and worst of the Islamic seven hells; the hell of the hypocrites Ar: the abyss (WH). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).

hayani                        [interj.]                                    Alright, ok, etc; pl. of haya (TJH). See haya: Come on! Now then! Work away! Step out! Make haste!; used to call to action or effort (FJ). Ichamba hayani ndio safari, Yakomele tena ya kuusiri, Bidhaa ya ndeo na takaburi, Mutendele kwangu nishuhudiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-23).

hela                            [interj.]                                    Look, look now, see (TJH). Used in the same way as ebu! and simile! Well then! Come then! Make way (FJ). Moyo wangu nini huzundukani, Likughurielo hela ni nni, Hunelezi nami kalibaini, Liwapo na sura nisikataye; Oh my heart why don’t you wake up, Look now, what is it that misleads you, And why do you not explain it to me so that I as well may recognize it, If it is so obvious must I not reject it? (Ink-11).

himdi                          [n. 9/10]                                  Praise (WH). See verb –hamdu ~ himidi praise (FJ). See –himidi louer, glorifier, remercier (Dieu) (Sx). See also hamdi, hamdu (Al hamdu lilahi), Ahmadi. Ar. Nataka himdi nitangulize, Alo mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza ila isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So he who is a pious scholar not ask, And then say, “don’t stop us from praising”, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other. (Ink-2).

hino                            [dem. 9]                                   This Bismiliahi naikadimu, Hali ya kutunga hino nudhumu, Na ar-Rahmani kiirasimu, Basi ar-Rahimi nyuma ikaye; I put first In the Name of God, While composing this poem, And writing The Merciful One, And so may the invocation “The Benign One” be the last in order (Ink-1).

hisi                             [n. 9]                                       Low voice, murmer, whisper (WH). See –hisi feel, recognize, perceive, sense (FJ). Ar. Nyumba zao mbake ziwele t‘ame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).

hoyo                            [dem.]                                      That one Cl. 1 (Am). See St. huyo. Namua na hoyo menidhilimu, Kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu, Mungu Jabari akahukumu, Amtendeleo amlipiye; Judge me as well as the one (who) persecuted me, With your judgement which is hard, God the All-Powerful will judge, What he did to another may He pay him (in kind) (Ink-69).

hua/ma-                      [n. 9/10~5/6]                           Dove (WH). Lesser Red-eyed Dove Streptopelia semitorquata (FJ). Tourterelle (Sx). Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wote kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).

hudumu                     [n. 9]                                       Something that lasts, endures; see –dumisha for which FJ lists hudumu, endelea, siku zote as synonyms (TJH). Suu ulimwengu uutakao, Emale ni lipi upendeao, Hauna dawamu hudumu nao, Umilikishwapo wautendaye; This world that you want, What is its goodness that you love, It has nothing enduring or lasting, When you are made ruler how will you deal with it (Ink-31).

Hutama                      [n. prop.]                                The third level of the Islamic hell (WH). Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).

hwitikwi                     [v. phrase]                               You are not answered < hu-itik-w-i; see –itika respond (FJ). Kwamba husadiki hwamba mbwongo, Enda nyumba zao uzinde shingo, Ukita hwitikwi ila ni mwango, Sauti ya mtu itindishiye; If you do not believe it and say it’s a lie, Go to their houses and look around (lit. turn neck), If you call out you get no answer but an echo, The human voice has been cut off (Ink-54).

idhika                         [v. i.]                                       Feel uneasy, uncomfortable, perturbed (WH). See –udhika be vexed, annoyed, troubled (FJ). Ar. Moyo huyatasa kunabihika, Zituko zingapo huyaidhika, Hata masikizi ya kupulika, Naona kwa haya yafuatiye; Oh heart, you have not yet managed to heed the warning, How many horrors before you are troubled, Even when (you have) have ears for listening, I know from these following things (Ink-55).

ila ~ illa                     [n. 9/10]                                  Defect, blemish, drawback, disgrace, stain, blot (FJ). Nataka himdi nitangulize, Alo mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza ila isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So that the pious scholar not ask, And say, don’t stop us from praising, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other (Ink-2).

ima                             [v. i.]                                       Come to a stop (TJH). Stand still, make an end of movement, halt (inanimate objects); see kwimakwe (WH). Kwimakwe kwisa kuzikamili, Himdi na sala kaziratili, Niyadhihirishe yangu makali, Ambayo moyoni nikusudiye; At the end of that, finally, bringing them (i.e., needs, see Ink-5) to perfection, And lay out praise and prayers in order, So I might set down clearly my writing, Those things in my heart that I intend (Ink-6).

ima kondo                  [v. phrase]                               Uprising of the the striving multitude: the Day of Judgment (WH). This is possibly an idiom; for want of a better understanding I am following WH in translating the verse in which this occurs. See –ima and kondo. Tafakari siku ya kwima kondo, Ya kuaridhiwa kula kitendo, Pindi madhulumu atapo ondo, Achamba ya Rabbi namua naye; Think about the day when multitudes will assemble (i.e., the Day of Judgement), The day when every deed will be unveiled, When the persecuted one kneels, Saying, “oh Lord judge between me and him.” (Ink-68).

ina/maana                  [n. 5/6]                                    Name; see St. jina/majina; also ina/maina (ND); note maina > maana; see –enye maana (TJH). Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).

ingiza                         [v. cs./inten.]                           Push, thrust, shove into, impel (TJH). Force into (LH). Faire ou laisser entrer, introduire, admettre, importer (Sx). Wa wapi ziuli wa Pate Yunga, Wenye nyuso ali zenye mianga, Wangiziye nyumba za tangatanga, Daula na ezi iwaushiye; Where are the gallant men of Pate Yunga, With exceptionally shiny faces, They have been thrust into sandy dwellings, Sovereignty and power have deserted them (Ink-60).

ini/ma-                       [n. 5/6]                                    Liver; Sometimes fig. of inmost seat of feelings, like moyo, e.g. maneno yale yalimkata ini, those words cut him to the heart (FJ). Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67).

inkishafi                    [n. 9]                                       The soul’s awakening; lit. it is revealed to itself, 5th verbal reflexive form of Ar. kashaf he uncovered, unveiled, disclosed (WH). Catechism of a soul (JVA). Revelation (RA). Revealed, disclosed (CHS). Self-examination (LH:89). Ar. T’atunga kifungo kwa kukisafi, Nikipange lulu kula tarafi, Na ina nikite Inkishafi, Kiza cha dhunubu kiniukiye; I will fix a clasp to finish it, So to set pearls on each end, And for a name let me call it the “Soul’s Awakening”, So that the darkness of sin leave me (Ink-8).

insi                             [n. 9/10 an.]                             Humanity, human being (TJH). Mankind, human race (WH). Hakuwa mtumi Suleimani, Maliki wa insi na ajinani, Ulimfutuye ukamukhini, Akiwa mwengine wamtendaye; Was not the apostle Solomon, A ruler of (both) humanity and the spirit world, How is it then that it (i.e., the world) banished and withheld power from him, If it were someone else what would it do to him (Ink-32).

itika                            [v. reflx.]                                 Ooze; lit. be in a state of putting itself forth; = -ji-tika, stative of -tia (WH). See –tika: be full, well rounded, soft; (2) wobble (fat flesh, rich porridge), bubble, blob (like water in a half empty bottle or jar) (K&K). Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu huwaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots come from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).

itika                            [v. st.]                                     Be called, obey a summons, answer to a call, respond, acknowledge a salute, reply (FJ). Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye; There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded (Ink-62).

itiri                             [n. 9/10]                                  Attar – a fragrent essential oil or perfume made from flowers (TJH). Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).

itish-                           [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem; see itika; /k/ > /sh/___ile perf.; NB: /1/ > /y/ in ND.

itisha                          [v. cs.]                                     Make a response (TJH). Give forth an answering call (WH). Send somebody to call, cause to be called, order (FJ). See –itika (FJ). Moyo tafakari na Jahanamu, Wenye silisia na azmamu, Pindi ya dayani akiukimu, Unene labeka niitishiye; Oh my heart, think about the deepest hell-fire, About those chained and roped, When the Judge summons you (i.e., your heart) to prayer, You should say: “May I respond with ‘Yes, I am your servant.’” (Ink-72).

itubia                          [v. refl.]                                   Seek repentance for oneself (TJH). See St. -tubia e.g. –tubia kosa, repent of a fault; –tubia Mungu, repent before God (FJ). Reflexive –jitubie (WH). Kitamsi kiza cha ujuhali, Nuru na mianga itadhalali, Na ambao kwamba ataamali, Iwe toba yakwe aitubiye; May the darkness of benighted disbelief be erased, May light and radiance gleam, And whoever meditates (upon it), May it be his pardon (who) seeks forgiveness for himself (Ink-9).

iyu                              [n. 5]                                       Up, on, etc. (TJH). See St. juu (FJ). Kwa maao mema ya kukhitari, Iyu la zitanda za majodori, Na mito kuwili ya akhadhari, Kwa kazi ya pote wanakishiye; On fine well-chosen couches, On beds of padded cushions, With green pillows at both ends, Decorated with embroidered work (Ink-42).

iyu                              [adv.]                                       Above, high up, etc. (TJH). See St. juu. Nyumba zao mbake ziwele t‘ame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).

jaha                            [n. 9/10]                                  Honor, glory, prosperity (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of crystal and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37).

Jahanamu                  [n. prop.]                                The first and and deepest of the seven hells of Islamic belief (WH). Moyo tafakari na Jahanamu, Wenye silisia na azmamu, Pindi ya dayani akiukimu, Unene labeka niitishiye; Oh my heart, think about the deepest hell-fire, About those chained and roped, When the Judge summons you (i.e., your heart) to prayer, You should say: “May I respond with ‘Yes, I am your servant.’” (Ink-72).

Jahimu                                                                       The sixth of the seven Islamic hells (WH). Ar. Moyo taadabu sipeketeke, Ata ya jauri haki ushike, Wendo wachokoka nawe wokoke, Moto wa jahimu usikutwaye; Oh heart, behave, don’t be fooled by your arrogance, Stop your oppression hold on to justice, If your friends are saved then you too ought to be saved, So hell fire does not carry you off (Ink-65).

jamu                           [adj.]                                        Many (WH). Not in FJ. Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo, Na nyuma na mbele ili miyongo, Wakaapo pote ili zitengo, Asikari jamu wawatandiye; While swaying their supple limbs and necks to and fro, Behind and in front were lines of people, Wherever they stayed were noble houses, Many guards spread around them (Ink-36).

jauri                           [n. 9/10]                                  Arrogance, false pride, tyranny, obstreperousness (WH). Ar. See jeuri violence, outrage, brutality, assault, injustice, oppression (FJ). Moyo taadabu sipeketeke, Ata ya jauri haki ushike, Wendo wachokoka nawe wokoke, Moto wa jahimu usikutwaye; Oh heart, behave, don’t be fooled by your arrogance, Stop your oppression hold on to justice, If your friends are saved then you too ought to be saved, So hell fire does not carry you off (Ink-65).

jifa                              [n. 5/6]                                    Something corrupt, something dead and decaying (TJH). Corpse; dead or putrified matter (WH). See –fa die; mafa place of burial, cemetery (FJ). Dunia ni jifa siikaribu, Haipendi mtu ila kilabu, I hali gani ewe labibu, Kuwania na mbwa hutukizwaye; The world is putrifying death stay away from it, It favors no one except dogs, What is it that you of sound judgment, That you be so reviled to fight over it with dogs (Ink-19).

jisadi ~ jasadi            [n. 9/10]                                  Body, flesh of animates (WH). Ar. Not in FJ. Wasiriye wote kula kwa dudi, Na kuwatafuna zao jisadi, Na mtwa na tungu huwafisidi, Majoka na nge wawatatiye; They have all become food for insects, That chewed on their bodies, And termites and ants corrupted them, Fearsome snakes and vipers wound about them (Ink-47).

jizajiza                       [n. 9]                                       Gloomy darkness, extreme darkness (TJH). See St. Sw. kiza and giza (FJ). Mimi nakwambia nipulikiza, Watiziwe nyumba za jizajiza, Zisizo muanga na muwangaza, Ndio mashukio walishukiye, I tell you listen to me, They have been put down into dark gloomy houses, That have neither light nor brightness, These indeed are the depths they had descended into (Ink-58).

jodori/ma-                  [n. 5/6]                                    Mattress, padded cushion (WH). Not in FJ or Sx, but see godoro mattress (Hindi) (FJ). Matelas, sommier. Prov. Mvita : Uzuri wa godoro., c’est la beauté de la couverture d’un matelas (uzuri wa nde) tu, kwa ndani mna pamba). – Hind. GÛDRî (Konkani kûdri), courte-pointe, couvre-pied; par ext. Matelas (Sx). Kwa maao mema ya kukhitari, Iyu la zitanda za majodori, Na mito kuwili ya akhadhari, Kwa kazi ya pote wanakishiye; On fine well-chosen couches, On beds of padded cushions, With green pillows at both ends, Decorated with embroidered work (Ink-42).

joka/ma-                     [n. 5/6 aug/perj.]                      Large snakes, ugly fearsome snakes (TJH). see nyoka snake (FJ). Wasiriye wote kula kwa dudi, Na kuwatafuna zao jisadi, Na mtwa na tungu huwafisidi, Manyoka na nge wawatatiye; They have all become food for insects, That chewed on their bodies, And termites and ants corrupted them, Fearsome snakes and vipers wound about them (Ink-47).

joka/ma-                     [n. 5/6 aug./perj.]                     Large snake, vile fearsome snake, ugly snake, ferocious snake (TJH). See nyoka (FJ). Moto wa sairi ufahamuto, Ni moto mkali katika nyoto, Ni mngi wa moshi na mitokoto, Majoka na pili waikaliye; Understand totally the fire of the fourth level of hell, It’s the fiercest of all fires, There is much smoke and bubbling, Vile snakes and adders live in it (Ink-75).

juludi                         [n. 9/10]                                  Skin, skins (WH). Not in FJ. Ar. Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh shriveled (Ink-48).

kaa                              [n. 9/10]                                  Sandalwood (WH). Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).

kaa nyuma                 [v. phrase]                               Sit behind, stay behind, be the last in order. See the extensive entries for –kaa and nyuma in FJ (TJH). Bismiliahi naikadimu, Hali ya kutunga hino nudhumu, Na ar-Rahmani kiirasimu, Basi ar-Rahimi nyuma ikaye; I put first In the Name of God, While composing this poem, And writing The Merciful One, And so may the invocation “The Benign One” be the last in order (Ink-1).

kadimu                       [v. tr.]                                      Put first, advance, prefix (WH). Bismiliahi naikadimu, Hali ya kutunga hino nudhumu, Na ar-Rahmani kiirasimu, Basi ar-Rahimi nyuma ikaye; I put first In the Name of God, While composing this poem, And writing The Merciful One, And so may the invocation “The Benign One” be the last in order (Ink-1). Ar.

kalifu                         [adj.]                                        Violent, fierce (TJH). See –kalifu v. discomfort, cause annoyance to, impose a difficult matter upon one, trouble, i.e. usijikalifu kwenda, don’t force yourself to go, i.e. don’t trouble yourself (FJ). Faire violence, molester (Sx). Derived from kali (CHS). See kali adj. sharp, having a sharp edge, cutting, (2) sharp to the taste, acid, sour, bitter, (3) sharp in temper, severe, stern, cross, cruel, fierce, (4) keen, intense, vehement, brave, watu wakali, warlike, savage people (FJ). Kima ina ila ilio mbovu, Ilikithiriye ungi welevu, I kalifu mno kuta kiwavu, Kupa watu ngeya ikithiriye; Finally it has the worst evil, It grows ever larger with an abundance of cunning, It is exceedingly violent striking at the heart, Inflicting on people death blows, it has exceeded all bounds (Ink-20).

kamaye                      [adv.]                                       Like him; see kama yake or kama yeye (TJH). Ewe moyo enda sijida yake, Hela tafadhali unabihike, Shetani Rajimi asikuteke, Kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye; Oh, heart, bow down in prayer to Him, Hela please, be warned, So that Satin the Stoned One not laugh at you, And tomorrow see that you are like him (Ink-30).

kamili                        [v. tr.]                                      Complete, finish, make perfect, also be complete, be finished (FJ). Kwimakwe kwisa kuzikamili, Himdi na sala kaziratili, Niyadhihirishe yangu makali, Ambayo moyoni nikusudiye; At the end of that, finally, bringing them (i.e., needs, see Ink-5) to perfection, And lay out praise and prayers in order, So I might set down clearly my writing, Those things in my heart that I intend (Ink-6).

kanwa/ma-                 [n. 5/6]                                    Mouth (TJH). Sometimes heard for kinywa: the mouth (as organ of drinking) of man, animals, insects, etc. (FJ). Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu huwaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots come from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).

katu                            [adv.]                                       Not at all, never (WH). Kabisa (CHS). Ar. Ni kama kisima kisicho ombe, Chenye mtapaa mwana wa ng’ombe, Endao kwegema humta pembe, Asipate katu kunwa maiye; It (the world) is like a deep well without a protecting wall, Where lies a head-butting young bull, The person who goes and gets too close, it gores, He never succeeds in drinking water from it (lit. its water) (Ink-14).

kaya                            [v. i.]                                       Live, inhabit (TJH). See –kaa (FJ). Bismiliahi naikadimu, Hali ya kutunga hino nudhumu, Na ar-Rahmani kiirasimu, Basi ar-Rahimi nyuma ikaye; I put first In the Name of God, While composing this poem, And writing The Merciful One, And so may the invocation “The Benign One” be the last in order (Ink-1).

kele                            [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem; see –kaa be, become, live, dwell (TJH). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of crystal and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37).

kele                            [n. 9/10]                                  Outcry, noise of talk and laughter (WH). See St. kelele (FJ). Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).

kengeukia                 [v. appl.]                                 Be side-tracked, rerouted, redirected, deflected by (TJH). Be diverted from a path or purpose, be wavering, faltering, be converted (WH). See -kengeua turn aside, i.e. leave the straight road and take a bad one, turn from the right way, backslide (FJ). See –kengeua Détourner pour éviter, -kengeuka Se détourner pour évitar (Sx). Hiki ewe moyo kievu changu, Hukengeukii nusuha yangu, Huza akherayo kwa ulimwengu, Ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-27).

kete                            [n. 9]                                       Silence, solitude (WH). Not in FJ or Sx]. Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, Ungi wa matuka na kutukutu, Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu, Kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye; The buildings’ courtyards became a forest, A profusion of bush and thick undergrowth, The outside doors terrified anyone (who saw them), For solitude and gloom had enshrouded them (Ink-53).

khasaisi                     [n. 9/10]                                  Vileness, vices (WH). Not in FJ. Khasaisi zote na makatayo, Shida na shakawa likupeteyo, Ni dunia sii uipendayo, Yenye dhuli nyingi na makataye; All your vices and deprivation, Difficulties and trouble that have happened to you, Because of (lit., by) this world which you love, With its many miseries and its hardships (Ink-18).

khasara                      [n. 9/10]                                  See hasara loss, damage, injury (FJ). Suu ulimwengu bahari tesi, Una matumbawe na mangi masi, Aurakibuo juwa ni mwasi, Kwa kula khasara ukhasiriye; This world is a stormy sea, With coral reefs and many shell-encrusted shoals, The one who rides it out (i.e., the world), knows that it is a maverick, It has brought harm with every disaster (Ink-13).

khasiria                     [v. appl.]                                 Cause a loss to, harm someone for, bring harm to (TJH). See –hasiria (FJ). Suu ulimwengu bahari tesi, Una matumbawe na mangi masi, Aurakibuo juwa ni mwasi, Kwa kula khasara ukhasiriye; This world is a stormy sea, With coral reefs and many shell-encrusted shoals, The one who rides it out (i.e., the world), knows that it is a maverick, It has brought harm with every disaster (Ink-13).

khatima                     [adv.]                                       Finally, ultimately, at last, etc. (TJH). See hatima & hatimaye (FJ). Sasa t’akhitimu t’atia tama, Atakofuata na kuyandama, T’apata khatima na mwiso mwema, Rabbi twakuomba tujaaliye; Now I will finish I’ll put in the conclusion, He who will follow and go along with it, He will finally have a good ending, Oh Lord we pray that you grant us this (Ink-78).

khini                          [v. tr.]                                      Betray, unrightfully withhold a thing (WH). Ar. Hakuwa mtumi Suleimani, Maliki wa insi na ajinani, Ulimfutuye ukamukhini, Akiwa mwengine wamtendaye; Was not the apostle Solomon, A ruler of (both) humanity and the spirit world, How is it then that it (i.e., the world) banished and withheld power from him, If it were someone else what would it do to him (Ink-32).

khitari                        [v.                                            Figure out, making choices (TJH). Discriminate (LH). See St. hitari like hiari, choose, select, prefer (FJ). Moyo wangu nini huitabiri, Twambe u mwelevu wa kukhitari, Huyui dunia ina ghururi, Ndia za tatasi huzandamaye; Oh my heart why not foretell the future for me. Let’s say you are clever in figuring things out, Don’t you know that the world is but vanity; How do you travel along on its jumbled maze? (Ink-12).

khitari ~ hitari 27     [v. t.]                                       Choose, select (TJH). See –hitari préférer, choiser (Sx). Like hiari, choose, select, prefer (FJ). Hiki ewe moyo kievu changu, Hukengeukii nusuha yangu, Huza akherayo kwa ulimwengu, Ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-27).

khitimu                      [n. tr.]                                      Bring to an end (WH). See –hitimu (FJ). Ar. Sasa t’akhitimu t’atia tama, Atakofuata na kuyandama, T’apata khatima na mwiso mwema, Rabbi twakuomba tujaaliye; Now I will finish I’ll put in the conclusion, He who will follow and go along with it, He will finally have a good ending, Oh Lord we pray that you grant us this (Ink-78).

khizini                       [v. tr.]                                      Lay up treasure, wealth (WH). Ar. Uwene wangapi watu wakwasi, Walo wakiwaa kama shamsi, Wa muluku zana za adharusi, Dhahabu na fedha wakhiziniye; How many rich people have you seen, Who were blazing brightly like the sun, Who control the weapons of war, Who have layed up gold and silver (Ink-34).

khudama                    [n. 9/10 an.]                             Slaves, servants, work people of a household (WH). Ar. Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).

kiali/zi-                      [n. 7/8 dim.]                            Flame; Dim of mwali flame, tongue of fire (FJ). Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73).

kidiwa/zi-                   [n. 7/8]                                    Little, small doves; diminutive; see njiwa dove (TJH). Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wote kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).

kiku/zi-                      [n. 7/8 an.]                               Wild pigeon, wood pigeon (WH). Dove (CHS). Wana wa zipungu wapende zango, Na wana wa ndiwa humia shingo, Na kupija mbawa matongotongo, Ziku na zitati waliwashiye; Young vultures have perched on clothes-rack pegs, And the squab of doves bob their heads (lit., necks) to and fro, And flutter their wings ceaselessly, (Where) wood-pigeons and swallows have built their nests (Ink-51).

kilabu                         [n. 9/10]                                  Dog. Ar. Infidel (LH). Dunia ni jifa siikaribu, Haipendi mtu ila kilabu, I hali gani ewe labibu, Kuwania na mbwa hutukizwaye; The world is putrifying death stay away from it, It favors no one except dogs, What is it that you of sound judgment, That you be so reviled to fight over it with dogs (Ink-19).

kima                           [adv.]                                       See kimakwe. Kima ina ila ilio mbovu, Ilikithiriye ungi welevu, I kalifu mno kuta kiwavu, Kupa watu ngeya ikithiriye; Finally it has the worst evil, It grows ever larger with an abundance of cunning, It is exceedingly violent striking at the heart, Inflicting on people death blows, it has exceeded all bounds (Ink-20).

kimbilia                                                                     Run to (FJ). Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67).

kimu                           [v. tr.]                                      Proclaim, announce, pronounce a message, ritual, etc.) (WH). Begin prayers in a mosque (FJ). Moyo tafakari na Jahanamu, Wenye silisia na azmamu, Pindi ya dayani akiukimu, Unene labeka niitishiye; Oh my heart, think about the deepest hell-fire, About those chained and roped, When the Judge summons you (i.e., your heart) to prayer, You should say: “May I respond with ‘Yes, I am your servant.’” (Ink-72).

Kinana                       [n. prop.]                                The Banu Kinana are the clan or kin of Kinan bin Khuzaima of the tribe of the Quraisha; Quraisha was the 12th great-grandfather of Mohammed (WH). Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).

kinga                          [n. 9/10]                                  Shield, defense, protection; see FJ (TJH). Rabbi mrahamu mwenye kutunga, Na mezokhitimu mja malenga, Sala na salamu ni zao kinga, Rabbi takabali ziwashukiye; Oh Lord grant eternal life to the poet, And to the humble bard who finished them (i.e., verses), Prayers and peace are their shield, Oh Lord grant that they (i.e. prayers and peace) descend upon them. (Ink-79).

kipungu/zi-                [n. 7/8]                                    Vulture (WH). Wana wa zipungu wapende zango, Na wana wa ndiwa humia shingo, Na kupija mbawa matongotongo, Ziku na zitati waliwashiye; Young vultures have perched on clothes-rack pegs, And the squab of doves bob their heads (lit., necks) to and fro, And flutter their wings ceaselessly, (Where) wood-pigeons and swallows have built their nests (Ink-51).

kiradi/vi-                    [n. 9/10]                                  Baboon, monkey (WH). Singe (Sx). Ar. Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh have shriveled (Ink-48).

kisiji/zi- 50                [n. 7/8]                                    Small seed-eating birds of the Spermestes genus, e.g. mannikins; see Sx gloss following (TJH). Bird species (WH). Sorte de spermeste (Sx). Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani, Sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni, Bumu hukoroma kati nyumbani, Zisiji na koti waikaliye; In the home’s porcelain-ware niches, Now live the fledglings of birds, Owls hoot in the house, Mannikins and weaverbirds settle themselves inside (Ink-50).

kitala/zi-                    [n. 7/8]                                    Daily routine, routine, regimen, habit (TJH). Deliberation (LH). Procédure, débat dans une assemblée délibérante (mtaguso); cour de justice, ordinairement un hangar réservé à cet effet (Sx). Used in Harries’ version of Al-Inkishafi

kitana                                                                         Misery, suffering, etc.; lance blow (TJH). Hard battle, one’s match in a fight (WH). See tana ~ taana coup de lance; -wana kwa dharuba na tana guerroyer à coups (de sabre) et de lance; ifumo kuichia tana brander une lance de maniere à la faire miroiter (Sx). Sumbuko (CHS). See sumbuko pain, misery, suffering, toil, bother (K&K). Ar. Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).

kitanda/zi-                 [n. 7/8]                                    Bed. Nyumba zao mbake ziwele t‘ame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).

kitati/zi-                     [n. 7/8 an.]                               Swallow (WH not sure of this gloss). Very small bird (CHS). Wana wa zipungu wapende zango, Na wana wa ndiwa humia shingo, Na kupija mbawa matongotongo, Ziku na zitati waliwashiye; Young vultures have perched on clothes-rack pegs, And the squab of doves bob their heads (lit., necks) to and fro, And flutter their wings ceaselessly, (Where) wood-pigeons and swallows have built their nests (Ink-51).

kitaya/vi-                    [n. 7/8]                                    Jaw, jaw bone; see taya jaw, jaw-bone. Tia hatamu tayani mwa punda, put the bridle on the donkey’s jaw (FJ). Aso hasanati wala thawabu, Hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu, Akatwekwa dhambi za maghusubu, Akambiwa haya mtukuliye; The one who has neither merit nor gifts from God, His jaw is bridled like a steed, And is loaded down with the sins of a violated one, And finally he is told, “Alright, carry them (i.e., sins) for him.” (Ink-71).

kitefute/zi-                [n. 7/8]                                    Cheek (WH). Cheekbone (FJ). La partie de la joue qui recouvre les pommettes; par ext. la pommette (Sx). Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu huwaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots come from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).

kitengo/zi-                 [n. 7/8]                                    Chosen, selected thing or place; seat of honor; noble house; see –tenga choose, select (WH). Seat of honor (LH, JVA). Not in FJ. Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo, Na nyuma na mbele ili miyongo, Wakaapo pote ili zitengo, Asikari jamu wawatandiye; While swaying their supple limbs and necks to and fro, Behind and in front were lines of people, Wherever they stayed were noble houses, Many guards spread around them (Ink-36).

kithiria                      [v. appl.]                                 Exceed bounds, be excessive, limitless (TJH). See –kithiri get to be more, do in addition, cause to be more, increase, grow (FJ). Be a multitude, consist of large numbers; multiply, increase; get (cause) to be more, do in addition (K&K). Abound (LH). Kima ina ila ilio mbovu, Ilikithiriye ungi welevu, I kalifu mno kuta kiwavu, Kupa watu ngeya ikithiriye; Finally it has the worst evil, It grows ever larger with an abundance of cunning, It is exceedingly violent striking at the heart, Inflicting on people death blows, it has exceeded all bounds (Ink-20).

kituko/zi-                   [n. 7/8]                                    Feeling (object, cause, &c.) of fear, a terror, horror, fright, alarm, esp. of things caused by witchcraft (FJ). Zituko zingapo hutanabahi, Ukanabihika hukunabihi, Utaata lini ya usafihi, Nambia ukomo niusikiye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-26).

kituko/zi-                   [n. 7/8]                                    Feeling (object, cause, &c.) of fear, a terror, horror, fright, alarm, esp. of things caused by witchcraft (TJH). Moyo huyatasa kunabihika, Zituko zingapo huyaidhika, Hata masikizi ya kupulika, Naona kwa haya yafuatiye; Oh heart, you have not yet managed to heed the warning, How many horrors before you are troubled, Even when (you have) have ears for listening, I know from these following things (Ink-55).

kitukuta/zi- ~ kituguta                                            [n. 7/8]            Cheekbone; see kitefute (FJ). Zitukuta izao hutawanyika, Usaha na damu hawaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hushuka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheekbones are scatttered, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots dribble down from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46b).

kituzo/zi-                   [n. 7/8]                                    Somehing that soothes, balm; pleasing object > -tuza > tua soothe, quieten (WH). See –tulia, -tuliza (FJ). Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wote kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).

kiuli/zi-                      [n. 7/8an]                                 Brave ones, courageous man (WH). Not in FJ, Sx. Wa wapi ziuli wa Pate Yunga, Wenye nyuso ali zenye mianga, Wangiziye nyumba za tangatanga, Daula na ezi iwaushiye; Where are the gallant men of Pate Yunga, With exceptionally shiny faces, They have been thrust into sandy dwellings, Sovereignty and power have deserted them (Ink-60).

kiunda/zi-      [n. 7/8]                        Grave board laid over a corpse in the grave (WH). See kiunza board laid to protect a corpse when placed in the grave, also called mlango wa maiti, the dead man’s door. The kiunza is placed so as to close the mwana ndani, i.e. the recess made in the side of the grave to receive the corpse, to prevent the earth and stones from coming into contact with the corpse (FJ). Planche que l’on place au fond de la fosse kaburi contre le cadavre, pour fermer la niche ufuo (Am. G. ufuko) où il repose. A défaut de planche on prend des branches ou même de l’herbe. Kiunza tient lieu de cercueil (Sx). Wapi wa Kiungu wayaza kumbi, Na mashekhe mema wa Ki-Sarambi, Walaliye nyumba za vumbivumbi, Ziunda za miti ziwaaliye; Where are the people from Kiungu they filled the reception halls, And its good Sarabian sheiks, They now live in crumbling dusty houses, Wooden grave boards press upon them (Ink-59).

Kiungu                       [prop. n.]                                Neighborhood in Pate where the wealthy lived (WH). Wapi wa Kiungu wayaza kumbi, Na mashekhe mema wa Ki-Sarambi, Walaliye nyumba za vumbivumbi, Ziunda za miti ziwaaliye; Where are the people from Kiungu they filled the reception halls, And its good Sarabian sheiks, They now live in crumbling dusty houses, Wooden grave boards press upon them (Ink-59).

kiza                            [n. 7]                                       Darkness, dark, gloom, murkiness (TJH). See giza (FJ). Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, Ungi wa matuka na kutukutu, Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu, Kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye; The buildings’ courtyards became a forest, A profusion of bush and thick undergrowth, The outside doors terrified anyone (who saw them), For solitude and gloom had enshrouded them (Ink-53).

kohowa ~ kohoa        [v. i.]                                       Cough, see –kohoa (FJ). Wakazisalimu umri zao, Hadimu Ladhati achenda nao, Pasi mkohozi akohowao, Au mwenye kwenda asiridhiye; Then they surrendered their lives, Death going with them, Without (so much as) a cougher who coughes, Or any traveler who is content (Ink-25).

koja/ma-                     [n. 5/6]                                    Necklace; metaph. poem (TJH). Neck ornament, a ring with disks or coins attached worn round the neck (cf. koa, urembo); a necklace of beads; (2) a kind of metal pot (FJ). Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7).

koma                          [v.i.]                                        Come to an end, reach a conclusion (TJH). Cease, come to an end, stop, decease; also sometimes trans. bring to an end, close (FJ). Ichamba hayani ndio safari, Yakomele tena ya kuusiri, Bidhaa ya ndeo na takaburi, Mutendele kwangu nishuhudiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-23).

komele                       [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem; see -koma come to an end, etc. q.v. (FJ).

kondo                         [n. 9/10]                                  War, strife, difficulty, seldom used now except in poetry (FJ). Uprising (WH) Tafakari siku ya kwima kondo, Ya kuaridhiwa kula kitendo, Pindi madhulumu atapo ondo, Achamba ya Rabbi namua naye; Think about the day when multitudes will assemble (i.e., the Day of Judgement), The day when every deed will be unveiled, When the persecuted one kneels, Saying, “oh Lord judge between me and him.” (Ink-68).

koroma                       [v. i.]                                       Hoot (TJH). Snore, snort, groan, and of similar sounds (FJ). Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani, Sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni, Bumu hukoroma kati nyumbani, Zisiji na koti waikaliye; In the homes’ porcelain-ware niches, Now the fledglings of birds have taken up their abode, Owls hoot in the house, Mannikins and weaverbirds have settled themselves inside (Ink-50).

koti                             [n. 9/10]                                  Weaver bird (K&K). Nom d’un tisserin (Hyphan tamis) jaune à gorge rouge, différent du mnana (Sx). Madaka ya nyumba ya zisahani, Sasa walaliye wana wa nyuni, Bumu hukoroma kati nyumbani, Zisiji na koti waikaliye; In the homes’ porcelain-ware niches, Now the fledglings of birds have taken up their abode, Owls hoot in the house, Mannikins and weaverbirds have settled themselves inside (Ink-50).

kowa                           [n. 9/1~5/6]                             Glass bead; glass; crystal; window-pane; shell (K&K). Not in FJ. Wapambiye sini ya kuteuwa, Na kula kikombe kinakishiwa, Kati watiziye kuzi za kowa, Katika mapambo yanawiriye; They decorated with choice china, And every cup was adorned with etching, In the center they placed pitchers of crystal, Among the glittering ornaments (Ink-38).

kukia                          [v. tr.]                                      Sprinkle on (WH). Not in FJ. Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).

kukiwa                       [v. ps. appl.]                           Be sprayed, misted with, be splashed with (TJH). Be sprinkled upon, be sprayed upon usually with perfume. Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).

kukuta                       [v. tr.]                                      Draw together in folds; shrivel, wither, crinkle; a contracted reduplication: –kutakuta < -kuta fold; infinitive is kukukuta (WH). shake off water after getting wet, as a bird or dog (cf. kung’uta); (2) pant for breath; -kukutaa be dry, hard, stiff (FJ). Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh have shriveled (Ink-48).

kumbi/ma-                 [n. 5/6 aug.]                             Large ante-chambers, reception halls; see ukumbi/kumbi n. 11/10; makumbi ya nde large outer halls, ante-chambers. Nyumba kati zao huvuma mende, Kumbi za msana hulia ngende, Yalifiye vumi makumbi ya nde, kuwa mazibala yalisiriye; Inside the buildings the cockroaches rustle around, In the men’s halls the crickets are chirping, The noise of the ante-chambers died away, For they had become dungheaps (Ink-52).

kupa                           [v. i.]                                       Blink, quail, shrink from a blow, cower in fear (WH). ). Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73).

kusa                            [v. tr.]                                      Distress, afflict, torment, punish, etc. (TJH). Grip, hold (WH). Cause to come on, bring upon, involve in. Nimemkusa mashaka, I have got him into trouble; also sometimes kusha and kutisha (FJ). See –kusha syn. très us. de –kutisha, e.g., -kusha matungu, -kusha mashaka; Ametukusha mashaka (taabu); nitakukusha mashaka, je te ferai de la misère (te châtierai); also kutisha us. au fig. Dans –kutisha mashaka créer des ennuis, des difficulties, jeter dans une position difficile (Sx). Sasa walaliye mji shubiri, Pasipo zuliya wala jodori, Ikawa miwili kutaathari, Dhiki ya kaburi iwakusiye; Now they’re asleep in a town of no size at all (lit. a finger’s span), Without carpet or cushion, And their bodies are disfigured, The misery of the grave has tormented them (Ink-45).

kuta                            [v. tr.]                                      Come upon, meet (with), chance on, hit on, find (FJ). Tandi la mauti likawakuta, Wakauma zanda wa kuiyuta, Na dunia yao ikawasuta, Ichamba safari muniukiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-22).

kutukutu                   [n. 9/10]                                  Tangled undergrowth of the East African coastal bushlands (WH).Young forest; undergrowth, bushes (K&K). Not in FJ or Sx. Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, Ungi wa matuka na kutukutu, Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu, Kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye; The buildings’ courtyards became a forest, A profusion of bush and thick undergrowth, The outside doors terrified anyone (who saw them), For solitude and gloom had enshrouded them (Ink-53).

kuwe                           [dem.]                                      There, yonder, over there; see kule; kule > kue (l-loss) > kuwe (TJH). U wapi Ali bin Nasiri, Na muwamu wake Abubakari, Mwinyi Idarusi na Muhudhari, Wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye; Where is Ali bin Nasir, And his brother-in-law Abu Bakr, The Chief Idarusi and Muhudhari, Where have they gone over there, show me their (lit. his) way (i.e. where they went). (Ink-57).

kuwili                         [n. 17, adv.]                             Both ends, on both ends (TJH). The double kind, in a double way, in two ways; kisu chenye makali kuwili, a knife with two sharp edges; anatajwa kuwili, he has two names (TJH). De (des) deux côtés, -ona kuwili., voir des deux côtés. Kisu kikali kuwili un couteau coupant des deux côtés (Sx). Kwa maao mema ya kukhitari, Iyu la zitanda za majodori, Na mito kuwili ya akhadhari, Kwa kazi ya pote wanakishiye; On fine well-chosen couches, On beds of padded cushions, With green pillows at both ends, Decorated with embroidered work (Ink-42).

kuzi                            [n. 9/10]                                  Pitcher, jug, water flask, wine flask; fig. an unmarried daughter (WH). Wapambiye sini ya kuteuwa, Na kula kikombe kinakishiwa, Kati watiziye kuzi za kowa, Katika mapambo yanawiriye; They decorated with choice china, And every cup was adorned with etching, In the center they placed pitchers of crystal, Among the glittering ornaments (Ink-38).

kwimakwe                 [adv. contr.]                            Finally, at long last, in the fullness of time (TJH). See ku+ima+kwake; see St. kwisha kwake it’s ending, at the end of that, after that, then (WH). Kwimakwe kwisa kuzikamili, Himdi na sala kaziratili, Niyadhihirishe yangu makali, Ambayo moyoni nikusudiye; At the end of that, finally, bringing them (i.e., needs, see Ink-5) to perfection, And lay out praise and prayers in order, So I might set down clearly my writing, Those things in my heart that I intend (Ink-6).

la kitana                    [v. phrase]                               Suffer, be miserable, endure pain; lit. eat pain; see kitana (TJH). See lula yamini take a solomn oath, kula kiapo take an oath, kula bia: to partake in a communal meal, kula bikira: to consummate the marriage (FJ). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).

labeka                        [intrj.]                                      At your service! Yes, sir (madam)! — in answer to a call, coming! I am here! A common reply of a slave or inferior to a master’s call, and often pronounced ebe, ebee, labe, and simply bee (FJ). Moyo tafakari na Jahanamu, Wenye silisia na azmamu, Pindi ya dayani akiukimu, Unene labeka niitishiye; Oh my heart, think about the deepest hell-fire, About those chained and roped, When the Judge summons you (i.e., your heart) to prayer, You should say: “May I respond with ‘Yes, I am your servant.’” (Ink-72).

labibu                         [adj.]                                        Gifted with sound judgment (WH). Intelligent, gifted (CHS). Dunia ni jifa siikaribu, Haipendi mtu ila kilabu, I hali gani ewe labibu, Kuwania na mbwa hutukizwaye; The world is putrifying death stay away from it, It favors no one except dogs, What is it that you of sound judgment, That you be so reviled to fight over it with dogs (Ink-19).

Ladha                         [n. prop.]                                Second of the seven levels of the Islamic hell (WH). Ar. Na moto wa ladha nao pulika, Moto ukitiwa mara huwaka, Huona manofu yakikwambuka, Waona ziungo ziungushiye; And as for the fire of the second hell listen, If you are put into its fire you burn immediately, You see chunks of flesh being stripped from you, You see that your limbs have been utterly consumed (Ink-76).

launi/ma-                   [n. 5/6]                                    Likeness, kind, shape, color, esp. of countenance—very rarely used (FJ). Ar. Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh have shriveled (Ink-48).

lele                             [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem; see –lala sleep, lie down, settle down, lie flat… (FJ). Hold distainfully (LH). Recline (heads), i.e. hold back distainfully (WH). Malimwengu yote yawatiile, Na dunia yao iwaokele, Wachenenda zitwa zao zilele, Mato mafumbuzi wayafumbiye; The whole world has submitted to them, And their world was laid out straight for them, Walking along, their heads held distainfully, Their staring eyes looking darkly (Ink-35).

lingana                       [v. recip.]                                Be level with one another, match, be like, harmonize—also make a suitable reply (FJ). Be at the meridian, said of the sun (WH). Au enga meto limetukapo, Wakati wa yua lilinganapo, Mwenye nyota hwamba ni mayi yapo, Kayakimbilia akayatwaye; Or regard the glistening mirage, When the sun reaches high noon, The thirsty one says there is water there, And he runs to it that he might get some (Ink-16).

liwa bangu                 [v. phrase]                               Be utterly deceived, be made a fool (WH & K&K). Hiki ewe moyo kievu changu, Hukengeukii nusuha yangu, Huza akherayo kwa ulimwengu, Ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-27). Hiki ewe moyo kievu changu, Hukengeukii nusuha yangu, Huza akherayo kwa ulimwengu, Ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-27).

luhudi                        [n. 9/10]                                  Niches in sepulchres, graves (WH). Ar. Watoto wangapi uwaweneo, Ukawayakini kupona kwao, Sasa nyumba za ti ziwateteo, Katika luhudi iwafundiye; How many children have you seen, And are you certain about their well-being, Whose sepulchres have now enshrouded them, In a grave that binds them (Ink-33).

maao                           [n. 6]                                       See ao couch, bed; also see ulalo place for sleeping, etc (FJ).

madhulumu               [n. 9/10an.]                              Persecuted person (TJH). Oppressed person; not to be mistaken for ‘tyrant’, oppressor’ derived from the same verbal root (WH). Tyrant (CHS). Ar. Tafakari siku ya kwima kondo, Ya kuaridhiwa kula kitendo, Pindi madhulumu atapo ondo, Achamba ya Rabbi namua naye; Think about the day when multitudes will assemble (i.e., the Day of Judgment), The day when every deed will be unveiled, When the persecuted one kneels, Saying, “oh Lord judge between me and him.” (Ink-68).

maghusubu                [n. 9/10an.]                              Victim, a person compelled, violated; oppressed (WH). Ar. One oppressed (LH). See –ghusubu compel, coerce, take away by force, violate (FJ). Aso hasanati wala thawabu, Hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu, Akatwekwa dhambi za maghusubu, Akambiwa haya mtukuliye; The one who has neither merit nor gifts from God, His jaw is bridled like a steed, And is loaded down with the sins of a violated one, And finally he is told, “Alright, carry them (i.e., sins) for him.” (Ink-71).

mai                             [n. 6]                                       Water, see maji (FJ).

makali                        [n. 5]                                       Words, sayings, dicta, treatise, statement (WH). Treatise (LH). See makala (FJ). Kwimakwe kwisa kuzikamili, Himdi na sala kaziratili, Niyadhihirishe yangu makali, Ambayo moyoni nikusudiye; At the end of that, finally, bringing them (i.e., needs, see Ink-5) to perfection, And lay out praise and prayers in order, So I might set down clearly my writing, Those things in my heart that I intend (Ink-6).

makina ~ makini      [n. 9/10]                                  Repose, restfulness, reserve (as of action and emotion) (WH). See makini n. strength of character, dignity, serenity, and as adj. quiet, calm, amenable, well-behaved, gentle, composed. Roho makini, a quiet disposition. Fanya kwa makini, do in a gentle, calm, dignified, manner. Ar. (FJ). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).

malenga                     [n. 9/10an.]                              Poet (TJH). Bard (WH). Professional singer, employed to lead the singing in dances, concerts, etc. (FJ). Rabbi mrahamu mwenye kutunga, Na mezokhitimu mja malenga, Sala na salamu ni zao kinga, Rabbi takabali ziwashukiye; Oh Lord grant eternal life to the poet, And to the humble bard who finished them (i.e., the verses), Prayers and peace are their shield, Oh Lord grant that they (i.e. prayers and peace) descend upon them. (Ink-79).

malijaa                       [n. 9/10]                                  Refuge, shelter against trouble, succor (WH). Not in FJ or Sx. Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67). Ar.

maliki                        [n. 9/10 an.]                             King, ruler, sovereign (usu. mfalme) (FJ). Hakuwa mtumi Suleimani, Maliki wa insi na ajinani, Ulimfutuye ukamukhini, Akiwa mwengine wamtendaye; Was not the apostle Solomon, A ruler of (both) humanity and the spirit world, How is it then that it (i.e., the world) banished and withheld power from him, If it were someone else what would it do to him (Ink-32).

malimwengu             [n. 6]                                       Affairs, circumstances of the world, the world; see ulimwengu/ma- (FJ). Malimwengu yote yawatiile, Na dunia yao iwaokele, Wachenenda zitwa zao zilele, Mato mafumbuzi wayafumbiye; The whole world has submitted to them, And their world was laid out straight for them, Walking along, their heads held distainfully, Their staring eyes looking darkly (Ink-35).

malipwa                     [n. 6]                                       Payments made (WH). Payment, compensation, etc. (TJH). See –lipa (FJ). Na malipwa yao wadhilimuwa, Si dhahabu timbe si ya kufuwa, Fedha hawatwai na wangapowa, Ila hasanati ni malipwaye; And the compensation for the oppressed, It is not mined gold (dug right from the ground) nor is it refined (lit. washed), They are not grasping after silver even though they might be given it, Only virtue is their (lit. his) reward (Ink-70).

manaya                      [n. 9]                                       Death, fate (WH). Ar. Mvi wa manaya ukawafuma, Akatubukia katika nyama, Pasiwe mwatami mwenye kwatama, Au mwamba nini yalikuwaye; Death’s arrow struck them, And he (i.e., death) plunged it in their flesh, Without any dumbfounded gawker there with mouth wide open, Or speaker saying, “What, how has this happened?” (Ink-24).

manofu                       [n. 6]                                       See nofu.

masi                            [n. 6]                                       Shoals of ragged shell, sea shells; probably cognate with nswi fish (WH). Rocks, reefs (K&K). Mashaza ‘oysters’(CHS). Not in FJ, Sx. Suu ulimwengu bahari tesi, Una matumbawe na mangi masi, Aurakibuo juwa ni mwasi, Kwa kula khasara ukhasiriye; This world is a stormy sea, With coral reefs and many shell-encrusted shoals, The one who rides it out (i.e., the world), knows that it is a maverick, It has brought harm with every disaster (Ink-13).

masiku                       [n. 6]                                       Nights, pl. of usiku (TJH). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of crystal and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37).

masturi                      [n. 9/10]                                  Screen or hidden rooms, i.e., inner chambers, harem (WH). Ar. Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).

mato mafumbuzi      [phrase]                                   Wide-eyed, amazed-looking, google-eyed, staring eyes, protuberant eyes (TJH). Macho malegevu (Slack, relaxed, weak, soft, yielding, remiss, inattentive, idle, limp eyes) (MM). See –fumba shut, close, by bringing things, or parts, together. Fumba macho, close the eyes; (2) mystify, make a mystery about, disguise, use in an obscure way; also see –fumbua unclose, open, lay open, reveal, disclose by separating things or parts which were close together, e.g. fumbua mkono, open the closed hand, and so of eyes, mouth, legs, etc.; also see –fumbia shut up in (for, by, &c.) talk darkly about, etc (FJ). See –fumba macho ouvrir les yeux (en se réveil- lant, etc.), faire de grands yeux; fig. voir clair, comprendre (Sx). Malimwengu yote yawatiile, Na dunia yao iwaokele, Wachenenda zitwa zao zilele, Mato mafumbuzi wayafumbiye; The whole world has submitted to them, And their world was laid out straight for them, Walking along, their heads held distainfully, Their staring eyes looking darkly (Ink-35).

matongotongo           [adv.]                                       Ceaselessly, without stopping (TJH). Continuously (kwa mfululizo) (MMM). A lot, a great deal (kwa wingi wingi) (MM). Wana wa zipungu wapende zango, Na wana wa ndiwa humia shingo, Na kupija mbawa matongotongo, Ziku na zitati waliwashiye; Young vultures have perched on clothes-rack pegs, And the squab of doves bob their heads (lit., necks) to and fro, And flutter their wings ceaselessly, (Where) wood-pigeons and swallows have built their nests (Ink-51). [In the various translations of the Inkishafi consulted in this work there is little agreement on the meaning of this word. Hichens (WH p. 167) indicates that the etymology is doubtful, but then gives mumo kwa mumo; he also cites a possible cognate in Luganda, viz., ‘tongo ‘deserted village’ “which, if correct, would imply the reading of ‘mwa’ tongo-tongo, not ‘ma-‘”. Mulokozi (MMM, p. 93) says: “labda ‘matungotungo’ yaani kwa mfululizo”. Knappert (1979:134) follows Hichens’ etymology in giving ‘deserted places’. Mlamali (1980:49) who has mitungo tungo in his text translates this as kwa wingi wingi ‘a lot, a great deal’. Harries (1962:98) gives ‘in lazy fashion’. Allen (JVA, p.66) apparently ignores the word. I follow Mulokozi and Mlamali.

mauti                          [n. 9/10]                                  Death (FJ). Tandi la mauti likawakuta, Wakauma zanda wa kuiyuta, Na dunia yao ikawasuta, Ichamba safari muniukiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-22).

mazibala                    [n. 9]                                       Heap of rubbish, dunghill, midden (WH). Ar. Nyumba kati zao huvuma mende, Kumbi za msana hulia ngende, Yalifiye vumi makumbi ya nde, kuwa mazibala yalisiriye; Inside the buildings the cockroaches rustle around, In the men’s halls the crickets are chirping, The noise of the ante-chambers died away, For they had become dungheaps (Ink-52).

mbake                        [9/10 adj.]                                Lighted, illuminated, brightened; participle in –e; –waka be lighted (WH).  Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of crystal and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37). Note that the 9/10 prefix N + w > mb, cf. mbi 9/10 evil thing vs. wawi 2 evil ones (TJH).

mbake                        [adj./partic.]                            Lighted, illuminated, brightened; cl. 9/10 n- + –waka be lighted (WH). Nyumba zao mbake ziwele t‘ame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).

mbawazi                     [n. 9/10]                                  Compassion, pity, commiseration; see –awaza show pity, consideration (WH). Compassion (LH). Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).

mbinu                         [n. 9/10]                                  Supple limb, well-shaped (TJH). Supple-jointedness (WH). Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo, Na nyuma na mbele ili miyongo, Wakaapo pote ili zitengo, Asikari jamu wawatandiye; While swaying their supple limbs and necks to and fro, Behind and in front were lines of people, Wherever they stayed were noble houses, Many guards spread around them (Ink-36).

mbonya                      [v. contr.]                                Show me; see –onya (TJH). U wapi Ali bin Nasiri, Na muwamu wake Abubakari, Mwinyi Idarusi na Muhudhari, Wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye; Where is Ali bin Nasir, And his brother-in-law Abu Bakr, The Chief Idarusi and Muhudhari, Where have they gone over there, show me their (lit. his) way (i.e. where they went). (Ink-57). NB: note the form mbonya is an archaic form derived from Proto-Sabaki *ni-Wonya via vowel loss (n-Wonya), progressive assimilation of *n > m/___[+labial] (m-Wonya) and regressive assimilation wherein *W > b/[+nas]___ (mbonya); see uwingu/mbingu 11/10 ‘sky, cloud’, mwovu ‘evil person’ and mbovu 9 adj. ‘rotten’; Nurse & Hinnebusch 1993 passim).

mbonya                      [contr.]                                    Show me; < nionya; see St. Sw. nionyeshe show me (TJH). Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67).

mbwongo                    [contr.]                                    It’s a lie; from ni + uwongo (TJH). Kwamba husadiki hwamba mbwongo, Enda nyumba zao uzinde shingo, Ukita hwitikwi ila ni mwango, Sauti ya mtu itindishiye; If you do not believe it and say it’s a lie, Go to their houses and look around (lit. turn neck), If you call out you get no answer but an echo, The human voice has been cut off (Ink-54). NB: note the form mbwongo is an archaic form derived from *ni + uwongo via vowel loss (n-wongo), progressive assimilation of *n > m/___[+labial] (m-wongo) and regressive assimilation wherein w > b/[+nas]___ (mbwongo) without loss of the [+round] feature of the /w/; see uwingu/mbingu 11/10 ‘sky, cloud’, mwovu ‘evil person’ and mbovu 9 adj. ‘rotten’ for additional examples of this example of regressive assimilation. Also see mbonya in this glossary.

mdarisi/wa-                [n. 1/2]                                    Scholar, knowledgeable, well-read person (TJH). Scholar, learned person, teacher, and thus in common usage a pious person (WH). Curious person (LH). Critic (JVA). NB: Some texts have mdadis; there does not seem to be an etymological connection between darisi and dadisi; See mdadisi a curious, inquisitive, prying person; -dadisi pry, be inquisitive, be curious (about); (2) ask unnecessary questions (FJ). Ar. Nataka himdi nitangulize, Alo mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza illa isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So he who is a pious scholar not ask, And say, don’t stop us from praising, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other (Ink-2).

mdhilimuwa/wa-       [n. 1/2]                                    Persecuted person (WH). See –dhulumu treat unjustly, defraud, oppress; dhulumu/ma- injustice, fraud, oppression, violence (FJ). Na malipwa yao wadhilimuwa, Si dhahabu timbe si ya kufuwa, Fedha hawatwai na wangapowa, Ila hasanati ni malipwaye; And the compensation for the oppressed, It is not mined gold (dug right from the ground) nor is it refined (lit. washed), They are not grasping after silver even though they might be given it, Only virtue is their (lit. his) reward (Ink-70).

memetefu                  [adj.]                                        Shining, sparkling, gleaming, etc. See –memeteka sparkle, shine, twinkle, as of the stars (FJ). Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh have shriveled (Ink-48).

meto                           [n. 9/10]                                  Mirage (WH). Not in FJ. Au enga meto limetukapo, Wakati wa yua lilinganapo, Mwenye nyota hwamba ni mayi yapo, Kayakimbilia akayatwaye; Or regard the glistening mirage, When the sun reaches high noon, The thirsty one says there is water there, And he runs to it that he might get some (Ink-16).

metuka                       [v. i.]                                       Be shining, glittering, glistening (WH). See –meta shine, sparkle glitter, be bright (FJ). Au enga meto limetukapo, Wakati wa yua lilinganapo, Mwenye nyota hwamba ni mayi yapo, Kayakimbilia akayatwaye; Or regard the glistening mirage, When the sun reaches high noon, The thirsty one says there is water there, And he runs to it that he might get some (Ink-16).

mhakiki/wa-              [n. 1/2]                                    Scholar, investigator, judge (TJH). Ar. Make someone respond (TJH). Send somebody to call, cause to be called, order (FJ). Call (urgently), summon, convene; call upon, invite, make s.o. answer; Mungu huitisha wajawe: God calls his servants; kuitisha mkutano: to call for a meeting (K&K). Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye; There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded (Ink-62).

mia                             [v. i.]                                       Sway backwards and forwards, of the arms, etc. (WH). Not in FJ or Sx. Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo, Na nyuma na mbele ili miyongo, Wakaapo pote ili zitengo, Asikari jamu wawatandiye; While swaying their supple limbs and necks to and fro, Behind and in front were lines of people, Wherever they stayed were noble houses, Many guards spread around them (Ink-36).

milikisha                   [v. cs.]                                     Empower, hold power over, give power to (TJH). Put in possession, make king or ruler (FJ). Ar. Suu ulimwengu uutakao, Emale ni lipi upendeao, Hauna dawamu hudumu nao, Umilikishwapo wautendaye; This world that you want, What is its goodness that you love, It has nothing enduring or lasting, When you are made ruler how will you deal with it (Ink-31).

milikishwa                [v. cs. ps.]                               Be empowered, be put in power, be authorized, receive a mandate, be made ruler (TJH). See -milikisha put in possession, make king or ruler (FJ). Ar. Suu ulimwengu uutakao, Emale ni lipi upendeao, Hauna dawamu hudumu nao, Umilikishwapo wautendaye; This world that you want, What is its goodness that you love, It has nothing enduring or lasting, When you are made ruler how will you deal with it (Ink-31).

mja/wa-                      [n. 1/2]                                    Humble person (WH). Mtumwa, mnyonge wa Mungu (MMM). See mnyonge a humble, abject, low, debased person (FJ). Rabbi mrahamu mwenye kutunga, Na mezokhitimu mja malenga, Sala na salamu ni zao kinga, Rabbi takabali ziwashukiye; Oh Lord grant eternal life to the poet, And to the humble bard who finished them (i.e., verses), Prayers and peace are their shield, Oh Lord grant that they (i.e. prayers and peace) descend upon them (Ink-79).

mjani/wa-                   [n. 1/2]                                    Evil doer, sinner; see –zani (WH). See –zani/ma- a harlot, prostitute; (2) whoremonger, licentious person (FJ). Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73).

mkandi/wa-                [n. 1/2]                                    Masseuse (WH). Not in FJ but see –kanda knead with the hands, press and work with the fingers, massage, shampoo (FJ). Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi, Wali na wakandi na wapepezi, Na wake wapambe watumbuizi, Wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye; When they sleep from drosiness, They had masseurs and fanners, And well-dressed ladies as singers, Singing lullabies and never becoming quiet (Ink-41).

mkinda/mi-                [n. 3/4]                                    Bunch or cluster of gems attached to the main joint of a necklace (WH). Young one, esp. of birds, a chick, also of animals, but not of man (FJ). Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7).

mkohozi/wa-              [n. 1/2]                                    Cougher; see –kohoa cough (TJH). Wakazisalimu umri zao, Hadimu Ladhati achenda nao, Pasi mkohozi akohowao, Au mwenye kwenda asiridhiye; Then they surrendered their lives, Death going with them, Without (so much as) a cougher who coughes, Or any traveler who is content (Ink-25).

mkwasi/wa-                [n. 1/2]                                    Rich, wealthy person (FJ). Uwene wangapi watu wakwasi, Walo wakiwaa kama shamsi, Wa muluku zana za adharusi, Dhahabu na fedha wakhiziniye; How many rich people have you seen, Who were blazing brightly like the sun, Who control the weapons of war, Who have layed up gold and silver (Ink-34).

Mola                           [n. prop.]                                Almighty God. Allahumma Rabbi mkidhi haja, Msalie Tumwa aliyekuja, Na tauhidiyo Mola wa waja, Akatusomesha tafsiriye; O my Lord Allah, Granter of (our) needs, Let us pray for the Prophet, Your dvine unity God Almighty of all people, And he taught us its meaning (i.e., the Koran). (Ink-5).

mpepezi/wa-              [n. 1/2]                                    Fan-bearer, odalisque (WH). Not in FJ, but see –pepea fan, wave (like a fan), wave about in the air, make a current of air (FJ). Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi, Wali na wakandi na wapepezi, Na wake wapambe watumbuizi, Wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye; When they sleep from drosiness, They had masseurs and fanners, And well-dressed ladies as singers, Singing lullabies and never becoming quiet (Ink-41).

msaji/mi-                   [n. 3/4]                                    Teak-wood tree, teak wood (WH). Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi, Naapa kwa Mungu Mola Mkwasi, Zali za msaji kwa abunusi, Zitile sufufu zisitawiye; Decorated hanging-pegs that are pleasing to behold, I swear by God, Source of all Wealth, They were of teak and ebony, Placed in line to look their best. (Ink-39).

msana/mi-                  [n. 3/4]                                    Vestibule, ante-room for male guests (WH). Not in FJ with this meaning. Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).

msutu/mi-                  [n. 3/4]                                    Embroidered cloth of various colors, a product of Karachi used as curtains, wall hangings, bed spreads, and as clothing for women; went out of use c. 1850-70 (WH). Not in FJ. Large pièce d’indienne employée, soit comme tenture (msutu wa pazia), ou simplement msutu ou encore abusivement pazia qui désigne mieux une tapisserie servant au même usage), soit, comme chez les Gunya, comme une sorte de manteau dont les femmes se drapent de la tête aux pieds en passant un coin d’une épaule à l’autre (cf. kisutu) (Sx). Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).

mtanga/mi-                [n. 3/4]                                    Sand, dirt (TJH). See St. mchanga. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhuri, Wakanakiliwa ili safari, Washukiye nyumba za makaburi, Mtanga na fusi ziwafusiye; Even if wealth is ostentatious, They were carried off on (lit. for purpose of) death’s journey, They descended into the dwelling places of the dead (lit., graves), Sand and rubble entombed them. (Ink-44).

mtapaa/wa-                [n. 1/2]                                    One who butts with the head (see –ta strike, hit, and paa crown of the head) (WH). Ni kama kisima kisicho ombe, Chenye mtapaa mwana wa ng’ombe, Endao kwegema humta pembe, Asipate katu kunwa maiye; It (the world) is like a deep well without a protecting wall, Where lies a head-butting young bull, The person who goes and gets too close, it gores, He never succeeds in drinking water from it (lit. its water) (Ink-14).

mtokoto/mi-               [n. 3/4]                                    Boiling, seething with heat, act of – (WH). Bubbling (LH). See –tokota become boiled, fried, be boiled, boiling, frying (FJ). Moto wa sairi ufahamuto, Ni moto mkali katika nyoto, Ni mngi wa moshi na mitokoto, Majoka na pili waikaliye; Understand totally the fire of the fourth level of hell, It’s the fiercest of all fires, There is much smoke and bubbling, Vile snakes and adders live in it (Ink-75).

mtumbuizi/wa-          [n. 1/2]                                    Singer of ballads (WH). One who soothes by singing songs (FJ). See –tumbuiza (FJ). Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi, Wali na wakandi na wapepezi, Na wake wapambe watumbuizi, Wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye; When they sleep from drosiness, They had masseurs and fanners, And well-dressed ladies as singers, Singing lullabies and never becoming quiet (Ink-41).

mtwa                           [n. 3/4]                                    Termites, “white-ants”; see St. mchwa (TJH). Wasiriye wote kula kwa dudi, Na kuwatafuna zao jisadi, Na mtwa na tungu huwafisidi, Majoka na nge wawatatiye; They have all become food for insects, That chewed on their bodies, And termites and ants corrupted them, Fearsome snakes and vipers wound about them (Ink-47).

muanga                      [n. 3]                                       Light; see mwanga and mwangaza (FJ). Mimi nakwambia nipulikiza, Watiziwe nyumba za jizajiza, Zisizo muanga na muwangaza, Ndio mashukio walishukiye, I tell you listen to me, They have been put down into dark gloomy houses, That have neither light nor brightness, These indeed are the depths they had descended into (Ink-58).

Mukidhi/wa-              [n. 1/2]                                    Satisfier, Judge of Needs, one of the names of God (WH). Grantor (WH, LH). See –kidhi Grant, give to, satisfy, e.g. Mungu ndiye anayekidhi haja (or ni mkidhi haja), God is the granter (satisfier) of all needs, Amekidhi maombi yako, he has given you (granted) what you asked or prayed for (FJ). Ar. المقيت Nourisher. Allahumma Rabbi Mukidhi haja, Msalie Tumwa aliyekuja, Na tauhidiyo Mola wa waja, Akatusomesha tafsiriye; O my Lord Allah, Granter of (our) needs, Let us pray for the Prophet, Your dvine unity God Almighty of all people, And he taught us its meaning (i.e., the Koran). (Ink-5).

muluku                      [n. 9/10]                                  Ownership, state of command, dominion (WH). Ar. Uwene wangapi watu wakwasi, Walo wakiwaa kama shamsi, Wa muluku zana za adharusi, Dhahabu na fedha wakhiziniye; How many rich people have you seen, Who were blazing brightly like the sun, Who control the weapons of war, Who have layed up gold and silver (Ink-34).

muushi/wa-                [n. 1/2]                                    Flier, one that flies; see –ruka, -rusha (TJH). Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wote kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).

muwamu                    [n. 1]                                       Brother-in-law, father-in-law, male relative by marriage (WH). See mlamu and mwamu (FJ). U wapi Ali bin Nasiri, Na muwamu wake Abubakari, Mwinyi Idarusi na Muhudhari, Wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye; Where is Ali bin Nasir, And his brother-in-law Abu Bakr, The Chief Idarusi and Muhudhari, Where have they gone over there, show me their (lit. his) way (i.e. where they went). (Ink-57).

muwangaza/mi-        [n. 3/4]                                    Light, etc. See mwangaza Light, brightness, cleanness (FJ). Mimi nakwambia nipulikiza, Watiziwe nyumba za jizajiza, Zisizo muanga na muwangaza, Ndio mashukio walishukiye, I tell you listen to me, They have been put down into dark gloomy houses, That have neither light nor brightness, These indeed are the depths they had descended into (Ink-58).

muwashi/mi-             [n. 3/4]                                    Firebrand, blazing thing (WH). See –waka, -washa (FJ). Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of hell, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).

mvazi/mi-                   [n. 3/4]                                    Part or division or joint of a necklace or chaplet; personal jewelry and apparel (WH) Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7).

mvi/mi-                       [n. 3/4]                                    Arrow (FJ). Mvi wa manaya ukawafuma, Akatubukia katika nyama, Pasiwe mwatami mwenye kwatama, Au mwamba nini yalikuwaye; Death’s arrow struck them, And he (i.e., death) plunged it in their flesh, Without any dumbfounded gawker there with mouth wide open, Or speaker saying, “What, how has this happened?” (Ink-24).

mwako/mi-                 [n. 3/4]                                    Blaze, flame, blazing, burning (FJ). See –waka burn (FJ). Chenda akaona mwako wa yuwa, Mai alotaka akayatuwa, Asifidi yambo ila shakawa, Ikawa mayuto yasimsiye; When he goes he then sees only the blazing sun, As for the water he wants, he rends himself (fig. is disappointed), Without gaining a thing except trouble, And so it was for him, remorse has never ended (Ink-17).

mwamba/w-                [n. 1/2]                                    Speaker (WH). See –amba (FJ). Mvi wa manaya ukawafuma, Akatubukia katika nyama, Pasiwe mwatami mwenye kwatama, Au mwamba nini yalikuwaye; Death’s arrow struck them, And he (i.e., death) plunged it in their flesh, Without any dumbfounded gawker there with mouth wide open, Or speaker saying, “What, how has this happened?” (Ink-24).

mwango/mi-               [n. 3/4]                                    Echo (WH). See mwangwi (FJ). Kwamba husadiki hwamba mbwongo, Enda nyumba zao uzinde shingo, Ukita hwitikwi ila ni mwango, Sauti ya mtu itindishiye; If you do not believe it and say it’s a lie, Go to their houses and look around (lit. turn neck), If you call out you get no answer but an echo, The human voice has been cut off (Ink-54).

mwasi/wa-                  [n. 1/2]                                    Maverick, disenter, dissident (TJH). Rebel, disobedient person (FJ). Tyrant (LH, WH). Désobéissant, rebelle, insurgé, insubordonné, indiscipliné (Sx). Suu ulimwengu bahari tesi, Una matumbawe na mangi masi, Aurakibuo juwa ni mwasi, Kwa kula khasara ukhasiriye; This world is a stormy sea, With coral reefs and many shell-encrusted shoals, The one who rides it out (i.e., the world), knows that it is a maverick, It has brought harm with every disaster (Ink-13).

mwatami/w-               [n. 1/2]                                    Gawker, starer with open-mouth (TJH). Person who gapes, one dumbfounded (WH). Mvi wa manaya ukawafuma, Akatubukia katika nyama, Pasiwe mwatami mwenye kwatama, Au mwamba nini yalikuwaye; Death’s arrow struck them, And he (i.e., death) plunged it in their flesh, Without any dumbfounded gawker there with mouth wide open, Or speaker saying, “What, how has this happened?” (Ink-24).

mwendo/w-                 [n. 1/2, contr.]                         Your companion; mwendi + (wak)o; see mwenzio/w- (TJH). Moyo taadabu sipeketeke, Ata ya jauri haki ushike, Wendo wachokoka nawe wokoke, Moto wa jahimu usikutwaye; Oh heart, behave, don’t be fooled by your arrogance, Stop your oppression hold on to justice, If your friends are saved then you too ought to be saved, So hell fire does not carry you off (Ink-65).

mwiso                         [n. 3]                                       End. See St. Sw. Mwisho (FJ). Sasa t’akhitimu t’atia tama, Atakofuata na kuyandama, T’apata khatima na mwiso mwema, Rabbi twakuomba tujaaliye; Now I will finish I’ll put in the conclusion, He who will follow and go along with it, He will finally have a good ending, Oh Lord we pray that you grant us this (Ink-78).

mzagao/mi-                [n. 3/4]                                    Bauble, trinket, cheap decoration, bling; fig. ostentatious lifestyle (TJH). A glittering, shining thing (JK). See –zagaa shine, glisten, give light, illuminate (FJ). Yenye kushangaza (MM). WH is uncertain of the etymology of this word and speculates it derives from –gagaa roll about; he thus gives “rolling about” as the meaning; this seems unlikely. Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).

mzazi/wa-                  [n. 1/2]                                    Progenitor, ancestor (WH). Parent, etc. (FJ). Sasa moyo pako t’auza nawe, Nelezato sana nami nelewe, Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe, Nambia walipo kawamkiye; Now oh soul, for your part I will ask even you, Explain it to me most clearly so I understand, Where are your forebears who gave you birth, Tell me where they are so I may go and greet them (Ink-56).

nabahi ~ nabihi 26    [v. tr.]                                      Heed a warning, perceive, be aware of, be informed about, be conscious of , take notice of (TJH). Remember, perceive (FJ). Be mindful, take heed, take warning (WH). Ar. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi, Ukanabihika hukunabihi, Utaata lini ya usafihi, Nambia ukomo niusikiye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-26).

nabihika                    [v. i.]                                       Be warned (WH) Be made aware of, be in a conscious state, have heeded a warning (TJH). Ar. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi, Ukanabihika hukunabihi, Utaata lini ya usafihi, Nambia ukomo niusikiye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-26).

nahari                        [n. 9]                                       Daytime (K&K). Jour, journée (Sx). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of crystal and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37).

nakiliwa                     [v. ps]                                     Be conveyed, transmitted, transferred (WH). Chukuliwa (MMM). Ar. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhuri, Wakanakiliwa ili safari, Washukiye nyumba za makaburi, Mtanga na fusi ziwafusiye; Even if wealth is ostentatious, They were carried off on (lit. for purpose of) death’s journey, They descended into the dwelling places of the dead (lit., graves), Sand and rubble entombed them. (Ink-44).

nakishia                     [v. appl.]                                 Decorate with, engrave with, adorn with (TJH). See nakshi n. carving, carved ornament, fine chisel-work, engraving, and used of any ornamentation of similar appearance, e.g. fancy work, embroidery (FJ). Kwa maao mema ya kukhitari, Iyu la zitanda za majodori, Na mito kuwili ya akhadhari, Kwa kazi ya pote wanakishiye; On fine well-chosen couches, On beds of padded cushions, With green pillows at both ends, Decorated with embroidered work (Ink-42).

nakishiwa                  [v. ps.]                                    Be decorated with (TJH). Wapambiye sini ya kuteuwa, Na kula kikombe kinakishiwa, Kati watiziye kuzi za kowa, Katika mapambo yanawiriye; They decorated with choice china, And every cup was adorned with etching, In the center they placed pitchers of crystal, Among the glittering ornaments (Ink-38).

namua                        [v. phrase]                               Judge me; n-amua < ni-amua (TJH). Namua na hoyo menidhilimu, Kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu, Mungu Jabari akahukumu, Amtendeleo amlipiye; Judge me as well as the one (who) persecuted me, With your judgement which is hard, God the All-Powerful will judge, What he did to another may He pay him (in kind) (Ink-69).

nawiri                         [v. i.]                                       Shine (LH) Ar. Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7).

nawiri                         [v. i.]                                       Be aglow (WH). Shine, but only used of a person’s countenance. Uso wake unanawiri, her face shines, i.e. is healthy looking, pleasant (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of crystal and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37).

nde                              [n. 9]                                       Outside; see nje (FJ). Nyumba kati zao huvuma mende, Kumbi za msana hulia ngende, Yalifiye vumi makumbi ya nde, kuwa mazibala yalisiriye; Inside the buildings the cockroaches rustle around, In the men’s halls the crickets are chirping, The noise of the ante-chambers died away, For they had become dungheaps (Ink-52).

ndeo ~ ndweo             [n. 9/10]                                  Pride; The old name of Lamu was Kiwa Ndeo the popular translation of which is “The Proud Island” (WH). Swollen headedness (CHS). Make difficulties; hinder, cause a project to tarry (WH). Delay by the way (CHS). See –a kuusiri procrastination, postponing, putting things off (TJH). Ichamba hayani ndio safari, Yakomele tena ya kuusiri, Bidhaa ya ndeo na takaburi, Mutendele kwangu nishuhudiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-23).

ndimi                          [n. 10]                                     Tongues. See ulimi tongue. Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73).

nduye                         [n. 9/10an.]                              Ndugu yake, his brother, relation, peer thus fig. his equal (TJH). Nataka himdi nitangulize, Alo mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza illa isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So he who is a pious scholar not ask, And then say, “don’t stop us from praising”, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other. (Ink-2).

nduye                         [n. 9/10 an.]                             Equal, like; lit. his brother, relative, relation, peer; contraction of  ndugu yake. NB: in the citation this is used metaphorically to express a comparison, something “related” (TJH). Unparalled (JVA). Nataka himdi nitangulize, Alo mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza ila isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So that the pious scholar not ask, And say, don’t stop us from praising, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other (Ink-2).

ngapo 26                     [phrase]                                   Though it befall, or has befallen; -nga- conditional of the verb be; plus -po (WH). Zituko zingapo hutanabahi, Ukanabihika hukunabihi, Utaata lini ya usafihi, Nambia ukomo niusikiye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-26).

ngeya                          [n. 9/10]                                  Death blow (TJH). Parry, side-thrust, coup-de-grace (WH). Kima ina ila ilio mbovu, Ilikithiriye ungi welevu, I kalifu mno kuta kiwavu, Kupa watu ngeya ikithiriye; Finally it has the worst evil, It grows ever larger with an abundance of cunning, It is exceedingly violent striking at the heart, Inflicting on people death blows, it has exceeded all bounds (Ink-20).

ngowa ~ ngoa             [n. 9/10]                                  Passion (WH). See ngoa desire, passion, lust, jealousy; timiza ngoa satisfy the passions; lia ngoa weep for jealousy (FJ). Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wot’e kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).

nofu/ma-                    [n. 5/6]                                    Lumps of flesh torn from a corpse (WH). See mnofu/mi- (FJ). Na moto wa ladha nao pulika, Moto ukitiwa mara huwaka, Huona manofu yakikwambuka, Waona ziungo ziungushiye; And as for the fire of the second hell listen, If you are put into its fire you burn immediately, You see chunks of flesh being stripped from you, You see that your limbs have been utterly consumed (Ink-76).

nudumu ~ nuduma   [n. 9/10]                                  Poem, lit. a string of pearls (WH). Bismiliahi naikadimu, Hali ya kutunga hino nudhumu, Na ar-Rahmani kiirasimu, Basi ar-Rahimi nyuma ikaye; I put first In the Name of God, While composing this poem, And writing The Merciful One, And so may the invocation “The Benign One” be the last in order (Ink-1). Ar.

nusuha 27                  [n. 9]                                       Advice, counsel, entreaty; also as nasiha, nasaha, nisaha and the verb –nasihi (WH). Hiki ewe moyo kievu changu, Hukengeukii nusuha yangu, Huza akherayo kwa ulimwengu, Ya kuliwa bangu ukhitariye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-27).

nwa                             [v. tr.]                                      Drink, see nywa (FJ). Ni kama kisima kisicho ombe, Chenye mtapaa mwana wa ng’ombe, Endao kwegema humta pembe, Asipate katu kunwa maiye; It (the world) is like a deep well without a protecting wall, Where lies a head-butting young bull, The person who goes and gets too close, it gores, He never succeeds in drinking water from it (Ink-14).

nyamaa                      [v. i.]                                       Be silent, stop talking, hold one’s tongue, be (become) quiet, die away, cease, be still—usu. not only of talking and noise, but of anything violent, troublesome, or painful, e.g. of mental or bodily suffering (FJ). Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi, Wali na wakandi na wapepezi, Na wake wapambe watumbuizi, Wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye; When they sleep from drosiness, They had masseurs and fanners, And well-dressed ladies as singers, Singing lullabies and never becoming quiet (Ink-41).

nyemi                         [n. 9/10]                                  Sweetness of life, joyousness, gaity (TJH). Merriment (LH). Qq. ch. d’agréable, agrément (Furaha kidogo); archaïsme conservé dans le Prov. Kipya kinyemi kingawa kiovu le neuf plait, fût-il mauvais; also mnyemi archaïque Pate, Mvita, Amu, personne qui éprouve de la joie (mwenye furaha) (Sx). Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).

nyoto                          [n. 10]                                     See moto n. 3/4 fire. WH identifies this as the plural augmentative of joto. However, nyoto is usually understood as the normal dialectal plural of moto fire (TJH). Moto wa sairi ufahamuto, Ni moto mkali katika nyoto, Ni mngi wa moshi na mitokoto, Majoka na pili waikaliye; Understand totally the fire of the fourth level of hell, It’s the fiercest of all fires, There is much smoke and bubbling, Vile snakes and adders live in it (Ink-75).

nyuma                        [n. 9/10]                                  End, on the end, at the end (TJH). Makusudi yangu ya kudhamiri, Nda kutunga koja kilidawiri, Mivazi ya duri ikinawiri, Mikinda ya lulu nyuma nitiye; My purpose that I intend, Is to string together a necklace forming it in a circle, Its sections of pearls shining, And then put smaller pearls at its end (Ink-7).

nyumba ya ti              [n. 9/10]                                  Grave, sepulchre. Lit. house of/in the ground; see nti land, earth, ground, St. nchi (TJH). Watoto wangapi uwaweneo, Ukawayakini kupona kwao, Sasa nyumba za ti ziwateteo, Katika luhudi iwafundiye; How many children have you seen, And are you certain about their well-being, Whose sepulchres have now enshrouded them, In a grave that binds them (Ink-33).

nyumu                        [adj.]                                        Hard, difficult; see ngumu (TJH). Namua na hoyo menidhilimu, Kwa hukumu yako iliyo nyumu, Mungu Jabari akahukumu, Amtendeleo amlipiye; Judge me as well as the one (who) persecuted me, With your judgement which is hard, God the All-Powerful will judge, What he did to another may He pay him (in kind) (Ink-69).

oka                              [v. i.]                                       Be, become straight (as of a road or a purpose); see -nyoka (WH). Malimwengu yote yawatiile, Na dunia yao iwaokele, Wachenda zitwa zao zilele, Mato mafumbuzi wayafumbiye; The whole world has submitted to them, And their world was laid out straight for them, Walking along, their heads held distainfully, Their staring eyes looking darkly (Ink-35).

ombe                           [n. 9/10]                                  Wall around mouth of a well (CHS). Edge of an abyss, escarpment, brink, protecting wall round a well, parapet, ledge (K&K). See ombwe edge, brink as of a well or seashore (FJ). Bord du gouffre, comme à l’extrémité de la falaise, ou à l’endroit où la mer gagne subitement en profondeur; usilewelewe na ombe ne prends pas le vertige sur le bord de l’abîme; -tumbukia ombeni tomber dans l’abîme (Sx). Shallow waterpool (WH). Wall around the mouth of a well (CHS). Ni kama kisima kisicho ombe, Chenye mtapaa mwana wa ng’ombe, Endao kwegema humta pembe, Asipate katu kunwa maiye; It (the world) is like a deep well without a protecting wall, Where lies a head-butting young bull, The person who goes and gets too close, it gores, He never succeeds in drinking water from it (lit. its water) (Ink-14).

ondo                            [n. 5/6]                                    Knee (CHS). Genou, -pija ondo faire une génuflexion (Sx). See –ta ondo –piga magoti. Not in FJ. Tafakari siku ya kwima kondo, Ya kuaridhiwa kula kitendo, Pindi madhulumu atapo ondo, Achamba ya Rabbi namua naye; Think about the day when multitudes will assemble(i.e., the Day of Judgment), The day when every deed will be unveiled, When the persecuted one kneels, Saying, “oh Lord judge between me and him.” (Ink-68).

onya                            [v. cs]                                      Make see, show, etc., now mainly replace by St. –onyesha except in the sense of ‘warn, etc.’ (TJH). Faire voir, montrer, indiquer, laisser voir, être transparent, fig. Averter, prévenir, donner u conseil à qqn., donner à entendre, remontrer, corriger, reprendre (Sx). U wapi Ali bin Nasiri, Na muwamu wake Abubakari, Mwinyi Idarusi na Muhudhari, Wendelepi kuwe mbonya ndiaye; Where is Ali bin Nasir, And his brother-in-law Abu Bakr, The Chief Idarusi and Muhudhari, Where have they gone over there, show me their (lit. his) way (i.e. where they went). (Ink-57). NB: note the form mbonya is an archaic form derived from Proto-Sabaki *ni-Wonya via vowel loss (n-Wonya), progressive assimilation of *n > m/___[+labial] (m-Wonya) and regressive assimilation wherein *W > b/[+nas]___ (mbonya); see uwingu/mbingu 11/10 ‘sky, cloud’, mwovu ‘evil person’ and mbovu 9 adj. ‘rotten’; Nurse & Hinnebusch 1993 passim).

pa ngeya                     [phrase]                                   Inflict, deliver blows, deal a death blow; see ngeya (TJH). Kima ina ila ilio mbovu, Ilikithiriye ungi welevu, I kalifu mno kuta kiwavu, Kupa watu ngeya ikithiriye; Finally it has the worst evil, It grows ever larger with an abundance of cunning, It is exceedingly violent striking at the heart, Inflicting on people death blows, it has exceeded all bounds (Ink-20).

pako                            [2nd poss 16]                           For your part (WH). Chez toi; près de ou vers chez toi (Sx). Sasa moyo pako t’auza nawe, Nelezato sana nami nelewe, Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe, Nambia walipo kawamkiye; Now oh soul, for your part I will ask even you, Explain it to me most clearly so I understand, Where are your forebears who gave you birth, Tell me where they are so I may go and greet them (Ink-56).

panda                          [v. tr.]                                      Perch upon (WH). Go up, ascend, climb, mount, get upon, ride upon (FJ). Wana wa zipungu wapende zango, Na wana wa ndiwa humia shingo, Na kupija mbawa matongotongo, Ziku na zitati waliwashiye; Young vultures have perched on clothes-rack pegs, And the squab of doves bob their heads (lit., necks) to and fro, And flutter their wings ceaselessly, (Where) wood-pigeons and swallows have built their nests (Ink-51).

panda                          [n. 9/10]                                  Horn, trumpet, war-horn (WH). Corne ou conque dont on tire des sons comme, d’une trompette.(Sx ). Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73).

papatuka                    [v. st.]                                     Be in a state of expansion, be bursting under inner pressure, be palpitant (WH). Go away, come off (FJ). See –papatua Am = -babatua Mv. See –babatua split, crack, break in pieces (K&K). Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67).

pata                             [v. tr.]                                      Get, procure; happen to etc. Khasaisi zote na makatayo, Shida na shakawa likupeteyo, Ni dunia sii uipendayo, Yenye dhuli nyingi na makataye; All your vices and deprivation, Difficulties and trouble that have happened to you, Because of (lit., by) this world which you love, With its many miseries and its hardships (Ink-18).

peketeka                    [v. i.]                                       Be arrogant, insolent (TJH). Froisser (-fikicha), mettre en désordre, brouiller; troubler l’eau, etc. (-p. mai). -p. kartasi, zuo x réfi. -ipeketa Se déprécier par son arrogance ou son insolence (-ishaua) (Sx). Danganyika (MMM). Be drilled, bored, as by a pointed instrument; (2) be confused, mixed up, slack, stirred up (FJ). Moyo, taadabu sipeketeke, Ata ya jauri haki ushike, Wendo wachokoka nawe wokoke, Moto wa jahimu usikutwaye; Oh heart, behave, don’t be fooled by your arrogance, Stop your oppression hold on to justice, If your friends are saved then you too ought to be saved, So hell fire does not carry you off (Ink-65).

pete                             [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem; see –pata See get, happen to, etc. (FJ).

pete                             [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem, see –pita pass, etc. (FJ). Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).

pete                             [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem, see –pata (FJ). Moyo, ya kwambia ya watu sawo, Kalamu ya Mungu iwapetewo, Nawe wa yakini kuwa kamawo, Au una yako uyashishiye; Oh my soul, the things to tell about these people, The pen of God that has ordained their fate (lit. has gotten them), And you for sure are like them, Unless (lit. or) you have your own (i.e., Islamic faith) to which you cling (Ink-64).

pi                                 [enclitic]                                  Truncated variant of wapi where (TJH). Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67).

pija                             [v. tr.]                                      Hit, etc.; cf. –piga (FJ). Wana wa zipungu wapende zango, Na wana wa ndiwa humia shingo, Na kupija mbawa matongotongo, Ziku na zitati waliwashiye; Young vultures have perched on clothes-rack pegs, And the squab of doves bob their heads (lit., necks) to and fro, And flutter their wings ceaselessly, (Where) wood-pigeons and swallows have built their nests (Ink-51).

pili                              [n. 9/10 an.]                             Adder (FJ). Cobra; sometimes puff-adder (WH). Moto wa sairi ufahamuto, Ni moto mkali katika nyoto, Ni mngi wa moshi na mitokoto, Majoka na pili waikaliye; Understand totally the fire of the fourth level of hell, It’s the fiercest of all fires, There is much smoke and bubbling, Vile snakes and adders live in it (Ink-75).

pinde                          [adj.]                                        Folded (TJH). Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).

pindiwa                      [v. ps. appl.]                           Be folded for, etc. (TJH). See –pinda bend, twist, fold, bend up, strain, put a strain on, make tense (stiff, hard); (2) hem (FJ). Misutu mipinde wakapindiwa, Iyu la firasha kufunikiwa, Maji ya marashi wakikukiwa, Itiri na kaa waipashiye; They were being enfolded in fine folded embroidered cloth, And covered in fine bedspreads, Being misted with perfume, They annointed themselves with perfumed oils and sandalwood (Ink-43).

pisha                           [v. cs.]                                     Cook; cs.of -pika (TJH). Make heated by fire (WH). Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of hell, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).

pona                            [v. i.]                                       Become safe, escape, be rescued (saved, delivered); (2) get a living, subsist, preserve one’s life, live; and esp. (3) get well (from illness), recover health, be convalescent, regain strength (FJ). Watoto wangapi uwaweneo, Ukawayakini kupona kwao, Sasa nyumba za t’i ziwateteo, Katika luhudi iwafundiye; How many children have you seen, And are you certain about their well-being, Whose sepulchres have now enshrouded them, In a grave that binds them (Ink-33).

powa                           [v. ps]                                     Be given; Am form for –pawa and –pewa < -pa give (WH). Na malipwa yao wadhilimuwa, Si dhahabu timbe si ya kufuwa, Fedha hawatwai na wangapowa, Ila hasanati ni malipwaye; And the compensation for the oppressed, It is not mined gold (right from the ground) nor is refined (lit. washed), They are not grasping after silver even though they might be given it, Only virtue is their (lit. his) reward (Ink-70).

pulikiza                     [v. cs/ints.]                              Listen, for the more common sikiliza (FJ). Mimi nakwambia nipulikiza, Watiziwe nyumba za jizajiza, Zisizo muanga na muwangaza, Ndio mashukio walishukiye, I tell you listen to me, They have been put down into dark gloomy houses, That have neither light nor brightness, These indeed are the depths they had descended into (Ink-58).

pumuzi                       [n. 9/10]                                  Breath; see St. Sw. pumzi (TJH). ). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).

rahamu                      [v. tr.]                                      Grant enternal life to (TJH). Have pity for another, have mercy on (WH). See –rehemu pity, have mercy on, commiserate, and as a euphemism, end the life of, grant rest to (FJ). Rabbi mrahamu mwenye kutunga, Na mezokhitimu mja malenga, Sala na salamu ni zao kinga, Rabbi takabali ziwashukiye; Oh Lord grant eternal life to the poet, And to the humble bard who finished them (i.e., verses), Prayers and peace are their shield, Oh Lord grant that they (i.e. prayers and peace) descend upon them (Ink-79).

rajimi                         [n. prop.]                                The Stoned Satin (WH). Satan was called as-Shaitan ar-rajim, i.e., the Satan stoned, from the tradition that Abraham, tempted not to sacrifice his son, drove Satan away by pelting him with stones; or, in another tradition, Adam, meeting with Satan at the valley of Mina, near Mecca, was adjured by Allah to drive Satan away with stones. A journey to Mina, where the pilgrims throw stones at three pillars representing Rajim, is part of the ritual of the Meccan Pilgrimage (WH & LH). Ar (ash-shaitan ar-rajim). Ewe moyo enda sijida yake, Hela tafadhali unabihike, Shetani rajimi asikuteke, Kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye, Oh, heart, bow down in prayer to Him, Hela please, be warned, So that Satin the Stoned One not laugh at you, And tomorrow see that you are like him (Ink-30).

rakibu                        [v. tr.]                                      Ride an animal; sail the sea (WH). Ride, mount (FJ). Ar. Suu ulimwengu bahari tesi, Una matumbawe na mangi maasi, Aurakibuo juwa ni mwasi, Kwa kula khasara ukhasiriye; This world is a stormy sea, With coral reefs and many shell-encrusted shoals, The one who rides it out (i.e., the world), knows that it is a maverick, It has brought harm with every disaster (Ink-13).

rasimu                        [v. tr.]                                      Write (WH). Bismiliahi naikadimu, Hali ya kutunga hino nudhumu, Na ar-Rahmani kiirasimu, Basi ar-Rahimi nyuma ikaye; I put first In the Name of God, While composing this poem, And writing The Merciful One, And so may the invocation “The Benign One” be the last in order (Ink-1). Ar.

ratili                           [v. tr.]                                      Place, arrange, lay out in order (TJH). Agencer, disposer avec ordre (son discours, ses paroles) (Sx). Set in order (LH). Recite (the Koran); say, speak, tell (K&K). Kwimakwe kwisa kuzikamili, Himdi na sala kaziratili, Niyadhihirishe yangu makali, Ambayo moyoni nikusudiye; At the end of that, finally, bringing them (i.e., needs, see Ink-5) to perfection, And lay out praise and prayers in order, So I might set down clearly my writing, Those things in my heart that I intend (Ink-6).

rikabu                        [n. 9/10an.]                              Steed, mount, an animal one rides; see Sx (TJH). Riding animal (WH). Not in FJ. Monture, coursier, bête que l’on monte (Sx). Aso hasanati wala thawabu, Hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu, Akatwekwa dhambi za maghusubu, Akambiwa haya mtukuliye; The one who has neither merit nor gifts from God, His jaw is bridled like a steed, And is loaded down with the sins of a violated one, And finally he is told, “Alright, carry them (i.e., sins) for him.” (Ink-71). Ar.

rurumika                   [v. i]                                        Be roaring as a fire, be burning, be on fire, spread as a fire (TJH). See –ruruma roar, crackle (fire), thunder, roar (like storm) (K&K). Not in FJ or Sx but see –roromoka S’étendre (plaie, incendie) in Sx. Vuvumka (MM). Au enga moto kururumika, Ulio weuni katika tuka, Pakashuka wingu katika chaka, Ikawa kuzima usiviviye; Or look at a spreading fire, That is in a forest clearing among the thickets, And then there descends a cloud over the forest, And it puts it out so that it does not blow to life (Ink-29).

sa                                [v. i.]                                       Be finished, be complete (TJH). End, finish, archaic form (WH). See St. –isha (FJ). Ikisa himdi kutabalaji, Ikituzagaa kama siraji, Sala na salamu kiidariji, Tumwa Muhammadi tumsaliye; Once praise is manifest, Shining on us like a lamp, Prayers and peace follow after it (i.e., praise), Let us pray for the Prophet Mohammed (Ink-3).

saa                              [n. 9/10]                                 Hour, moment, etc. (TJH). See saa an hour, a twelfth part of the day or night; (2) time, period of time; (3) a timepiece, watch, clock (FJ). Nisikia sana nikwambiapo, Roho enga taa katika pepo, Haiziwiliki izimikapo, Saa moya hwona izimishiye; Listen carefully to me when I tell you, Look, oh my soul, a lamp in the wind, It cannot be stopped (from shining even) when it is extinguished, Then in a moment one sees it has gone out (Ink-28).

safari                          [n. 9/10]                                  Trip, etc. (TJH). Death’s journey (WH). Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhuri, Wakanakiliwa ili safari, Washukiye nyumba za makaburi, Mtanga na fusi ziwafusiye; Even if wealth is ostentatious, They were carried off on (lit. for purpose of) death’s journey, They descended into the dwelling places of the dead (lit., graves), Sand and rubble entombed them. (Ink-44).

Sairi                           [n. 9]                                       Fourth of the Islamic seven hells (WH). Moto wa sairi ufahamuto, Ni moto mkali katika nyoto, Ni mngi wa moshi na mitokoto, Majoka na pili waikaliye; Understand totally the fire of the fourth level of hell, It’s the fiercest of all fires, There is much smoke and bubbling, Vile snakes and adders live in it (Ink-75).

salimu                        [v. tr.]                                      Express good wishes to, salute, greet, accost, congratulate, e.g. fulani anakusalimu, so-and-so sends his compliments; (2) hand over safely, consign, deliver, rescue; (3) give up, surrender, yield, resign. Nimesalimu fedha kwa fulani, I have paid so-and-so his money; Salimu roho, give up the ghost, die (FJ). Surrender (WH). Capitulate (JVA). Wakazisalimu umri zao, Hadimu Ladhati achenda nao, Pasi mkohozi akohowao, Au mwenye kwenda asiridhiye; Then they surrendered their lives, Death going with them, Without (so much as) a cougher who coughes, Or any traveler who is content (Ink-25).

Sarambi                     [prop. n.]                                Neighborhood in Pate where the wealthy lived (WH). Wapi wa Kiungu wayaza kumbi, Na mashekhe mema wa Ki-Sarambi, Walaliye nyumba za vumbivumbi, Ziunda za miti ziwaaliye; Where are the people from Kiungu they filled the reception halls, And its good Sarabian sheiks, They now live in crumbling dusty houses, Wooden grave boards press upon them (Ink-59).

sawa                            [v. tr.]                                      Be called, archaic (WH). Not in FJ, Sx. Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye; There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded (Ink-62).

sawidi                         [v. i.]                                       Become dark-hued (WH). Not in FJ. Être noir (Sx). Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh have shriveled (Ink-48).

sawo ~ sao                  [dem. 2]                                   Those (people); see hao (WH). Moyo, ya kwambia ya watu sawo, Kalamu ya Mungu iwapetewo, Nawe wa yakini kuwa kamawo, Au una yako uyashishiye; Oh my soul, the things to tell about these people, The pen of God that has ordained their fate (lit. has gotten them), And you for sure are like them, Unless (lit. or) you have your own (i.e., Islamic faith) to which you cling (Ink-64).

sewe                            [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem; see –sawa be called.

shabaha                      [n. 9/10 an.]                             Companions, friends, usually for the Four Companions of the Prophet—Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman and ‘Ali (WH). Ar. Na alize thama Banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).

shakawa                     [n. 9/10]                                  Trouble, difficulty, danger (FJ). Chenda akaona mwako wa yuwa, Mai alotaka akayatuwa, Asifidi yambo ila shakawa, Ikawa mayuto yasimsiye; When he goes he then sees only the blazing sun, As for the water he wants, he rends himself (fig. is disappointed), Without gaining a thing except trouble, And so it was for him, remorse has never ended (Ink-17).

shamsi                        [n. 9/10]                                  Sun (WH). Ar. Uwene wangapi watu wakwasi, Walo wakiwaa kama shamsi, Wa muluku zana za adharusi, Dhahabu na fedha wakhiziniye; How many rich people have you seen, Who blaze brightly in the sun, Who control the weapons of war, Who lay up gold and silver (Ink-34).

shani                          [n. 9/10]                                  Startling (rare, unlocked for) thing or occurrence, a wonder, novelty, a curiosity, an adventure, sudden mishap, accident, e.g. patwa na shani, have an accident, meet with an adventure; nguo za shani, fine, new clothes, latest fashion; mambo haya si shani, that is nothing to be surprised at, that is no wonder (FJ). Vice, immorality, dishonesty (K&K). Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess, it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).

shika                          [v. tr.]                                      Seize, take, take hold of, etc. Au enga vumbi la muangaza, Wakati wa yua likitepuza, Mwenda kulegema akilisoza, Asione kitu ukishishiye; Or look at the dusty streams of light, As the sun is breaking through the clouds, Someone who goes to get close to it, grasping at it, He fails to see anything that he took hold of (Ink-15)

shish-                         [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem; see –shika; k > sh / ___ile.

shisha                         [v. cs.]                                     Lay hold upon, hold fast to (WH). Not in FJ or Sx. Cause to seize, order someone arrested (K&K). Moyo, ya kwambia ya watu sawo, Kalamu ya Mungu iwapetewo, Nawe wa yakini kuwa kamawo, Au una yako uyashishiye; Oh my soul, the things to tell about these people, The pen of God that has ordained their fate (lit. has gotten them), And you for sure are like them, Unless (lit. or) you have your own (i.e., Islamic faith) to which you cling (Ink-64).

shisha                         [v. cs.]                                     Take hold of (TJH). Lay hold upon (WH). See –shika (FJ). Au enga vumbi la muangaza, Wakati wa yua likitepuza, Mwenda kulegema akilisoza, Asione kitu ukishishiye; Or look at dusty streams of light, When the sun breaks through, And the one who approaches grasping at it, Without seeing anything on which he might take hold (Ink-15).

shtadi                         [v. i.]                                       Increase, grow (WH). Ar. Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).

shubiri                       [n. 9/10 ~ 5/6]                         Insignificant size fig., of no size at all fig. (TJH). Finger’s span (WH). Empan, espace entre les extrémités du pouce et du petit doigt écartés. Il y a un petit empan allant du pouce à l’index, syn. futuri (Sx). See St. futuri a short span, as a measure, from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the forefinger—as distinct from shibiri, a full span from thumb to little finger; shibiri a span, from thumb to little finger of the open hand, about nine inches, half a cubit (FJ). Sasa walaliye mji shubiri, Pasipo zuliya wala jodori, Ikawa miwili kutaathari, Dhiki ya kaburi iwakusiye; Now they’re asleep in a town of no size at all (lit. a finger’s span), Without carpet or cushion, And their bodies are disfigured, The misery of the grave has tormented them (Ink-45).

shukio/ma-                [n. 5/6]                                    Landing place, place of arrival, destination (WH). Place of descent (CHS). Depth (JVA). Mimi nakwambia nipulikiza, Watiziwe nyumba za jizajiza, Zisizo muanga na muwangaza, Ndio mashukio walishukiye, I tell you listen to me, They have been put down into dark gloomy houses, That have neither light nor brightness, These indeed are the depths they had descended into (Ink-58).

sia                               [v. appl.]                                 Come to an end , -sa end, finish (WH). Finir, DS –isha (Sx). Chenda akaona mwako wa yuwa, Mai alotaka akayatuwa, Asifidi yambo ila shakawa, Ikawa mayuto yasimsiye; When he goes he then sees only the blazing sun, As for the water he wants, he rends himself (fig. is disappointed), Without gaining a thing except trouble, And so it was for him, remorse has never ended (Ink-17).

sii                                [dem.]                                      This; see St. Sw. hii. Khasaisi zote na makatayo, Shida na shakawa likupeteyo, Ni dunia sii uipendayo, Yenye dhuli nyingi na makataye; All your vices and deprivation, Difficulties and trouble that have happened to you, Because of (lit., by) this world which you love, With its many miseries and its hardships (Ink-18).

sijida                          [n. 9]                                        Prostration in prayer (WH). Prayer, prostration in prayer (CHS). Callosity made on the forehead by prostration at Moslem prayer; see –sujudu bow down (to) prostrate oneself (before), adore, worship (FJ). See sigida manière, action d’adorer, de se prosterner; 2. Marque (kipaji cha uso, Ar . asari sudjudi) que les Musulmans se font sur le front pour témoigner de leur assiduité à faire les prostrations de la prière; also –sijidi ~ -sujudu (Sx). See –enda sijida go and worship God (MMM). Ewe moyo enda sijida yake, Hela tafadhali unabihike, Shetani Rajimi asikuteke, Kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye; Oh, heart, bow down in prayer to Him, Hela please, be warned, So that Satin the Stoned One not laugh at you, And tomorrow see that you are like him (Ink-30).

sikizi/ma-                  [n. 5/6]                                    Ears ; see –sikiliza, -sikia (FJ). See masikizi coll. Syn. de usikizi. Entendement, attention. 2. pl. se dit pour masikio, oreilles (Sx). Moyo huyatasa kunabihika, Zituko zingapo huyaidhika, Hata masikizi ya kupulika, Naona kwa haya yafuatiye; Oh heart, you have not yet managed to heed the warning, How many horrors before you are troubled, Even when (you have) have ears for listening, I know from these following things (Ink-55).

silisia                         [n. 9/10]                                  Chains, bonds; see under silisila (FJ). Moyo tafakari na Jahanamu, Wenye silisia na azmamu, Pindi ya dayani akiukimu, Unene labeka niitishiye; Oh my heart, think about the deepest hell-fire, About those chained and roped, When the Judge summons you (i.e., your heart) to prayer, You should say: “May I respond with ‘Yes, I am your servant.’” (Ink-72).

sio                               [dem.}                                     This; see hio (WH). Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of hell, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).

siraji                           [n. 9/10]                                  Lamp, torch (FJ). Ikisa himdi kutabalaji, Ikituzagaa kama siraji, Sala na salamu kiidariji, Tumwa Muhammadi tumsaliye; Once praise is manifest, Shining on us like a lamp, Prayers and peace follow after it (i.e., praise), Let us pray for the Prophet Mohammed (Ink-3).

siri                              [v. i.]                                       Become (WH). Wasiriye wote kula kwa dudi, Na kuwatafuna zao jisadi, Na mtwa na tungu huwafisidi, Majoka na nge wawatatiye; They have all become food for insects, That chewed on their bodies, And termites and ants corrupted them, Fearsome snakes and vipers wound about them (Ink-47).

siri                              [v. i.]                                       Become (WH). Become, change into — seldom used Ar. Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wot’e kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).

sitawi                          [v. i.]                                       Look well, be fine (TJH). Be in good condition, reach full development, flourish, succeed, go off well, be in full swing, be at the height, e.g. of healthy plants, of social functions, dances (ngoma), a feast (karamu), a wedding (arusi), or of trade (biashara) (FJ). Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi, Naapa kwa Mungu Mola Mkwasi, Zali za msaji kwa abunusi, Zitile sufufu zisitawiye; Decorated hanging-pegs that are pleasing to behold, I swear by God, Source of all Wealth, They were of teak and ebony, Placed in line to look their best. (Ink-39).

siza                             [v. ints.]                                  Make something come to an end (WH). Complete, cause to finish, end (K&K). Not in FJ. See –sia. Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wot’e kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).

siza                             [v. cs.]                                     Fail, collapse, come to nothing, come to naught (TJH). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74).

siza ~ saza                 [v. cs.]                                     Make something come to an end; < –sa v. end, finish (WH). See -sia finir (Sx). Nataka himdi nitangulize, Ili mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza illa isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So that the pious scholar not ask, And say, don’t stop us from praising, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other (Ink-2). Kuna na hawiya pulika sana, ni moto mkali hau makina, Asi angiapo hula kitana, Huona pumuzi zimsiziye; And there is the abysmal seventh hell: listen carefully, It is a ferocious fire, it is not serene, When the sinner (lit. rebel) enters he suffers, He sees his breath die away on him (lit. finish him) (Ink-74)

soza                            [v. tr.]                                      Grasp at, reach for, clutch at (TJH). Reach, arrive at, meet with, approach, accost (FJ). Touch, snatch, make a grasp; scrape as of the feet on the soil when dancing; touch at a port–as of a vessel (WH). ). Au enga vumbi la muangaza, Wakati wa yua likitepuza, Mwenda kulegema akilisoza, Asione kitu ukishishiye; Or look at the dusty streams of light, As the sun is breaking through the clouds, Someone who goes to get close to it, grasping at it, He fails to see anything that he took hold of (Ink-15).

sufufu                         [n. 9/10]                                  Rank, of people, soldiers; oderly rows of objects (WH). Not in FJ. Ar. Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi, Naapa kwa Mungu Mola Mkwasi, Zali za msaji kwa abunusi, Zitile sufufu zisitawiye; Decorated hanging-pegs that are pleasing to behold, I swear by God, Source of all Wealth, They were of teak and ebony, Placed in line to look their best. (Ink-39).

sufuri ~ sifuri            [n. 9/10]                                  Brass, mock-gold; Fedha, sifuri na ngandu, mkurufunzi ni chuma, As to silver, brass, and gold, the master craftsman is iron (WH). Brass, for the more usu. shaba; (also: a cipher, nought, zero); see sufuria metal cooking – pot — of copper or iron, sometimes of a very large size (FJ). Shine, but only used of a person’s countenance. Uso wake unanawiri, her face shines, i.e. is healthy looking, pleasant (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of crystal and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37).

sumbika                     [v. tr.]                                      Hit and knock down (MM). Bury in the earth (TJH). Make a thing be of the earth, i.e. make it thrusted earthward; = vumbika (WH). Caught (Tayl. See –vumbika enterrer le sable, dans la terre, dans la paille, sous des feuilles, etc. (Sx). Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).

suta                             [v. tr.]                                      Push, push away, reject, discriminate against, obliterate, abolish, banish, rebuke, withhold, boycott, accuse with emphasis; confuse, confound (K&K). See St. –futa (FJ). NB: ND –suta, SD –futa. St. Sw. also has –suta: make charges openly against, charge one openly with deceit or wrongdoing, confront a person who has spread an evil report about one (FJ). Tandi la mauti likawakuta, Wakauma zanda wa kuiyuta, Na dunia yao ikawasuta, Ichamba safari muniukiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-22).

suu                              [dem.]                                      This. Suu ulimwengu uutakao, Emale ni lipi upendeao, Hauna dawamu hudumu nao, Umilikishwapo wautendaye; This world that you want, What is its goodness that you love, It has nothing enduring or lasting, When you are made ruler how will you deal with it (Ink-31).

t‘ungu                         [n. 9/10]                                  Ants; see St. chungu (TJH). Wasiriye wote kula kwa dudi, Na kuwatafuna zao jisadi, Na mtwa na tungu huwafisidi, Majoka na nge wawatatiye; They have all become food for insects, That chewed on their bodies, And termites and ants corrupted them, Fearsome snakes and vipers wound about them (Ink-47).

ta                                 [v. tr.]                                      Hit, strike (LH). See following entries.

ta kiwavu                   [phrase]                                   Strike a glancing or sideways blow; strike a thrust in the ribs or a blow at the heart (WH). Smite under the ribs, and so to deal a knock-out blow (Taylor). Kima ina ila ilio mbovu, Ilikithiriye ungi welevu, I kalifu mno kuta kiwavu, Kupa watu ngeya ikithiriye; Finally it has the worst evil, It grows ever larger with an abundance of cunning, It is exceedingly violent striking at the heart, Inflicting on people death blows, it has exceeded all bounds (Ink-20).

ta ondo                       [v. phrase]                               Kneel (TJH). Bend the knee (WH). Tafakari siku ya kwima kondo, Ya kuaridhiwa kula kitendo, Pindi madhulumu atapo ondo, Achamba ya Rabbi namua naye; Think about the day when multitudes will assemble, The day when every deed will be unveiled (i.e., the Day of Judgment), When the persecuted one kneels, Saying, “oh Lord judge between me and him.” (Ink-68).

ta panda                     [v. phrase]                               Blow a trumpet; see –ta hit; also St. Sw. –piga panda blow a trumpet; -piga mbiu give public notice, announce, lit. hit the horn; mbiu buffalo horn (TJH). Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73).

ta sauti                       [v. phrase]                               Call out, shout (TJH). Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73

taadabu                      [v. i.]                                       Behave, be civil, etc. (TJH). See adabu good manners, politeness, proper behaviour, courtesy, civility, etiquette (FJ). Kuwa mtiifu (MMM). Moyo, taadabu sipeketeke, Ata ya jauri haki ushike, Wendo wachokoka nawe wokoke, Moto wa jahimu usikutwaye; Oh heart, behave, don’t be fooled by your arrogance, Stop your oppression hold on to justice, If your friends are saved then you too ought to be saved, So hell fire does not carry you off (Ink-65).

taamali                       [v. tr.]                                      Consider carefully, contemplate, perceive, understand; hope, be hopeful, reflect, consider, meditate (TJH). Zingatia (CHS). Apply oneself to, strive for (WH). Ar. Kitamsi kiza cha ujuhali, Nuru na mianga itadhalali, Na ambao kwamba ataamali, Iwe toba yakwe aitubiye; May the darkness of benighted disbelief be erased, May light and radiance gleam, And whoever meditates (upon it), May it be his pardon (who) seeks repentance for himself (Ink-9). Ar.

taanusi                       [v. i.]                                       Be pleasing to the eye (WH). Not in FJ. Zango za mapambo kwa taanusi, Naapa kwa Mungu Mola Mkwasi, Zali za msaji kwa abunusi, Zitile sufufu zisitawiye; Decorated hanging-pegs that are pleasing to behold, I swear by God, Source of all Wealth, They were of teak and ebony, Placed in line to look their best. (Ink-39).

taathari                      [v. tr.]                                      Mark with blemishes, destroy, disfigure (TJH). See athari n. 9/10 mark, spot; (2) deficiency, blemish; (3) a wound, sore, hurt; -athiri hurt, blemish, mar, destroy (FJ). Sasa walaliye mji shubiri, Pasipo zuliya wala jodori, Ikawa miwili kutaathari, Dhiki ya kaburi iwakusiye; Now they’re asleep in a town of no size at all (lit. a finger’s span), Without carpet or cushion, And their bodies are disfigured, The misery of the grave has tormented them (Ink-45).

tabalaji                       [v. i.]                                       Be clear, evident, obvious, manifest; see following WH gloss (TJH). Be shining, be clear, evident, cheerful (WH). Toa nuru (MM). Ar. Ikisa himdi kutabalaji, Ikituzagaa kama siraji, Sala na salamu kiidariji, Tumwa Muhammadi tumsaliye; Once praise is manifest, Shining on us like a lamp, Prayers and peace follow after it (i.e., praise), Let us pray for the Prophet Mohammed (Ink-3). Ar.

tabiri                          [v. tr.]                                      Interpret, explain, expound, e.g. of a fortune-teller, soothsayer, prophet, and so, foretell, predict, interpret a dream. Tabiri mwaka kwa chuo, foretell the (events of a) year by a book (FJ). Moyo wangu nini huitabiri, Twambe u mwelevu wa kukhitari, Huyui dunia ina ghururi, Ndia za tatasi huzandamaye; Oh my heart why not foretell the future for me. Let’s say you are clever in figuring things out, Don’t you know that the world is but vanity; How do you travel along on its jumbled maze? (Ink-12).

tadhalali ~ tadhayali                                                [v. i.]   Emit beams of light (WH). Shine, brighten up (CHS). Ar. Kitamsi kiza cha ujuhali, Nuru na mianga itadhalali, Na ambao kwamba ataamali, Iwe toba yakwe aitubiye; May the darkness of benighted disbelief be erased, May light and radiance gleam, And whoever meditates (upon it), May it be his pardon (who) seeks repentance for himself (Ink-9).

tafakhuri                   [n. 9]                                       Flaunting, bragging, braggart, show-off (TJH). Boasting, vaunting (WH). Ufahari (MMM). See fahari grandeur, glory, pomp, sublimity, magnificence; (2) display, show, ostentation; (3) pride in the sense of feeling pride because of, e.g. aliona fahari juu ya mtoto wake, he was proud of his son (FJ). Ar. Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhuri, Wakanakiliwa ili safari, Washukiye nyumba za makaburi, Mtanga na fusi ziwafusiye; Even if wealth is ostentatious, They were carried off on (lit. for purpose of) death’s journey, They descended into the dwelling places of the dead (lit., graves), Sand and rubble entombed them. (Ink-44).

tafsiri/ma-                  [n. 5/6 ~ 9/10]                         Interpretation (WH). Explanation, translation (FJ). Meaning (LH). Allahumma Rabbi mkidhi haja, Msalie Tumwa aliyekuja, Na tauhidiyo Mola wa waja, Akatusomesha tafsiriye; O my Lord Allah, Granter of (our) needs, Let us pray for the Prophet, Your dvine unity God Almighty of all people, And he taught us its meaning (i.e., the Koran). (Ink-5).

tagamia                      [v. appl.]                                 Lean upon, incline to, resort to as a rest or refuge (WH). See St. Sw. –tegemea (FJ). Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67).

takabali                      [v. tr.]                                      Vouchsafe (WH). Accept, receive, welcome, be agreeable (to), receptive (to); kutakabali ombi: to hear a prayer (K&K). See –kubali accept, approve, acknowledge, assent (to), agree (to), welcome (FJ). Rabbi mrahamu mwenye kutunga, Na mezokhitimu mja malenga, Sala na salamu ni zao kinga, Rabbi takabali ziwashukiye; Oh Lord grant eternal life to the poet, And to the humble bard who finished them (i.e., the verses), Prayers and peace are their shield, Oh Lord grant that they (i.e. prayers and peace) descend upon them (Ink-79).

takaburi                     [n. 9]                                       Arrogance, pride, insolence (WH). See kiburi (FJ). Ar. Make difficulties; hinder, cause a project to tarry (WH). Delay by the way (CHS). See –a kuusiri procrastination, postponing, putting things off (TJH). Ichamba hayani ndio safari, Yakomele tena ya kuusiri, Bidhaa ya ndeo na takaburi, Mutendele kwangu nishuhudiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-23).

taladhadhi ~ taladhudhi ~ talathathi                     [v. i.]   Be delightful, pleasant (WH). Enjoy life (LH). Enjoy the world, find sweet, take pleasure in (CHS). Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).

tama                           [n. 9/10]                                  End, finis, completion, complement (WH). End, conclusion, final, stage (FJ). Ar. Sasa t’akhitimu t’atia tama, Atakofuata na kuyandama, T’apata khatima na mwiso mwema, Rabbi twakuomba tujaaliye; Now I will finish: I’ll put in the conclusion, He who will follow and go along with it, He will finally have a good ending, Oh Lord we pray that you grant us this (Ink-78).

tamazaka ~ tamazika                                               [v. i.]   Be shredded, ripped, slashed (TJH). Be torn, lacerated, cleft (WH). Not in FJ or Sx. Nyuso memetefu zikasawidi, Launi ya duba au kiradi, Zitamazakiye zao juludi, Mifupa na nyama ikukutiye; Their gleaming faces turned black, The color of a bear or baboon, Their skins were shredded, Their bones and flesh have shriveled (Ink-48).

tame                           [partic.]                                   Abandoned, uninhabited, empty (WH). Abandonné, désert (lieu), syn. –hame Ngozi (Sx). See –tama move one’s place of abode (FJ) Also –tama émigrer (Sx). Nyumba zao mbake ziwele t‘ame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49)

tamsi                          [v. i.]                                       Be effaced, be obliterated (WH). Ar. Kitamsi kiza cha ujuhali, Nuru na mianga itadhalali, Na ambao kwamba ataamali, Iwe toba yakwe aitubiye; May the darkness of benighted disbelief be erased, May light and radiance gleam, And whoever meditates (about it), May it be his pardon (who) seeks repentance for himself (Ink-9).

tanabahi                     [v. tr.]                                      See –nabahi ~ -nabihi, Ar.

tanda                          [v. tr.]                                      Extend, spread, spread out, be spread out (over). The idea seems to be not of mere extension (enea) or dispersion (tawanya) but of something that is continuous and covers (FJ). Wakimia mbinu na zao shingo, Na nyuma na mbele ili miyongo, Wakaapo pote ili zitengo, Asikari jamu wawatandiye; While swaying their supple limbs and necks to and fro, Behind and in front were lines of people, Wherever they stayed were noble houses, Many guards spread around them (Ink-36).

tandi                           [n. 9/10 ~5/6]                          Noose; see St. tanzi something spread out, hence a loop, noose, slipknot, snare, trap worked by a string (FJ). Tandi la mauti likawakuta, Wakauma zanda wa kuiyuta, Na dunia yao ikawasuta, Ichamba safari muniukiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-22).

tandia                         [v. appl.]                                 Spread out over, etc. (TJH). Extend, spread, spread out, be spread out (over) (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake ziwele tame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).

tandu/ma-                  [n. 5/6]                                    Spider, an extension in meaning of utandu/tandu spider web q.v. (TJH). Spider (WH). Centipede (FJ). See utandu/tandu n. 11/10 used to describe anything spread out, extended, stretched…. e.g., spider’s web (FJ). Pers Nyumba zao mbake ziwele t‘ame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).

tangatanga                 [n. 9/10]                                  Sand, a lot of sand, an abundant amount of sand; see St. Sw. mchanga sand, etc, (TJH). Wa wapi ziuli wa Pate Yunga, Wenye nyuso ali zenye mianga, Wangiziye nyumba za tangatanga, Daula na ezi iwaushiye; Where are the gallant men of Pate Yunga, With exceptionally shiny faces, They have been thrust into sandy dwellings, Sovereignty and power have deserted them (Ink-60).

tanguliza                   [v. cs.]                                     Cause to go before, send on in advance, prefer, give precedence to (FJ). Nataka himdi nitangulize, Alo mdarisi asiulize, Akamba himdi uitusize, Kapakaza ila isiyo nduye; I want to start with praise, So he who is a pious scholar not ask, And say, don’t stop us from praising, And so spread a wrong that is not like any other (Ink-2).

tarafi                          [n. 9/10]                                  End, point, extremity (TJH). Side, part (WH). Nta see St. Sw. ncha (FJ). Not in FJ, Sx. Ar. T’atunga kifungo kwa kukisafi, Nikipange lulu kula tarafi, Na ina nikite Inkishafi, Kiza cha dhunubu kiniukiye; I will fix a clasp to finish it, So to set pearls on each end, And for a name let me call it the Soul’s Awakening, So that the darkness of sin leave me (Ink-8).

tariki                          [n. 9/10]                                  Road, path, way, route; see tarishi runner, courier (WH). Make someone respond (TJH). Send somebody to call, cause to be called, order (FJ). Call (urgently), summon, convene; call upon, invite, make s.o. answer; Mungu huitisha wajawe: God calls his servants; kuitisha mkutano: to call for a meeting (K&K). Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye; There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded (Ink-62).

tasa                             [v. aux.]                                   Succeed in, manage to (TJH). Used with an infinitive following; manage (to), get (to), finish (doing) the action of the following verb (FJ). Moyo huyatasa kunabihika, Zituko zingapo huyaidhika, Hata masikizi ya kupulika, Naona kwa haya yafuatiye; Oh heart, you have not yet managed to heed the warning, How many horrors before you are troubled, Even when (you have) have ears for listening, I know from these following things (Ink-55).

tata                             [v. tr.]                                      Tangle, complicate, confuse; see tata/ma- n. tangle, mess, difficulty, perplexity (FJ) Kwimakwe kwisa dibaji yangu, Penda kuuonya na moyo wangu, Utetwe[3] na hawa ya ulimwengu, Hila za rajimi ziughuriye; So finally my preface has come to an end, I need (now) to admonish my heart, It is entangled by the lust of the world, The wiles of satan have beguiled it (Ink-10).

tatasi                          [n. 9]                                       Maze, labyrinth; see Sx, tangle, jumble (TJH). Turmoil (LH). See tatasa: ndia za kutatasi dédale, labyrinth (Sx). Matata (WH). Moyo wangu nini huitabiri, Twambe u mwelevu wa kukhitari, Huyui dunia ina ghururi, Ndia za tatasi huzandamaye; Oh my heart why not foretell the future for me. Let’s say you are clever in figuring things out, Don’t you know that the world is but vanity; How do you travel along on its jumbled maze? (Ink-12).

tatia                            [v. appl.]                                 Entangle in, tangle up in, etc.; see –tata tangle, etc. (TJH). Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, The evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73).

tauhidi                       [n. prop.]                                Divine unity, One-ness (WH). Allahumma Rabbi mkidhi haja, Msalie Tumwa aliyekuja, Na tauhidiyo Mola wa waja, Akatusomesha tafsiriye; O my Lord Allah, Granter of (our) needs, Let us pray for the Prophet, Your dvine unity God Almighty of all people, And he taught us its meaning (i.e., the Koran). (Ink-5).

teka                             [v. tr.]                                      Laugh at; see St. –cheka (TJH). Ewe moyo enda sijida yake, Hela tafadhali unabihike, Shetani Rajimi asikuteke, Kesho kakuona kuwa kamaye; Oh, heart, bow down in prayer to Him, Hela please, be warned, So that Satin the Stoned One not laugh at you, And tomorrow see in you his likeness (Ink-30).

telelezwa                                                                   Be retarded while in motion; e.g., to slip as on a muddy path and so be brought to a standstill (WH). Sererezwa, potezwa (MMM). See –teleleza roll like a barrel (K&K). Yua siku yati kubadiliwa, Na mbingu sabaa zikageuwa, Ukatelelezwa mwezi na juwa, Hari na harara zisitusiye; Know about the day of the transformed earth (i.e., Day of Resurrection), And the seven heavens will change as well, The moon and sun will come to a standstill, Terrible heat and flames will never end for us (Ink-66).

tenda                          [v. tr.]                                      Do, act, practice, etc. (FJ). Ichamba hayani ndio safari, Yakomele tena ya kuusiri, Bidhaa ya ndeo na takaburi, Mutendele kwangu nishuhudiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-23).

tendele                       [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem; see –tenda do, etc. q.v. (FJ).

tepuza                         [v. cs.]                                     Appear, break through–said of the sun shining through clouds, begin to shine; sprout (ND) (TJH). Synonyms: -chipuza, -chomoza, -awiza (MM). See –chomoza make a way out, come out, appear, stick out, esp. of the sun rising or appearing from behind a cloud; jua linachomoza, the sun bursts forth (FJ). See –chipuza Faire sortir de terre, faire germer, faire bourgeonner, etc. 2. int. Faire paraître, donner un germe, une pousse, un ou des bourgeons, une ou des feuilles (Sx). Au enga vumbi la muangaza, Wakati wa yua likitepuza, Mwenda kulegema akilisoza, Asione kitu ukishishiye; Or look at dusty streams of light, When the sun breaks through, And the one who approaches grasping at it, Without seeing anything on which he might take hold (Ink-15).

terema                        [v. i.]                                       Be at ease, be free from care and anxiety, be cheerful, happy, comfortable (FJ]. Ring out as of a cry, a shriek (WH). See nderemo cheerfulness, happiness, comfort, relief from trouble (FJ). See also mteremeshi, mteremezi and mteremo. Kumbi za msana zalikivuma, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).

tesi                              [adj.]                                        Tempestuous, seething, stormy (TJH). Raging (LH). Surging (WH). See St. utesi trouble, distress, annoyance, persecution; (2) strife, quarreling, antagonism (FJ). Suu ulimwengu bahari tesi, Una matumbawe na mangi maasi, Aurakibuo juwa ni mwasi, Kwa kula khasara ukhasiriye; This world is a stormy sea, With coral reefs and many shell-encrusted shoals, The one who rides it out (i.e., the world), knows that it is a maverick, It has brought harm with every disaster (Ink-13).

tete                             [-ile perf. stem]                       Perfect stem; see –tata tangle, complicate, confuse; -tatia make a tangle of; (2) wind up in a skein or ball; (3) puzzle, perplex, make difficulties, e.g. –tatia uzi kijitini, wind thread on a stick; -tatia kilemba, arrange the folds of a turban. Also used of a snake coiling round its prey (FJ). Watoto wangapi uwaweneo, Ukawayakini kupona kwao, Sasa nyumba za ti zi wateteo, Katika luhudi iwafundiye; How many children have you seen, And are you certain about their well-being, Whose sepulchres have now enshrouded them, In a grave that binds them (Ink-33).

teuwa ~ teua               [v. tr.]                                      Choose, make a choice (TJH). See St. –chagua choose, select, pick out, make a choice; (2) of biased or partial selection, garble, give a false colour to, be unfair (FJ). Am -choisir, élire; SD -chagua, Mv. tagua (Sx). Wapambiye sini ya kuteuwa, Na kula kikombe kinakishiwa, Kati watiziye kuzi za kowa, Katika mapambo yanawiriye; They decorated with choice china, And every cup was adorned with etching, In the center they placed pitchers of crystal, Among the glittering ornaments (Ink-38).

thama                         [conj.]                                      Alike, equally, therewith, at the same time (Cf. mamoja); (2) then, next, also, too, e.g. thama wamwonapo na wasipomwona, alike whether they see him or not. Thama na wewe, and you as well (FJ). As well as (LH). Na alize thama banu Kinana, Na sahaba wane wenye maana, Tusalie wote ajmaina, Sala na mbawazi ziwaaliye; And for his kin as well as the Qinan clan, And for his four renowned Companions, Let us pray for them all together, May prayers and compassion rest upon them (Ink-4).

thawabu                     [n. 9/10]                                  Reward, gift—but esp. as from God (FJ). Aso hasanati wala thawabu, Hufungwa kitaya kama rikabu, Akatwekwa dhambi za maghusubu, Akambiwa haya mtukuliye; The one who has neither merit nor gifts from God, His jaw is bridled like a steed, And is loaded down with the sins of a violated one, And finally he is told, “Alright, carry them (i.e., sins) for him.” (Ink-71).

tiile                             [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem; see –tii obey, submit to, be docile (obedient, submissive) (FJ). Pay homage to (LH). Bow down in homage (JVA). Malimwengu yote yawatiile, Na dunia yao iwaokele, Wachenenda zitwa zao zilele, Mato mafumbuzi wayafumbiye; The whole world has submitted to them, And their world was laid out straight for them, Walking along, their heads held distainfully, Their staring eyes looking darkly (Ink-35).

timbe                          [partic.]                                   Dug from the earth, i.e., as a mineral, etc.; mined (WH). See St. Sw. –chimba dig, make (get) by digging—of excavation, not as lima, of cultivation. Chimba shimo, dig a pit, sink a shaft (mine), make a hole; (2) fig. harm, cause trouble or misfortune to, esp. Parents (FJ). Na malipwa yao wadhilimuwa, Si dhahabu timbe si ya kufuwa, Fedha hawatwai na wangapowa, Ila hasanati ni malipwaye; And the compensation for the oppressed, It is not mined gold (right from the ground) nor is refined (lit. washed), The are not grasping after silver even though they might be given it, Only virtue is their (lit. his) reward (Ink-70}.

tindish-                       [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem; see tindika come to an end, /k/ > sh /___ -ile perfect (TJH). Be cut off, fall short, fail, be finished, come to an end. (FJ). See chinja (FJ). Kwamba husadiki hwamba mbwongo, Enda nyumba zao uzinde shingo, Ukita hwitikwi ila ni mwango, Sauti ya mtu itindishiye; If you do not believe it and say it’s a lie, Go to their houses and look around (lit. turn neck), If you call out you get no answer but an echo, The human voice has been cut off (Ink-54).

tiziw-                             [-ile ps. perf.]                                     Be put down in, be put down into, be placed upon; be set fast, etc. (TJH). Not in FJ or Sx. See range of meanings for –tia put, put in, etc., also –tilia put in for (FJ). Mimi nakwambia nipulikiza, Watiziwe nyumba za jizajiza, Zisizo muanga na muwangaza, Ndio mashukio walishukiye, I tell you listen to me, They have been put down into dark gloomy houses, That have neither light nor brightness, These indeed are the depths they had descended into (Ink-58).

to                                 [encl.]                                      Emphatic enclitic to show emphasis (TJH). Sasa moyo pako t’auza nawe, Nelezato sana nami nelewe, Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe, Nambia walipo kawamkiye; Now oh soul, for your part I will ask even you, Explain it to me most clearly so I understand, Where are your forebears who gave you birth, Tell me where they are so I may go and greet them (Ink-56).

to                                 [encl.]                                      Totally, completely, entirely, thoroughly; emphatic enclitic (TJH). Moto wa sairi ufahamuto, Ni moto mkali katika nyoto, Ni mngi wa moshi na mitokoto, Majoka na pili waikaliye; Understand totally the fire of the fourth level of hell, It’s the fiercest of all fires, There is much smoke and bubbling, Vile snakes and adders live in it (Ink-75).

toba                             [n. 9]                                       Repentance, penitence, regret, remorse (FJ). Kitamsi kiza cha ujuhali, Nuru na mianga itadhalali, Na ambao kwamba ataamali, Iwe toba yakwe aitubiye; May the darkness of benighted disbelief be erased, May light and radiance gleam, And whoever meditates (upon it), May it be his pardon (who) seeks forgiveness for himself (Ink-9).

tubukia ~ tumbukia [v. i.]                                       Plunge in (TJH). See –tumbua disembowel, rip up, cut open, make a hole (in), perforate; (2) lay open, display; -tumbukia break out into, burst suddenly into, of a sudden rush or fall, (2) get suddenly involved in, be caught or strangled in; -tumbukiza thrust into, push into, e.g. a well, pit, etc. (FJ). (Mr. Z. Mv. Ngw. = P. Mv. Am. -tubwikia, G. -chobokea).· a. Tomber en faisant sa trouée, se précipiter (dans un abîme) ; fig., se précipiter dans des difficultés insurmontables, dans la ruine (Sx). Mvi wa manaya ukawafuma, Akatubukia katika nyama, Pasiwe mwatami mwenye kwatama, Au mwamba nini yalikuwaye; Death’s arrow struck them, And he (i.e., death) plunged it in their flesh, Without any dumbfounded gawker there with mouth wide open, Or speaker saying, “What, how has this happened?” (Ink-24).

tuka                            [n. 9/10 ~ 5/6]                         Thicket, scrub, bush, wild bush-growth (WH). Mashaka ya miti, branches, foliage (CHS). Taillis ou bouquet de jeunes arbres rapprochés (Sx). Au enga moto kururumika, Ulio weuni katika tuka, Pakashuka wingu katika chaka, Ikawa kuzima usiviviye; Or look at a spreading fire, That is in a forest clearing among the thickets, And then there descends a cloud over the forest, And it puts it out so that it does not blow to life (Ink-29). Ziwanda za nyumba ziwele mwitu, Ungi wa matuka na kutukutu, Milango ya ndia yatisha mtu, Kwa kete na kiza kilifundiye; The buildings’ courtyards became a forest, A profusion of bush and thick undergrowth, The outside doors terrified anyone (who saw them), For solitude and gloom had enshrouded them (Ink-53).

tukizwa                      [v. ps.]                                    Be hated, reviled (TJH). Be profaned (LH). See –chukizwa be hated (FJ). See matukizo aversion, irritation (K&K). Dunia ni jifa siikaribu, Haipendi mtu ila kilabu, I hali gani ewe labibu, Kuwania na mbwa hutukizwaye; The world is putrifying death stay away from it, It favors no one except dogs, What is it that you of sound judgment, That you be so reviled to fight over it with dogs (Ink-19).

tulika                          [v. i.]                                       Be lacerated, excoriated; see tua lacearate, scratch, irritate (WH). See St –chua apply friction, hence (1) file, rub as with a file, rub so as to remove the husk, e.g. of rice, &c.; (2) massage, chafe (FJ). Nyofoka, -katikakatika (MMM). Nyambulika (MM). Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu huwaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots dribble down from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).

tumbawe/ma-             [n. 5/6]                                    Coral reefs (LH). See matumbawe soft white coral stone (much used for burning into lime), coral rag used in building (K&K). Pierre de corail (Sx). Suu ulimwengu bahari tesi, Una matumbawe na mangi maasi, Aurakibuo juwa ni mwasi, Kwa kula khasara ukhasiriye; This world is a stormy sea, With coral reefs and many shell-encrusted shoals, The one who rides it out (i.e., the world), knows that it is a maverick, It has brought harm with every disaster (Ink-13).

tumbuiza                   [v. tr.]                                      Serenede, soothe by singing, make a soothing sound with or without words, sing to, sing by turns. Tumbuiza kwa nyimbo (kwa maneno mazuri), soothe by songs by gentle words (FJ).

tumbuza                     [v. intens.]                               Break through (TJH). Force a way through, penetrate, come out on the other side of, e.g. –tumbuza mwitu, pass through a forest; jua limetumbuza, the sun has burst out (Cf. –penya and –chimbuza); (2) glare at, like tumbulia; See –chimbuza and –chimbuka used esp. of the sun or moon, ‘appear, begin to shine, rise’, i.e. come up from the earth, become visible, &c. Used whether from horizon or from cloud (FJ). Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi, Wali na wakandi na wapepezi, Na wake wapambe watumbuizi, Wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye; When they sleep from drosiness, They had masseurs and fanners, And well-dressed ladies as singers, Singing lullabies and never becoming quiet (Ink-41).

ubongo/bongo            [n. 11/10]                                Brain substance, brain, marrow (FJ). Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of hell, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).

ujuhali                       [n. 14]                                     Ignorance; the condition of those unconverted to Islam (in sacred contexts) (WH). Kitamsi kiza cha ujuhali, Nuru na mianga itadhalali, Na ambao kwamba ataamali, Iwe toba yakwe aitubiye; May the darkness of benighted disbelief be erased, May light and radiance gleam, And whoever meditates (upon it), May it be his pardon (who) seeks repentance for himself (Ink-9).

ukia                             [v. appl.]                                       Leave, go away, etc. (TJH). See -uka: Be in a state of going away; derivative of –uya leave away; also used as “depart”, “come from”; withdraw from (WH). Go away; seldom used (FJ). Partir (-ondoka), se
 retirer, s’en aller, s’ôter de là, se lever pour
s’en aller (se dit de l’homme et des animaux);
 surgir. Uka, umpe kiti lève-toi, donne-lui le siege. See paukwa pakawa il surgit, il arriva = il arriva que : formule archaIque au début d’un récit historique; (2) {Am, G, Ng = DS –puka} sauter, bondir, franchir en sautant; voler (Sx). T’atunga kifungo kwa kukisafi, Nikipange lulu kula tarafi, Na ina nikite Inkishafi, Kiza cha dhunubu kiniukiye; I will fix a clasp to finish it, So to set pearls on each end, And for a name let me call it the “Soul’s Awakening”, So that the darkness of sin leave me (Ink-8).  Tandi la mauti likawakuta, Wakauma zanda wa kuiyuta, Na dunia yao ikawasuta, Ichamba safari muniukiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-22).

ukata/ma-                  [n. 14/6]                                  Poverty, deprivation, shortcoming, hardship (WH). Poverty, destitution, beggary (K&K). Msiba (MM). See mkata poor man (FJ). Khasaisi zote na makatayo, Shida na shakawa likupeteyo, Ni dunia sii uipendayo, Yenye dhuli nyingi na makataye; All your vices and deprivation, Difficulties and trouble that have happened to you, Because of (lit., by) this world which you love, With its many miseries and its hardships (Ink-18).

ukeme                        [n. 14]                                     Outcry, shouting, hubbub, loud call (WH). See ukemi shout, call, cry (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake ziwele t‘ame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).

ukomo/komo             [n. 11/10]                                Act (manner, time, place, &c.), of coming to a stop, end, halting place, goal, end part, limit, destruction, death (FJ). Zituko zingapo hutanabahi, Ukanabihika hukunabihi, Utaata lini ya usafihi, Nambia ukomo niusikiye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-26).

ukumbi/kumbi          [n. 11/10]                                Porch, vestibule, outer hall, ante-room, room first entered in going into a house or hut (FJ). Reception hall (WH). See also v. 52 & 59. Kumbi za msana, Na za masturi zikiterema, Kwa kele za waja na za khudama, Furaha na nyemi zishitadiye; The men’s reception rooms were humming, And the hidden chambers of the harem were ringing out with joyous noise, With the cries of women servants and household staff, The joy and gaity grew (Ink-40).

ukwasi                        [n. 14]                                     Wealth, opulence, riches, the condition of being wealthy (FJ). Ukwasi ungapo na tafakhuri, Wakanakiliwa ili safari, Washukiye nyumba za makaburi, Mtanga na fusi ziwafusiye; Even if wealth is ostentatious, They were carried off on (lit. for purpose of) death’s journey, They descended into the dwelling places of the dead (lit., graves), Sand and rubble entombed them. (Ink-44).

uma zanda                 [v. tr.]                                      Bite the fingers literally, an expression to show regret or grief (TJH).Gnaw the finger of repent (WH). Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).

umri                           [n. 14]                                     Age, time of one’s life (TJH). Time of life, age (FJ). Wakazisalimu umri zao, Hadimu Ladhati achenda nao, Pasi mkohozi akohowao, Au mwenye kwenda asiridhiye; Then they surrendered their lives, Death going with them, Without (so much as) a cougher who coughes, Or any traveler who is content (Ink-25).

ungi                            [n. 14]                                     Abundance, etc.; see St. Sw. wingi (FJ). Kima ina ila ilio mbovu, Ilikithiriye ungi welevu, I kalifu mno kuta kiwavu, Kupa watu ngeya ikithiriye; Finally it has the worst evil, It grows ever larger with an abundance of cunning, It is exceedingly violent striking at the heart, Inflicting on people death blows, it has exceeded all bounds (Ink-20).

ungushiye                     [ile perf.]                             Perfect stem of –unguka; be burnt, charred, scorched, consumed by fire (TJH). Burn, scorch, destroy by fire (WH). See St. Sw. –ungua (FJ). Na moto wa ladha nao pulika, Moto ukitiwa mara huwaka, Huona manofu yakikwambuka, Waona ziungo ziungushiye; And as for the fire of the second hell listen, If you are put into its fire you burn immediately, You see chunks of flesh being stripped from you, You see that your limbs have been utterly consumed (Ink-76).

upaa/p’aa                   [n. 11/10]                                Pate, crown of head (WH). Utosi (CHS). Siku ya maini ndani kuwaka, Na paa za watu kupapatuka, Ukimbiliepi pa kukushika, Mbonya malijaa nitagamiye; On the day of livers burning inside, And people’s pates cracking open, What safe place (lit. for keeping you) will you run to? Show me a refuge that I may depend on (Ink-67).

upote/pote                  [n. 11/10]                                Cord, braid, embroidery, plaited work (WH). Thong, bowstring—of sinew or twisted string (FJ). See –pota twist, esp. of twisting the strands of flax, cotton, &c, to make string, twine, rope (FJ). Kwa maao mema ya kukhitari, Iyu la zitanda za majodori, Na mito kuwili ya akhadhari, Kwa kazi ya pote wanakishiye; On fine well-chosen couches, On beds of padded cushions, With green pillows at both ends, Decorated with embroidered work (Ink-42).

usafihi                        [n. 14]                                     Contempt, derision, scornfulness (TJH). Pride, insolence, presumption, arrogance (FJ). Foolishness, ignorance (CHS). Ar. Zituko zingapo hutanabahi, Ukanabihika hukunabihi, Utaata lini ya usafihi, Nambia ukomo niusikiye; Though horrors happen have you taken notice, You were warned but you paid no attention, When will you give up such contempt, Tell me its limit so I may pay attention to it (Ink-26).

usha1                          [v. cs.]                                     Remove, pull out, take away; leave, depart from, withdraw from; abandon, desert (TJH). See under –uka in Sx: -usha oter, tirer d’un endroit, Enlever pour mettre de côté (Sx). Wa wapi ziuli wa Pate Yunga, Wenye nyuso ali zenye mianga, Wangiziye nyumba za tangatanga, Daula na ezi iwaushiye; Where are the gallant men of Pate Yunga, With exceptionally shiny faces, They have been thrust into sandy dwellings, Sovereignty and power have deserted them (Ink-60).

usha2                          [v. tr. ~ i.]                                Fly, fly away; throw, cause to fly off (TJH). See –usha nyuni Am, Ng faire envoler un ou des oiseaux (Sx). Aimi wa wapi wake zidiwa, Zituzo za mato wasiza ngowa, Wasiriye wot’e kuwa mahuwa, Sasa ni waushi waliushiye; Oh my! Where are the sweet dove-like ladies, A soothing balm for the eyes who suppress passion, They have all become like doves, Now as fliers they have flown away (Ink-63).

usindizi/ma-              [n. 14/6]                                  Sleep, repose, lethargy (TJH). See usingizi SD, Mvita = Amu usindizi sommeil, repos de la nuit; somnolence (Sx). See also –sinzia doze, be drowsy; (2) be inattentive, absent — minded, make a foolish mistake; (3) of a lamp or fire, flicker (FJ). Pindi walalapo kwa masindizi, Wali na wakandi na wapepezi, Na wake wapambe watumbuizi, Wakitumbuiza wasinyamaye; When they sleep from drosiness, They had masseurs and fanners, And well-dressed ladies as singers, Singing lullabies and never becoming quiet (Ink-41).

usiri                            [v. i.]                                       Stay, delay, be detained (FJ). Make difficulties; hinder, cause a project to tarry (WH). Delay by the way (CHS). See –a kuusiri procrastination, postponing, putting things off (TJH). Ichamba hayani ndio safari, Yakomele tena ya kuusiri, Bidhaa ya ndeo na takaburi, Mutendele kwangu nishuhudiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-23).

utandu/tandu             [n. 11/10]                                Something extended (TJH). Used to describe anything spread out, extended, stretched…. e.g., spider’s web (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake ziwele t‘ame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).

uza                              [v. tr.]                                      Ask; see St. Sw. –uliza (FJ). Sasa moyo pako t’auza nawe, Nelezato sana nami nelewe, Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe, Nambia walipo kawamkiye; Now oh soul, for your part I will ask even you, Explain it to me most clearly so I understand, Where are your forebears who gave you birth, Tell me where they are so I may go and greet them (Ink-56).

vivia                            [v. appl.]                                 Come back to life, come to life, blow on a fire so it burns well (TJH). Revive (LH). Blow with the mouth, e.g. a fire, etc. (FJ). Blow into (a fire), blow up (a football, bladder); Blow (a dead fire) into life again; blow, play the flute (K&K). Vivia (Mv) = -vuvia souffler avec la bouche; souffler sur, dans; insuffler… (Sx). Au enga moto kururumika, Ulio weuni katika tuka, Pakashuka wingu katika chaka, Ikawa kuzima usiviviye; Or look at a spreading fire, That is in a forest clearing among the thickets, And then there descends a cloud over the forest, And it puts it out so that it does not blow to life (Ink-29).

vunda                          [v. tr.]                                      Break, etc. See St. Sw. –vunja. Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of hell, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).

wa na sura                 [v. phrase]                               Be apparent, obvious (TJH). Wa na asili, -wa na msingi, -ingia sura, yaani anza kuimarika (MM). Moyo wangu nini huzundukani, Likughurielo hela ni nni, Hunelezi nami kalibaini, Liwapo na sura nisikataye; Oh my heart why don’t you wake up, Look now, what is it that misleads you, And why do you not explain it to me so that I as well may recognize it, If it is so obvious must I not reject it? (Ink-11).

waa                             [v. i.]                                       Shine brightly, blaze—i.e. of the sun or moon, but not often used (FJ). Uwene wangapi watu wakwasi, Walo wakiwaa kama shamsi, Wa muluku zana za adharusi, Dhahabu na fedha wakhiziniye; How many rich people have you seen, Who were blazing brightly like the sun, Who control the weapons of war, Who have layed up gold and silver (Ink-34).

wachokoka                                                                 wakiokoka grammar

wakuzaawe                [n. 1/2 phrase]                         Ancestors, progenitors; < wa kuzaa wewe = wazazi (WH). See mzazi. Sasa moyo pako t’auza nawe, Nelezato sana nami nelewe, Wa wapi wazazi wakuzaawe, Nambia walipo kawamkiye; Now oh soul, for your part I will ask even you, Explain it to me most clearly so I understand, Where are your forebears who gave you birth, Tell me where they are so I may go and greet them (Ink-56).

wania                          [v. appl.]                                 Fight with an opponent; see –wana fight together (WH). Fight for, over, with (TJH). Dunia ni jifa siikaribu, Haipendi mtu ila kilabu, I hali gani ewe labibu, Kuwania na mbwa hutukizwaye; The world is putrifying death stay away from it, It favors no one except dogs, What is it that you of sound judgment, That you be so reviled to fight over it with dogs (Ink-19).

wasakha                     [n. 9/10]                                  Pus, suppurating matter, filth, mucus; also wasaa, wasaha (WH). See St. Sw. usaha (FJ). Ar. Zitefute zao huwatulika, Wasakha na damu huwaitika, Pua na makanwa bombwe hutoka, Haiba na sura zigeushiye; Their cheeks are lacerated, Pus and blood ooze out of them, Maggots dribble down from their noses and mouths, Their beauty and demeanor have been perverted. (Ink-46a).

wasakha                     [n. 5]                                       Supperating matter, pus, filth, mucus; also wasaa and wasaha (WH); see usaha (FJ). Ar. Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of hell, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).

washa                         [v. cs.]                                     Construct a building < -waka build (WH). See –aka build, using stone, mortar, work as a mason, as opposed to jenga, which is used of building with poles, sticks, and mud (FJ). Wana wa zipungu wapende zango, Na wana wa ndiwa humia shingo, Na kupija mbawa matongotongo, Ziku na zitati waliwashiye; Young vultures have perched on clothes-rack pegs, And the squab of doves bob their heads (lit., necks) to and fro, And flutter their wings ceaselessly, (Where) wood-pigeons and swallows have built their nests (Ink-51).

washi                          [adj.]                                        Burning, glowing, blazing, etc. (TJH). Fahamia tena sio Hutama, Motowe muwashi na kunguruma, Huvunda mifupa hupisha nyama, Bongo na wasakha limshushiye; Understand furthermore that third level of hell, Its blazing and roaring fire, Cracks the bones and cooks the meat, Brains and puss discharge upon him (Ink-77).

wele                            [-ile perf., cop.]                       Perfect stem; see –wa be, become (TJH). Nyumba zao mbake ziwele t‘ame, Makinda ya popo iyu wengeme, husikii hisi wala ukeme, Zitanda matandu walitandiye; Their (once) glowing houses have become deserted, The young of bats hang above, One hears neither whisper nor shouting, Spiders had completely covered their beds (Ink-49).

wene                           [-ile perf. stem]                       Perfect stem; see–ona see. Watoto wangapi uwaweneo, Ukawayakini kupona kwao, Sasa nyumba za ti ziwateteo, Katika luhudi iwafundiye; How many children have you seen, And are you certain about their well-being, Whose sepulchres have now enshrouded them, In a grave that binds them (Ink-33).

weu/ny-                      [11/10]                                    Clearing, open space for planting, place free from trees, forest glade (FJ). Forest clearing (Taylor). See peupe an open place, clearing in a forest, square in a town, unoccupied ground; -eua make white, whiten, clean, cleanse, purify (FJ). Au enga moto kururumika, Ulio weuni katika tuka, Pakashuka wingu katika chaka, Ikawa kuzima usiviviye; Or look at a spreading fire, That is in a forest clearing among the thickets, And then there descends a cloud over the forest, And it puts it out so that it does not blow to life (Ink-29).

yakini                         [v. i.]                                       Be true, certain, proved (TJH). Be sure (FJ). Watoto wangapi uwaweneo, Ukawayakini kupona kwao, Sasa nyumba za ti ziwateteo, Katika luhudi iwafundiye; How many children have you seen, And are you certain about their well-being, Whose sepulchres have now enshrouded them, In a grave that binds them (Ink-33).

yatua                          [v. reflx.]                                Be disappointed; < -i-atua see -i- reflexive pronoun (TJH). Destroy oneself; kuyatua moyo to have a broken heart, to break one’s heart (WH). See -atua rend, cleave, split (FJ). Chenda akaona mwako wa yuwa, Mai alotaka akayatuwa, Asifidi yambo ila shakawa, Ikawa mayuto yasimsiye; When he goes he then sees only the blazing sun, As for the water he wants, he rends himself (fig. is disappointed), Without gaining a thing except trouble, And so it was for him, remorse has never ended (Ink-17).

yaza                            [v. cs.]                                     Fill, etc.; see –jaza (FJ). Wapi wa Kiungu wayaza kumbi, Na mashekhe mema wa Ki-Sarambi, Walaliye nyumba za vumbivumbi, Ziunda za miti ziwaaliye; Where are the people from Kiungu they filled the reception halls, And its good Sarabian sheiks, They now live in crumbling dusty houses, Wooden grave boards press upon them (Ink-59).

yonda/ma-                  [n. 5/6]                                    Baboon, ape (WH). Babouin, cynocephali (Sx). Not in FJ. Uye ukivuma na kuta panda, Ukita sauti kama ya punda, Mjani akwepe sura za yonda, Ndimi na ziyali zimtatiye; Come sounding a clarion–call and blowing a trumpet, Calling out a donkey’s bray, the evil doer has cowered with the face of an ass, Tongues (of fire) and flames have enveloped him (Ink-73).

yuta                            [v. i.]                                       Feel guilty (TJH). Regret, feel the loss of, miss, be sorry for, feel remorse for (FJ). Be penitent (JVA). Tandi la mauti likawakuta, Wakauma zanda wa kuiyuta, Na dunia yao ikawasuta, Ichamba safari muniukiye; Saying, “Alright all of you, that’s how it goes”, Putting things off has come to an end, (So too) the business of pride and arrogance, You have done it to me let me bear witness to it (Ink-22).

yuto/ma-                      [n. 5/6]                                    See juto/ma- regret, remorse, sorrow for what is past; us. in pl.; see –juta regret, feel the loss of, miss, be sorry for, feel remorse for (FJ). Chenda akaona mwako wa yuwa, Mai alotaka akayatuwa, Asifidi yambo ila shakawa, Ikawa mayuto yasimsiye; When he goes he then sees only the blazing sun, As for the water he wants, he rends himself (fig. is disappointed), Without gaining a thing except trouble, And so it was for him, remorse has never ended (Ink-17).

zagaa                          [v. tr.]                                      Shine, glisten, give light, illuminate (FJ). Ikisa himdi kutabalaji, Ikituzagaa kama siraji, Sala na salamu kiidariji, Tumwa Muhammadi tumsaliye; Once praise is manifest, Shining on us like a lamp, Prayers and peace follow after it (i.e., praise), Let us pray for the Prophet Mohammed (Ink-3).

zana                            [n. 10]                                     Fittings, apparatus, gadgets, etc. Zana za vita, munitions. Zana za chombo, a boat’s fittings (FJ). Weapons, arms, armament (WH). Uwene wangapi watu wakwasi, Walo wakiwaa kama shamsi, Wa muluku zana za adharusi, Dhahabu na fedha wakhiziniye; How many rich people have you seen, Who were blazing brightly like the sun, Who control the weapons of war, Who have layed up gold and silver (Ink-34).

zanda                          [n. 8]                                       Fingers; see chanda [n.7]. Wangapi dunia waipeteo, Wakataladhadhi kwa shani lao, Ikawasumbika kwa mizagao, Wakanguka zanda waziumiye; How many people have passed through this world, and have taken pleasure in their own immorality, Until through their ostentationess it struck and knocked them down, And they fell only to gnaw on their fingers (Ink-21).

zimika                        [v. st.]                                     Be extinguished, be put out, be repressed; go out; see St. Sw. –zima repress, quench, extinguish, etc. (TJH). Nisikia sana nikwambiapo, Roho enga taa katika pepo, Haiziwiliki izimikapo, Saa moya hwona izimishiye; Listen carefully to me when I tell you, Look, oh my soul, a lamp in the wind, It cannot be stopped (from shining even) when it is extinguished, Then in a moment one sees it has gone out (Ink-28).

zimish-                       [-ile perf.]                                Perfect stem; also Cs.; see–zimika be extinguished, go out, etc.; –zima extinguish; /k/ > sh / ___ile [+perf. stm.].

zinda                          [v. tr.]                                      Circle, turn, go round, twist, lead around; be fixed on (eyes) (K&K). Tourner, faire tourner; rouler, enrouler; faire le tour (de), promener autour (de); colporter (Sx). Kwamba husadiki hwamba mbwongo, Enda nyumba zao uzinde shingo, Ukita hwitikwi ila ni mwango, Sauti ya mtu itindishiye; If you do not believe it and say it’s a lie, Go to their houses and look around (lit. turn neck), If you call out you get no answer but an echo, The human voice has been cut off (Ink-54).

zinga                          [v. tr.]                                      Go round, go about; (2) stroll, walk; (3) turn about, waver, change, chop, veer, e.g. of winds, change of mind, &c.; (4) turn round, roll round, coil, wind; (5) search; (6) loiter about aimlessly—and so with a bad object, i.e. go after women, solicit (FJ). Nyumba zao mbake zikinawiri, Kwa taa za kowa na za sufuri, Masiku yakele kama nahari, haiba na jaha iwazingiye; With their bright houses aglow, With lamps of crystal and brass, Nights became as day, Beauty and honor encircled them (Ink-37).

ziwilika                      [v. pot.]                                   Be preventable, be restrainable; see –zuilika (WH). Nisikia sana nikwambiapo, Roho enga taa katika pepo, Haiziwiliki izimikapo, Saa moya hwona izimishiye; Listen carefully to me when I tell you, Look, oh my soul, a lamp in the wind, It cannot be stopped (from shining even) when it is extinguished, Then in a moment one sees it has gone out (Ink-28).

zuli(y)a/ma-               [n. 5/6]                                    Carpet (FJ). Mat, rug, carpet, cushion (K&K). Sasa walaliye mji shubiri, Pasipo zuliya wala jodori, Ikawa miwili kutaathari, Dhiki ya kaburi iwakusiye; Now they’re asleep in a town of no size at all (lit. a finger’s span), Without carpet or cushion, And their bodies are disfigured, The misery of the grave has tormented them (Ink-45).

zunduka                     [v. i.]                                       Wake with a start, be suddenly wakened (FJ). Moyo wangu nini huzundukani, Likughurielo hela ni nni, Hunelezi nami kalibaini, Liwapo na sura nisikataye; Oh my heart why don’t you wake up, Look now, what is it that misleads you, And why do you not explain it to me so that I as well may recognize it, If it is so obvious must I not reject it? (Ink-11).

zuo                              [n. 8]                                       See chuo n. 7. Make someone respond (TJH). Send somebody to call, cause to be called, order (FJ). Call (urgently), summon, convene; call upon, invite, make s.o. answer; Mungu huitisha wajawe: God calls his servants; kuitisha mkutano: to call for a meeting (K&K). Kwali na makadhi wamua haki, Wahakiki zuo wakihakiki, Waongoza watu njema tariki, Wasewe kwa wote waitishiye; There were judges deciding justice, Scholars evaluating their books, Directing people along the right path, (Yet even) they have been called for all have responded (Ink-62).

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Discovering Swahili Poetry